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Kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM-1, also known as TIM-1) is markedly upregulated in the proximal tubule after injury and is maladaptive when chronically expressed. Here, we determined that early in the injury process, however, KIM-1 expression is antiinflammatory due to its mediation of phagocytic processes in tubule cells. Using various models of acute kidney injury (AKI) and mice expressing mutant forms of KIM-1, we demonstrated a mucin domain-dependent protective effect of epithelial KIM-1 expression that involves downregulation of innate immunity. Deletion of the mucin domain markedly impaired KIM-1-mediated phagocytic function, resulting in increased proinflammatory cytokine production, decreased antiinflammatory growth factor secretion by proximal epithelial cells, and a subsequent increase in tissue macrophages. Mice expressing KIM-1Δmucin had greater functional impairment, inflammatory responses, and mortality in response to ischemia- and cisplatin-induced AKI. Compared with primary renal proximal tubule cells isolated from KIM-1Δmucin mice, those from WT mice had reduced proinflammatory cytokine secretion and impaired macrophage activation. The antiinflammatory effect of KIM-1 expression was due to the interaction of KIM-1 with p85 and subsequent PI3K-dependent downmodulation of NF-κB. Hence, KIM-1-mediated epithelial cell phagocytosis of apoptotic cells protects the kidney after acute injury by downregulating innate immunity and inflammation.
OBJECTIVE - To examine the impact of a recent surgery on development of endometriosis-related adhesions in a chimeric model and to determine the therapeutic efficacy of pioglitazone (PIO).
DESIGN - Human endometrial biopsies were maintained in E(2) with or without PIO for 24 h before intraperitoneal injection into immunocompromised mice also treated with or without PIO at multiple time points after peritoneal surgery. The presence and extent of adhesions were examined in animals relative to the initial establishment of experimental endometriosis.
SETTING - Medical school research center.
PATIENT(S) - Endometrial biopsies for experimental studies were provided by normally cycling women without a medical history indicative of endometriosis or adhesions.
INTERVENTION(S) - None.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S) - Examination of the development of endometriosis-related adhesions in an experimental model.
RESULT(S) - Without therapeutic intervention, injection of E(2)-treated human endometrial tissue into mice near the time of peritoneal surgery resulted in multiple adhesions and extensive endometriotic-like disease. In contrast, PIO treatment reduced adhesive disease and experimental endometriosis related to surgical injury.
CONCLUSION(S) - The presence of human endometrial tissue fragments in the peritoneal cavity of mice with a recent surgical injury promoted development of both adhesive disease and experimental endometriosis. Targeting inflammation and angiogenesis with PIO therapy limited the development of postsurgical adhesions associated with ectopic endometrial growth.
Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Circulating platelets exhibit rapid signaling and adhesive responses to collagen that facilitate hemostasis at sites of vessel injury. Because platelets are anuclear, their collagen receptors must be expressed by megakaryocytes, platelet precursors that arise in the collagen-rich environment of the bone marrow. Whether and how megakaryocytes regulate collagen adhesion during their development in the bone marrow are unknown. We find that surface expression of activated, but not wild-type, alpha2 integrins in hematopoietic cells in vivo results in the generation of platelets that lack surface alpha2 receptors. Culture of hematopoietic progenitor cells ex vivo reveals that surface levels of activated, but not wild-type, alpha2 integrin receptors are rapidly down-regulated during cell growth on collagen but reach wild-type levels when cells are grown in the absence of collagen. Progenitor cells that express activated alpha2 integrins are normally distributed in the bone marrow in vivo and exhibit normal migration across a collagen-coated membrane ex vivo. This migration is accompanied by rapid down-regulation of activated surface integrins. These studies identify ligand-dependent removal of activated alpha2 receptors from the cell surface as a mechanism by which integrin function can be negatively regulated in hematopoietic cells during migration between the adhesive environment of the bone marrow and the nonadhesive environment of the circulating blood.
BACKGROUND - The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARalpha) plays important roles in lipid metabolism, inflammation, and atherosclerosis. PPARalpha ligands have been shown to reduce cardiovascular events in high-risk subjects. PPARalpha expression by arterial cells, including macrophages, may exert local antiatherogenic effects independent of plasma lipid changes.
