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Mouse Models of Breast Cancer: Platforms for Discovering Precision Imaging Diagnostics and Future Cancer Medicine.
Manning HC, Buck JR, Cook RS
(2016) J Nucl Med 57 Suppl 1: 60S-8S
MeSH Terms: Animals, Breast Neoplasms, Disease Models, Animal, Female, Humans, Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental, Mice, Molecular Imaging, Neoplasm Transplantation, Precision Medicine, Radionuclide Imaging
Show Abstract · Added February 11, 2016
Representing an enormous health care and socioeconomic challenge, breast cancer is the second most common cancer in the world and the second most common cause of cancer-related death. Although many of the challenges associated with preventing, treating, and ultimately curing breast cancer are addressable in the laboratory, successful translation of groundbreaking research to clinical populations remains an important barrier. Particularly when compared with research on other types of solid tumors, breast cancer research is hampered by a lack of tractable in vivo model systems that accurately recapitulate the relevant clinical features of the disease. A primary objective of this article was to provide a generalizable overview of the types of in vivo model systems, with an emphasis primarily on murine models, that are widely deployed in preclinical breast cancer research. Major opportunities to advance precision cancer medicine facilitated by molecular imaging of preclinical breast cancer models are discussed.
© 2016 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.
0 Communities
2 Members
0 Resources
11 MeSH Terms
Overutilization and Cost of Advanced Imaging for Long-Bone Cartilaginous Lesions.
Wilson RJ, Zumsteg JW, Hartley KA, Long JH, Mesko NW, Halpern JL, Schwartz HS, Holt GE
(2015) Ann Surg Oncol 22: 3466-73
MeSH Terms: Adolescent, Adult, Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Bone Neoplasms, Chondroma, Chondrosarcoma, Diagnosis, Differential, Female, Femur, Fibula, Humans, Humerus, Image-Guided Biopsy, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Male, Middle Aged, Radionuclide Imaging, Radius, Sensitivity and Specificity, Tibia, Tomography, X-Ray Computed, Unnecessary Procedures, Young Adult
Show Abstract · Added January 20, 2015
BACKGROUND - The prevalence and cost of unnecessary advanced imaging studies (AIS) in the evaluation of long bone cartilaginous lesions have not been studied previously.
METHODS - A total of 105 enchondromas and 19 chondrosarcomas arising in long bones from July 2008 until April 2012 in 121 patients were reviewed. Advanced imaging was defined as MRI, CT, bone scan, skeletal survey, or CT biopsy. Two blinded radiologists independently reviewed the initial imaging study and determined if further imaging was indicated based on that imaging study alone. The cost of imaging was taken from our institution's global charge list. Imaging was deemed unnecessary if it was not recommended by our radiologists after review of the initial imaging study. The difference in cost was calculated by subtracting the cost of imaging recommended by each radiologist from the cost of unnecessary imaging. The sensitivity and specificity for distinguishing enchondromas from chondrosarcomas was calculated. A minimum of 2 years from diagnosis of an enchondroma was required to monitor for malignant transformation.
RESULTS - Of patients diagnosed with an enchondroma, 85 % presented with AIS. The average enchondroma patient presented with one unnecessary AIS. The radiologists' interpretations agreed 85 % of the time for enchondromas and 100 % for chondrosarcomas. The sensitivity and specificity for distinguishing enchondromas from chondrosarcomas was 95 % for one radiologist and 87 and 95 % for the other. The average unnecessary cost per enchondroma patient was $1,346.18.
CONCLUSIONS - Unnecessary AIS are frequently performed and are a significant source of expense. The imaging algorithms outlined in this study may reduce unnecessary AIS.
0 Communities
1 Members
0 Resources
24 MeSH Terms
Simulation study comparing high-purity germanium and cadmium zinc telluride detectors for breast imaging.
