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Structural basis for influenza virus NS1 protein block of mRNA nuclear export.
Zhang K, Xie Y, Muñoz-Moreno R, Wang J, Zhang L, Esparza M, García-Sastre A, Fontoura BMA, Ren Y
(2019) Nat Microbiol 4: 1671-1679
MeSH Terms: A549 Cells, Active Transport, Cell Nucleus, Binding Sites, Cell Nucleus, Cells, Cultured, Crystallography, X-Ray, Humans, Influenza A virus, Influenza, Human, Models, Molecular, Multiprotein Complexes, Nuclear Pore Complex Proteins, Nucleocytoplasmic Transport Proteins, Protein Binding, RNA, Messenger, RNA-Binding Proteins, Viral Nonstructural Proteins
Show Abstract · Added March 3, 2020
Influenza viruses antagonize key immune defence mechanisms via the virulence factor non-structural protein 1 (NS1). A key mechanism of virulence by NS1 is blocking nuclear export of host messenger RNAs, including those encoding immune factors; however, the direct cellular target of NS1 and the mechanism of host mRNA export inhibition are not known. Here, we identify the target of NS1 as the mRNA export receptor complex, nuclear RNA export factor 1-nuclear transport factor 2-related export protein 1 (NXF1-NXT1), which is the principal receptor mediating docking and translocation of mRNAs through the nuclear pore complex via interactions with nucleoporins. We determined the crystal structure of NS1 in complex with NXF1-NXT1 at 3.8 Å resolution. The structure reveals that NS1 prevents binding of NXF1-NXT1 to nucleoporins, thereby inhibiting mRNA export through the nuclear pore complex into the cytoplasm for translation. We demonstrate that a mutant influenza virus deficient in binding NXF1-NXT1 does not block host mRNA export and is attenuated. This attenuation is marked by the release of mRNAs encoding immune factors from the nucleus. In sum, our study uncovers the molecular basis of a major nuclear function of influenza NS1 protein that causes potent blockage of host gene expression and contributes to inhibition of host immunity.
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Interrogation of nonconserved human adipose lincRNAs identifies a regulatory role of in adipocyte metabolism.
Zhang X, Xue C, Lin J, Ferguson JF, Weiner A, Liu W, Han Y, Hinkle C, Li W, Jiang H, Gosai S, Hachet M, Garcia BA, Gregory BD, Soccio RE, Hogenesch JB, Seale P, Li M, Reilly MP
(2018) Sci Transl Med 10:
MeSH Terms: Adipocytes, Adipose Tissue, Cell Differentiation, Cell Nucleus, Gene Expression Regulation, Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein U, Humans, Lipids, Lipogenesis, PPAR gamma, RNA, Long Noncoding, RNA, Messenger, RNA-Binding Proteins, Transcription, Genetic
Show Abstract · Added April 2, 2019
Long intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs) have emerged as important modulators of cellular functions. Most lincRNAs are not conserved among mammals, raising the fundamental question of whether nonconserved adipose-expressed lincRNAs are functional. To address this, we performed deep RNA sequencing of gluteal subcutaneous adipose tissue from 25 healthy humans. We identified 1001 putative lincRNAs expressed in all samples through de novo reconstruction of noncoding transcriptomes and integration with existing lincRNA annotations. One hundred twenty lincRNAs had adipose-enriched expression, and 54 of these exhibited peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) or CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α (C/EBPα) binding at their loci. Most of these adipose-enriched lincRNAs (~85%) were not conserved in mice, yet on average, they showed degrees of expression and binding of PPARγ and C/EBPα similar to those displayed by conserved lincRNAs. Most adipose lincRNAs differentially expressed ( = 53) in patients after bariatric surgery were nonconserved. The most abundant adipose-enriched lincRNA in our subcutaneous adipose data set, , was nonconserved, up-regulated in adipose depots of obese individuals, and markedly induced during in vitro human adipocyte differentiation. We demonstrated that interacts with heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U (hnRNPU) and insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA binding protein 2 (IGF2BP2) at distinct subcellular locations to regulate adipocyte differentiation and lipogenesis.
Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.
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14 MeSH Terms
Dynamic landscape and regulation of RNA editing in mammals.
Tan MH, Li Q, Shanmugam R, Piskol R, Kohler J, Young AN, Liu KI, Zhang R, Ramaswami G, Ariyoshi K, Gupte A, Keegan LP, George CX, Ramu A, Huang N, Pollina EA, Leeman DS, Rustighi A, Goh YPS, GTEx Consortium, Laboratory, Data Analysis &Coordinating Center (LDACC)—Analysis Working Group, Statistical Methods groups—Analysis Working Group, Enhancing GTEx (eGTEx) groups, NIH Common Fund, NIH/NCI, NIH/NHGRI, NIH/NIMH, NIH/NIDA, Biospecimen Collection Source Site—NDRI, Biospecimen Collection Source Site—RPCI, Biospecimen Core Resource—VARI, Brain Bank Repository—University of Miami Brain Endowment Bank, Leidos Biomedical—Project Management, ELSI Study, Genome Browser Data Integration &Visualization—EBI, Genome Browser Data Integration &Visualization—UCSC Genomics Institute, University of California Santa Cruz, Chawla A, Del Sal G, Peltz G, Brunet A, Conrad DF, Samuel CE, O'Connell MA, Walkley CR, Nishikura K, Li JB
(2017) Nature 550: 249-254
MeSH Terms: Adenosine Deaminase, Animals, Female, Genotype, HEK293 Cells, Humans, Male, Mice, Muscles, Nuclear Proteins, Organ Specificity, Primates, Proteolysis, RNA Editing, RNA-Binding Proteins, Spatio-Temporal Analysis, Species Specificity, Transcriptome
Show Abstract · Added October 27, 2017
Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing is a conserved post-transcriptional mechanism mediated by ADAR enzymes that diversifies the transcriptome by altering selected nucleotides in RNA molecules. Although many editing sites have recently been discovered, the extent to which most sites are edited and how the editing is regulated in different biological contexts are not fully understood. Here we report dynamic spatiotemporal patterns and new regulators of RNA editing, discovered through an extensive profiling of A-to-I RNA editing in 8,551 human samples (representing 53 body sites from 552 individuals) from the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) project and in hundreds of other primate and mouse samples. We show that editing levels in non-repetitive coding regions vary more between tissues than editing levels in repetitive regions. Globally, ADAR1 is the primary editor of repetitive sites and ADAR2 is the primary editor of non-repetitive coding sites, whereas the catalytically inactive ADAR3 predominantly acts as an inhibitor of editing. Cross-species analysis of RNA editing in several tissues revealed that species, rather than tissue type, is the primary determinant of editing levels, suggesting stronger cis-directed regulation of RNA editing for most sites, although the small set of conserved coding sites is under stronger trans-regulation. In addition, we curated an extensive set of ADAR1 and ADAR2 targets and showed that many editing sites display distinct tissue-specific regulation by the ADAR enzymes in vivo. Further analysis of the GTEx data revealed several potential regulators of editing, such as AIMP2, which reduces editing in muscles by enhancing the degradation of the ADAR proteins. Collectively, our work provides insights into the complex cis- and trans-regulation of A-to-I editing.