METHODS AND RESULTS - To examine the contribution of PPARalpha expression by bone marrow-derived cells in atherosclerosis, male and female low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient (LDLR(-/-)) mice were reconstituted with bone marrow from PPARalpha(-/-) or PPARalpha(+/+) mice and challenged with a high-fat diet. Although serum lipids and lipoprotein profiles did not differ between the groups, the size of atherosclerotic lesions in the distal aorta of male and female PPARalpha(-/-) --> LDLR(-/-) mice was significantly increased (44% and 46%, respectively) compared with controls. Male PPARalpha(-/-) --> LDLR(-/-) mice also had larger (44%) atherosclerotic lesions in the proximal aorta than male PPARalpha(+/+) --> LDLR(-/-) mice. Peritoneal macrophages from PPARalpha(-/-) mice had increased uptake of oxidized LDL and decreased cholesterol efflux. PPARalpha(-/-) macrophages had lower levels of scavenger receptor B type I and ABCA1 protein expression and an accelerated response of nuclear factor-kappaB-regulated inflammatory genes. A laser capture microdissection analysis verified suppressed scavenger receptor B type I and increased nuclear factor-kappaB gene expression levels in vivo in atherosclerotic lesions of PPARalpha(-/-) --> LDLR(-/-) mice compared with the lesions of control PPARalpha(+/+) --> LDLR(-/-) mice.
CONCLUSIONS - These data demonstrate that PPARalpha expression by macrophages has antiatherogenic effects via modulation of cell cholesterol trafficking and inflammatory activity.
Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have accelerated atherosclerosis. The underlying mechanisms are poorly understood, and investigations have been hampered by the absence of animal models that reflect the human condition of generalized atherosclerosis and lupus. We addressed this problem by transferring lupus susceptibility to low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-deficient (LDLr-/-) mice, an established model of atherosclerosis, creating radiation chimeras with NZM2410-derived, lupus-susceptible, B6.Sle1.2.3 congenic or C57BL/6 control donors (LDLr.Sle and LDLr.B6, respectively). LDLr.Sle mice developed a lupus-like disease characterized by production of double-stranded DNA autoantibodies and renal disease. When fed a Western-type diet, LDLr.Sle chimeras had increased mortality and atherosclerotic lesions. The plaques of LDLr.Sle mice were highly inflammatory and contained more CD3+ T cells than controls. LDLr.Sle mice also had increased activation of CD4+ T and B cells and significantly higher antibody to oxidized LDL and cardiolipin. Collectively, these studies demonstrate that the lupus-susceptible immune system enhances atherogenesis and modulates plaque composition.
T lineage commitment occurs in a discrete, stage-specific manner during thymic ontogeny. Intrathymic precursor transfer experiments and the identification of CD4(+)8+ double-positive (DP), V alpha 14J alpha 18 natural T (iNKT) cells suggest that commitment to this lineage might occur at the DP stage. Nevertheless, this matter remains contentious because others failed to detect V alpha 14J alpha 18-positive iNKT cells that are CD4(+)8+. In resolution to this issue, we demonstrate that retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor gamma (ROR gamma)0/0 thymi, which accumulate immature single-positive (ISP) thymocytes that precede the DP stage, do not rearrange V alpha 14-to-J alpha 18 gene segments, suggesting that this event occurs at a post-ISP stage. Mixed radiation bone marrow chimeras revealed that RORgamma functions in an iNKT cell lineage-specific manner. Further, introgression of a Bcl-x(L) transgene into ROR gamma(0/0) mice, which promotes survival and permits secondary rearrangements of distal V alpha and J alpha gene segments at the DP stage, rescues V alpha 14-to-J alpha 18 recombination. Similarly, introgression of a rearranged V alpha 14J alpha 18 transgene into ROR gamma(0/0) mice results in functional iNKT cells. Thus, our data support the "T cell receptor-instructive (mainstream precursor) model" of iNKT cell lineage specification where V alpha 14-to-J alpha 18 rearrangement, positive selection, and iNKT cell lineage commitment occur at or after the DP stage of ontogeny.
To facilitate study of alveolar macrophages in vivo, we developed a method to rapidly and efficiently replace resident alveolar macrophages with macrophages of a different (donor) genotype. Chimeric mice were generated by lethal irradiation followed by fetal liver transplantation (FLT) using green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic reporter mice as donors. Kinetics of peripheral blood monocyte (PBM) and alveolar macrophage reconstitution was determined 4 and 10 weeks post-FLT by quantifying the percentage of GFP+ cells. To enhance the recruitment of donor monocytes into the lung after FLT, mice were treated with intratracheal administration of liposomal clodronate to deplete host alveolar macrophages at 6 weeks post-FLT. PBM reconstitution occurred by 4 weeks after FLT (85.7+/-1.6% of CD11b+/Gr-1+ monocytes were GFP+), and minimal alveolar macrophage repopulation was observed (9.5% GFP+). By 10 weeks following FLT, 48% of alveolar macrophages were GFP+ by immunostaining of macrophages on lung tissue sections, and 55.1 +/- 1.6% of lung lavage macrophages were GFP+ by fluorescein-activated cell sorter analysis. Clodronate treatment resulted in a significant increase in GFP+ alveolar macrophages 10 weeks after FLT. By immunostaining, 90% of macrophages were GFP+ on lung tissue sections and 87.5 +/- 1.1% GFP+ in lung lavage (compared with GFP-transgenic controls). The ability of newly recruited alveolar macrophages to clear Pseudomonas aeruginosa and activate nuclear factor-kappaB in response to Eschericia coli lipopolysaccharide demonstrated normal macrophage function. Optimizing this methodology provides an important tool for the study of specific genes and their contribution to alveolar macrophage function in vivo.