Campbell DL, Peterson TE
(2014) Phys Med Biol 59: 7059-79
MeSH Terms: Breast, Cadmium, Computer Simulation, Female, Germanium, Humans, Image Processing, Computer-Assisted, Monte Carlo Method, Phantoms, Imaging, Photons, Positron-Emission Tomography, Radionuclide Imaging, Signal-To-Noise Ratio, Tellurium, Zinc
Show Abstract · Added February 16, 2015
We conducted simulations to compare the potential imaging performance for breast cancer detection with High-Purity Germanium (HPGe) and Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) systems with 1% and 3.8% energy resolution at 140 keV, respectively. Using the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP5) simulation package, we modelled both 5 mm-thick CZT and 10 mm-thick HPGe detectors with the same parallel-hole collimator for the imaging of a breast/torso phantom. Simulated energy spectra were generated, and planar images were created for various energy windows around the 140 keV photopeak. Relative sensitivity and scatter and the torso fractions were calculated along with tumour contrast and signal-to-noise ratios (SNR). Simulations showed that utilizing a ±1.25% energy window with an HPGe system better suppressed torso background and small-angle scattered photons than a comparable CZT system using a -5%/+10% energy window. Both systems provided statistically similar contrast and SNR, with HPGe providing higher relative sensitivity. Lowering the counts of HPGe images to match CZT count density still yielded equivalent contrast between HPGe and CZT. Thus, an HPGe system may provide equivalent breast imaging capability at lower injected radioactivity levels when acquiring for equal imaging time.
0 Communities
1 Members
0 Resources
15 MeSH Terms
Terminal ileal carcinoid tumor without hepatic or extrahepatic metastasis causing carcinoid syndrome.
Datta J, Merchant NB
(2013) Am Surg 79: 439-41
MeSH Terms: Aged, Carcinoid Tumor, Celiac Disease, Chronic Disease, Colitis, Microscopic, Diarrhea, Gastrointestinal Agents, Humans, Ileal Neoplasms, Intestinal Neoplasms, Male, Malignant Carcinoid Syndrome, Octreotide, Radionuclide Imaging
Added March 26, 2014
0 Communities
1 Members
0 Resources
14 MeSH Terms
A thalamocorticostriatal dopamine network for psychostimulant-enhanced human cognitive flexibility.
Samanez-Larkin GR, Buckholtz JW, Cowan RL, Woodward ND, Li R, Ansari MS, Arrington CM, Baldwin RM, Smith CE, Treadway MT, Kessler RM, Zald DH
(2013) Biol Psychiatry 74: 99-105
MeSH Terms: Adaptation, Psychological, Adolescent, Adult, Benzamides, Cerebral Cortex, Cognition, Corpus Striatum, Dextroamphetamine, Dopamine, Dopamine Antagonists, Female, Humans, Male, Nerve Net, Pyrrolidines, Radionuclide Imaging, Thalamus, Young Adult
Show Abstract · Added May 27, 2014
BACKGROUND - Everyday life demands continuous flexibility in thought and behavior. We examined whether individual differences in dopamine function are related to variability in the effects of amphetamine on one aspect of flexibility: task switching.
METHODS - Forty healthy human participants performed a task-switching paradigm following placebo and oral amphetamine administration. [(18)F]fallypride was used to measure D2/D3 baseline receptor availability and amphetamine-stimulated dopamine release.
RESULTS - The majority of the participants showed amphetamine-induced benefits through reductions in switch costs. However, such benefits were variable. Individuals with higher baseline thalamic and cortical receptor availability and striatal dopamine release showed greater reductions in switch costs following amphetamine than individuals with lower levels. The relationship between dopamine receptors and stimulant-enhanced flexibility was partially mediated by striatal dopamine release.
CONCLUSIONS - These data indicate that the impact of the psychostimulant on cognitive flexibility is influenced by the status of dopamine within a thalamocorticostriatal network. Beyond demonstrating a link between this dopaminergic network and the enhancement in task switching, these neural measures accounted for unique variance in predicting the psychostimulant-induced cognitive enhancement. These results suggest that there may be measurable aspects of variability in the dopamine system that predispose certain individuals to benefit from and hence use psychostimulants for cognitive enhancement.
Copyright © 2013 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
0 Communities
2 Members
0 Resources
18 MeSH Terms
Assessment of renal function in mice with unilateral ureteral obstruction using 99mTc-MAG3 dynamic scintigraphy.