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18 MeSH Terms
A 3q gene signature associated with triple negative breast cancer organ specific metastasis and response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
Qian J, Chen H, Ji X, Eisenberg R, Chakravarthy AB, Mayer IA, Massion PP
(2017) Sci Rep 7: 45828
MeSH Terms: Biomarkers, Tumor, Chemotherapy, Adjuvant, Chromosomes, Human, Pair 3, Disease-Free Survival, Female, Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic, Genetic Predisposition to Disease, Humans, Neoplasm Metastasis, RNA-Binding Proteins, Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms
Show Abstract · Added January 29, 2018
Triple negative breast cancers (TNBC) are aggressive tumors, with high rates of metastatic spread and targeted therapies are critically needed. We aimed to assess the prognostic and predictive value of a 3q 19-gene signature identified previously from lung cancer in a collection of 4,801 breast tumor gene expression data. The 3q gene signature had a strong association with features of aggressiveness such as high grade, hormone receptor negativity, presence of a basal-like or TNBC phenotype and reduced distant metastasis free survival. The 3q gene signature was strongly associated with lung metastasis only in TNBC (P < 0.0001, Hazard ratio (HR) 1.44, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.31-1.60), significantly associated with brain but not bone metastasis regardless of TNBC status. The association of one 3q driver gene FXR1 with distant metastasis in TNBC (P = 0.01) was further validated by immunohistochemistry. In addition, the 3q gene signature was associated with better response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in TNBC (P < 0.0001) but not in non-TNBC patients. Our study suggests that the 3q gene signature is a novel prognostic marker for lung and/or brain metastasis and a predictive marker for the response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in TNBC, implying a potential role for 3q genes in the mechanism of organ-specific metastasis.
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Comprehensive Molecular Characterization of Pheochromocytoma and Paraganglioma.
Fishbein L, Leshchiner I, Walter V, Danilova L, Robertson AG, Johnson AR, Lichtenberg TM, Murray BA, Ghayee HK, Else T, Ling S, Jefferys SR, de Cubas AA, Wenz B, Korpershoek E, Amelio AL, Makowski L, Rathmell WK, Gimenez-Roqueplo AP, Giordano TJ, Asa SL, Tischler AS, Cancer Genome Atlas Research Network, Pacak K, Nathanson KL, Wilkerson MD
(2017) Cancer Cell 31: 181-193
MeSH Terms: Adult, Aged, Aged, 80 and over, DNA-Binding Proteins, Female, Gene Fusion, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, Mutation, Nuclear Proteins, Paraganglioma, Pheochromocytoma, Pol1 Transcription Initiation Complex Proteins, Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret, RNA-Binding Proteins, Transcription Factors
Show Abstract · Added October 30, 2019
We report a comprehensive molecular characterization of pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PCCs/PGLs), a rare tumor type. Multi-platform integration revealed that PCCs/PGLs are driven by diverse alterations affecting multiple genes and pathways. Pathogenic germline mutations occurred in eight PCC/PGL susceptibility genes. We identified CSDE1 as a somatically mutated driver gene, complementing four known drivers (HRAS, RET, EPAS1, and NF1). We also discovered fusion genes in PCCs/PGLs, involving MAML3, BRAF, NGFR, and NF1. Integrated analysis classified PCCs/PGLs into four molecularly defined groups: a kinase signaling subtype, a pseudohypoxia subtype, a Wnt-altered subtype, driven by MAML3 and CSDE1, and a cortical admixture subtype. Correlates of metastatic PCCs/PGLs included the MAML3 fusion gene. This integrated molecular characterization provides a comprehensive foundation for developing PCC/PGL precision medicine.
Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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A role for Gle1, a regulator of DEAD-box RNA helicases, at centrosomes and basal bodies.