Angiogenesis, an essential component of a variety of physiological and pathological processes, offers attractive opportunities for therapeutic regulation. We hypothesized that matrix metalloproteinase-9 genetic deficiency (MMP-9-/-) will impair angiogenesis triggered by tissue ischemia, induced experimentally by femoral artery ligation in mice. To investigate the role of MMP-9, we performed a series of biochemical and histological analyses, including zymography, simultaneous detection of perfused capillaries, MMP-9 promoter activity, MMP-9 protein, and macrophages in MMP-9-/- and wild-type (WT) mice. We found that ischemia resulted in doubling of capillary density in WT and no change in the MMP-9-/- ischemic tissues, which translated into increased (39%) perfusion capacity only in the WT at 14 days after ligation. We also confirmed that capillaries in the MMP-9-/- presented significantly (P<0.05) less points of capillary intersections, interpreted by us as decreased branching. The combined conclusions from simultaneous localizations of MMP-9 expression, capillaries, and macrophages suggested that macrophage MMP-9 participates in capillary branching. Transplantation of WT bone marrow into the MMP-9-/-, restored capillary branching, further supporting the contribution of bone marrow-derived macrophages in supplying the necessary MMP-9. Our study indicates that angiogenesis triggered by tissue ischemia requires MMP-9, which may be involved in capillary branching, a potential novel role for this MMP that could be exploited to control angiogenesis.
BACKGROUND - Scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) is expressed in macrophages, where it has been proposed to facilitate cholesterol efflux. However, direct evidence that the expression of macrophage SR-BI is protective against atherosclerosis is lacking. In this study, we examined the in vivo role of macrophage SR-BI in atherosclerotic lesion development in the apolipoprotein (apo) E-deficient mouse model.
METHODS AND RESULTS - ApoE-deficient mice with (n=16) or without (n=15) expression of macrophage SR-BI were created by transplanting lethally irradiated apoE-deficient mice with bone marrow cells collected from SR-BI-/- apoE-/- mice or SR-BI+/+ apoE-/- mice. The recipient mice were fed a chow diet for 12 weeks after transplantation for analysis of atherosclerosis. Quantification of macrophage SR-BI mRNA by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction indicated successful engraftment of donor bone marrow and inactivation of macrophage SR-BI in recipient mice reconstituted with SR-BI-/- apoE-/- bone marrow. There were no significant differences in plasma lipid levels, lipoprotein distributions, and HDL subpopulations between the 2 groups. Analysis of the proximal aorta demonstrated an 86% increase in mean atherosclerotic lesion area in SR-BI-/- apoE-/- --> apoE-/- mice compared with SR-BI+/+ apoE-/- --> apoE-/- mice (109.50+/-18.08 versus 58.75+/-9.58x10(3) microm2; mean+/-SEM, P=0.017). No difference in cholesterol efflux from SR-BI+/+ apoE-/- or SR-BI-/- apoE-/- macrophages to HDL or apoA-I discs was detected.
CONCLUSIONS - Expression of macrophage SR-BI protects mice against atherosclerotic lesion development in apoE-deficient mice in vivo without influencing plasma lipids, HDL subpopulations, or cholesterol efflux. Thus, macrophage SR-BI plays an antiatherogenic role in vivo, providing a new therapeutic target for the design of strategies to prevent and treat atherosclerosis.
Coordinated neutrophil and monocyte recruitment is a characteristic feature of acute lung inflammatory responses. We investigated the role of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (CCL2, JE) and the chemokine receptor CCR2 in regulating alveolar leukocyte traffic. Groups of wild-type (WT) mice, CCR2-deficient mice, lethally irradiated CCR2-deficient and WT mice that were reciprocally bone marrow transplanted (chimeric CCR2 deficient and WT, respectively), chimeric CCR2-deficient mice with an enriched CCR2(+) alveolar macrophage population, and CCR2-deficient mice transfused with CCR2(+) mononuclear cells were treated with intratracheal CCL2 and/or Escherichia coli endotoxin. Our data show that alveolar monocyte recruitment is strictly dependent on CCR2. LPS-induced neutrophil migration to the lungs is CCR2 independent. However, when CCR2-bearing blood monocytes are present, alveolar neutrophil accumulation is accelerated and drastically amplified. We suggest that this hitherto unrecognized cooperativity between monocytes and neutrophils contributes to the strong, coordinated leukocyte efflux in lung inflammation.