Tantawy MN, Jiang R, Wang F, Takahashi K, Peterson TE, Zemel D, Hao CM, Fujita H, Harris RC, Quarles CC, Takahashi T
(2012) BMC Nephrol 13: 168
MeSH Terms: Animals, Kidney, Male, Mice, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Radioisotope Renography, Radionuclide Imaging, Radiopharmaceuticals, Technetium Tc 99m Mertiatide, Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon, Ureteral Obstruction
Show Abstract · Added August 27, 2013
BACKGROUND - Renal scintigraphy using 99mTc-mercaptoacetyltriglycine (99mTc-MAG3) is widely used for the assessment of renal function in humans. However, the application of this method to animal models of renal disease is currently limited, especially in rodents. Here, we have applied 99mTc-MAG3 renal scintigraphy to a mouse model of unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) and evaluated its utility in studying obstructive renal disease.
METHODS - UUO mice were generated by complete ligation of the left ureter. Sham-operated mice were used as a control. Renal function was investigated on days 0, 1, 3, and 6 post-surgery using dynamic planar imaging of 99mTc-MAG3 activity following retro-orbital injection. Time-activity curves (TACs) were produced for individual kidneys and renal function was assessed by 1) the slope of initial 99mTc-MAG3 uptake (SIU), which is related to renal perfusion; 2) peak activity; and 3) the time-to-peak (TTP). The parameters of tubular excretion were not evaluated in this study as 99mTc-MAG3 is not excreted from UUO kidneys.
RESULTS - Compared to sham-operated mice, SIU was remarkably (>60%) reduced in UUO kidneys at day 1 post surgery and the TACs plateaued, indicating that 99mTc-MAG3 is not excreted in these kidneys. The plateau activity in UUO kidneys was relatively low (~40% of sham kidney's peak activity) as early as day1 post surgery, demonstrating that uptake of 99mTc-MAG3 is rapidly reduced in UUO kidneys. The time to plateau in UUO kidneys exceeded 200 sec, suggesting that 99mTc-MAG3 is slowly up-taken in these kidneys. These changes advanced as the disease progressed. SIU, peak activity and TTPs were minimally changed in contra-lateral kidneys during the study period.
CONCLUSIONS - Our data demonstrate that renal uptake of 99mTc-MAG3 is remarkably and rapidly reduced in UUO kidneys, while the changes are minimal in contra-lateral kidneys. The parametric analysis of TACs suggested that renal perfusion as well as tubular uptake is reduced in UUO kidneys. This imaging technique should allow non-invasive assessments of UUO renal injury and enable a more rapid interrogation of novel therapeutic agents and protocols.
1 Communities
5 Members
0 Resources
11 MeSH Terms
Developing an action plan for patient radiation safety in adult cardiovascular medicine: proceedings from the Duke University Clinical Research Institute/American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Think Tank held on February 28, 2011.
Douglas PS, Carr JJ, Cerqueira MD, Cummings JE, Gerber TC, Mukherjee D, Taylor AJ
(2012) J Am Coll Cardiol 59: 1833-47
MeSH Terms: Adult, Cardiology, Cardiovascular Diseases, Education, Humans, Interprofessional Relations, Organizational Culture, Patient Safety, Quality Indicators, Health Care, Radiation Protection, Radiography, Radiometry, Radionuclide Imaging, United States
Show Abstract · Added February 28, 2014
Technological advances and increased utilization of medical testing and procedures have prompted greater attention to ensuring the patient safety of radiation use in the practice of adult cardiovascular medicine. In response, representatives from cardiovascular imaging societies, private payers, government and nongovernmental agencies, industry, medical physicists, and patient representatives met to develop goals and strategies toward this end; this report provides an overview of the discussions. This expert “think tank” reached consensus on several broad directions including: the need for broad collaboration across a large number of diverse stakeholders; clarification of the relationship between medical radiation and stochastic events; required education of ordering and providing physicians, and creation of a culture of safety; development of infrastructure to support robust dose assessment and longitudinal tracking; continued close attention to patient selection by balancing the benefit of cardiovascular testing and procedures against carefully minimized radiation exposures; collation, dissemination, and implementation of best practices; and robust education, not only across the healthcare community, but also to patients, the public, and media. Finally, because patient radiation safety in cardiovascular imaging is complex, any proposed actions need to be carefully vetted (and monitored) for possible unintended consequences.