Jao LE, Akef A, Wente SR
(2017) Mol Biol Cell 28: 120-127
MeSH Terms: Active Transport, Cell Nucleus, Adenosine Triphosphatases, Antigens, Basal Bodies, Centrosome, DEAD-box RNA Helicases, Nuclear Pore, Nuclear Pore Complex Proteins, Nucleocytoplasmic Transport Proteins, Protein Binding, RNA Transport, RNA, Messenger, RNA-Binding Proteins, Zebrafish Proteins
Show Abstract · Added April 14, 2017
Control of organellar assembly and function is critical to eukaryotic homeostasis and survival. Gle1 is a highly conserved regulator of RNA-dependent DEAD-box ATPase proteins, with critical roles in both mRNA export and translation. In addition to its well-defined interaction with nuclear pore complexes, here we find that Gle1 is enriched at the centrosome and basal body. Gle1 assembles into the toroid-shaped pericentriolar material around the mother centriole. Reduced Gle1 levels are correlated with decreased pericentrin localization at the centrosome and microtubule organization defects. Of importance, these alterations in centrosome integrity do not result from loss of mRNA export. Examination of the Kupffer's vesicle in Gle1-depleted zebrafish revealed compromised ciliary beating and developmental defects. We propose that Gle1 assembly into the pericentriolar material positions the DEAD-box protein regulator to function in localized mRNA metabolism required for proper centrosome function.
© 2017 Jao et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).
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Are Interactions between cis-Regulatory Variants Evidence for Biological Epistasis or Statistical Artifacts?
Fish AE, Capra JA, Bush WS
(2016) Am J Hum Genet 99: 817-830
MeSH Terms: Artifacts, Binding Sites, Datasets as Topic, Epistasis, Genetic, Ethnic Groups, Gene Expression Regulation, Genetic Variation, Haplotypes, Humans, Linkage Disequilibrium, Models, Genetic, Models, Statistical, Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide, Quantitative Trait Loci, RNA-Binding Proteins, Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid
Show Abstract · Added April 18, 2017
The importance of epistasis-or statistical interactions between genetic variants-to the development of complex disease in humans has been controversial. Genome-wide association studies of statistical interactions influencing human traits have recently become computationally feasible and have identified many putative interactions. However, statistical models used to detect interactions can be confounded, which makes it difficult to be certain that observed statistical interactions are evidence for true molecular epistasis. In this study, we investigate whether there is evidence for epistatic interactions between genetic variants within the cis-regulatory region that influence gene expression after accounting for technical, statistical, and biological confounding factors. We identified 1,119 (FDR = 5%) interactions that appear to regulate gene expression in human lymphoblastoid cell lines, a tightly controlled, largely genetically determined phenotype. Many of these interactions replicated in an independent dataset (90 of 803 tested, Bonferroni threshold). We then performed an exhaustive analysis of both known and novel confounders, including ceiling/floor effects, missing genotype combinations, haplotype effects, single variants tagged through linkage disequilibrium, and population stratification. Every interaction could be explained by at least one of these confounders, and replication in independent datasets did not protect against some confounders. Assuming that the confounding factors provide a more parsimonious explanation for each interaction, we find it unlikely that cis-regulatory interactions contribute strongly to human gene expression, which calls into question the relevance of cis-regulatory interactions for other human phenotypes. We additionally propose several best practices for epistasis testing to protect future studies from confounding.
Copyright © 2016 American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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16 MeSH Terms
Potentiation and tolerance of toll-like receptor priming in human endothelial cells.