1 Communities
1 Members
0 Resources
14 MeSH Terms
Developing an action plan for patient radiation safety in adult cardiovascular medicine: proceedings from the Duke University Clinical Research Institute/American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association think tank held on February 28, 2011.
Douglas PS, Carr JJ, Cerqueira MD, Cummings JE, Gerber TC, Mukherjee D, Taylor AJ
(2012) Circ Cardiovasc Imaging 5: 400-14
MeSH Terms: Adult, Cardiology, Cardiovascular Diseases, Education, Humans, Interprofessional Relations, Organizational Culture, Patient Safety, Quality Indicators, Health Care, Radiation Protection, Radiography, Radiometry, Radionuclide Imaging, United States
Show Abstract · Added February 15, 2014
Technological advances and increased utilization of medical testing and procedures have prompted greater attention to ensuring the patient safety of radiation use in the practice of adult cardiovascular medicine. In response, representatives from cardiovascular imaging societies, private payers, government and nongovernmental agencies, industry, medical physicists, and patient representatives met to develop goals and strategies toward this end; this report provides an overview of the discussions. This expert "think tank" reached consensus on several broad directions including: the need for broad collaboration across a large number of diverse stakeholders; clarification of the relationship between medical radiation and stochastic events; required education of ordering and providing physicians, and creation of a culture of safety; development of infrastructure to support robust dose assessment and longitudinal tracking; continued close attention to patient selection by balancing the benefit of cardiovascular testing and procedures against carefully minimized radiation exposures; collation, dissemination, and implementation of best practices; and robust education, not only across the healthcare community, but also to patients, the public, and media. Finally, because patient radiation safety in cardiovascular imaging is complex, any proposed actions need to be carefully vetted (and monitored) for possible unintended consequences.
0 Communities
1 Members
0 Resources
14 MeSH Terms
SPECT detectors: the Anger Camera and beyond.
Peterson TE, Furenlid LR
(2011) Phys Med Biol 56: R145-82
MeSH Terms: Equipment Design, Gamma Cameras, Humans, Nuclear Medicine, Radiation Monitoring, Radionuclide Imaging, Scintillation Counting, Semiconductors, Sensitivity and Specificity, Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted, Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon, Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Show Abstract · Added May 30, 2014
The development of radiation detectors capable of delivering spatial information about gamma-ray interactions was one of the key enabling technologies for nuclear medicine imaging and, eventually, single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The continuous sodium iodide scintillator crystal coupled to an array of photomultiplier tubes, almost universally referred to as the Anger Camera after its inventor, has long been the dominant SPECT detector system. Nevertheless, many alternative materials and configurations have been investigated over the years. Technological advances as well as the emerging importance of specialized applications, such as cardiac and preclinical imaging, have spurred innovation such that alternatives to the Anger Camera are now part of commercial imaging systems. Increased computing power has made it practical to apply advanced signal processing and estimation schemes to make better use of the information contained in the detector signals. In this review we discuss the key performance properties of SPECT detectors and survey developments in both scintillator and semiconductor detectors and their readouts with an eye toward some of the practical issues at least in part responsible for the continuing prevalence of the Anger Camera in the clinic.
0 Communities
1 Members
0 Resources
12 MeSH Terms
Ionizing radiation in cardiac imaging: a science advisory from the American Heart Association Committee on Cardiac Imaging of the Council on Clinical Cardiology and Committee on Cardiovascular Imaging and Intervention of the Council on Cardiovascular Radiology and Intervention.
Gerber TC, Carr JJ, Arai AE, Dixon RL, Ferrari VA, Gomes AS, Heller GV, McCollough CH, McNitt-Gray MF, Mettler FA, Mieres JH, Morin RL, Yester MV
(2009) Circulation 119: 1056-65
MeSH Terms: Activities of Daily Living, American Heart Association, Cardiology, Diagnostic Imaging, Fluoroscopy, Heart, Humans, Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced, Radiation Dosage, Radionuclide Imaging, Tomography, X-Ray Computed, United States
Added February 15, 2014
0 Communities
1 Members
0 Resources
12 MeSH Terms