Koch SR, Lamb FS, Hellman J, Sherwood ER, Stark RJ
(2017) Transl Res 180: 53-67.e4
MeSH Terms: Endothelial Cells, Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases, Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells, Humans, Immune Tolerance, Interferon Regulatory Factor-7, Interferons, Interleukin-6, Lipopeptides, Lipopolysaccharides, Nuclear Pore Complex Proteins, Phosphorylation, Poly I-C, RNA-Binding Proteins, Toll-Like Receptors, Up-Regulation
Show Abstract · Added August 28, 2016
Repeated challenge of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) alters the response to subsequent LPS exposures via modulation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). Whether activation of other TLRs can modulate TLR4 responses, and vice versa, remains unclear. Specifically with regards to endothelial cells, a key component of innate immunity, the impact of TLR cross-modulation is unknown. We postulated that TLR2 priming (via Pam3Csk4) would inhibit TLR4-mediated responses while TLR3 priming (via Poly I:C) would enhance subsequent TLR4-inflammatory signaling. We studied human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and neonatal human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HMVECs). Cells were primed with a combination of Poly I:C (10 μg/ml), Pam3Csk4 (10 μg/ml), or LPS (100 ng/ml), then washed and allowed to rest. They were then rechallenged with either Poly I:C, Pam3Csk4 or LPS. Endothelial cells showed significant tolerance to repeated LPS challenge. Priming with Pam3Csk4 also reduced the response to secondary LPS challenge in both cell types, despite a reduced proinflammatory response to Pam3Csk4 in HMVECs compared to HUVECs. Poly I:C priming enhanced inflammatory and interferon producing signals upon Poly I:C or LPS rechallenge, respectively. Poly I:C priming induced interferon regulatory factor 7, leading to enhancement of interferon production. Finally, both Poly I:C and LPS priming induced significant changes in receptor-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase 1 activity. Pharmacological inhibition of receptor-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase 1 or interferon regulatory factor 7 reduced the potentiated phenotype of TLR3 priming on TLR4 rechallenge. These results demonstrate that in human endothelial cells, prior activation of TLRs can have a significant impact on subsequent exposures and may contribute to the severity of the host response.
Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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16 MeSH Terms
Assessing Computational Steps for CLIP-Seq Data Analysis.
Liu Q, Zhong X, Madison BB, Rustgi AK, Shyr Y
(2015) Biomed Res Int 2015: 196082
MeSH Terms: Binding Sites, Caco-2 Cells, Gene Expression Regulation, High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing, Humans, MicroRNAs, RNA, Messenger, RNA-Binding Proteins, Sequence Analysis, RNA
Show Abstract · Added February 22, 2016
RNA-binding protein (RBP) is a key player in regulating gene expression at the posttranscriptional level. CLIP-Seq, with the ability to provide a genome-wide map of protein-RNA interactions, has been increasingly used to decipher RBP-mediated posttranscriptional regulation. Generating highly reliable binding sites from CLIP-Seq requires not only stringent library preparation but also considerable computational efforts. Here we presented a first systematic evaluation of major computational steps for identifying RBP binding sites from CLIP-Seq data, including preprocessing, the choice of control samples, peak normalization, and motif discovery. We found that avoiding PCR amplification artifacts, normalizing to input RNA or mRNAseq, and defining the background model from control samples can reduce the bias introduced by RNA abundance and improve the quality of detected binding sites. Our findings can serve as a general guideline for CLIP experiments design and the comprehensive analysis of CLIP-Seq data.
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9 MeSH Terms
Heterogeneous transgene expression in the retinas of the TH-RFP, TH-Cre, TH-BAC-Cre and DAT-Cre mouse lines.
Vuong HE, Pérez de Sevilla Müller L, Hardi CN, McMahon DG, Brecha NC
(2015) Neuroscience 307: 319-37
MeSH Terms: Animals, Biotin, Calbindin 2, Choline O-Acetyltransferase, Chromosomes, Artificial, Bacterial, Dopamine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins, Female, Gene Expression Regulation, Glycine, Integrases, Luminescent Proteins, Male, Mice, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Mice, Transgenic, RNA-Binding Proteins, Retina, Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase, Visual Pathways, gamma-Aminobutyric Acid
Show Abstract · Added February 3, 2017
Transgenic mouse lines are essential tools for understanding the connectivity, physiology and function of neuronal circuits, including those in the retina. This report compares transgene expression in the retina of a tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-red fluorescent protein (RFP) mouse line with three catecholamine-related Cre recombinase mouse lines [TH-bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-, TH-, and dopamine transporter (DAT)-Cre] that were crossed with a ROSA26-tdTomato reporter line. Retinas were evaluated and immunostained with commonly used antibodies including those directed to TH, GABA and glycine to characterize the RFP or tdTomato fluorescent-labeled amacrine cells, and an antibody directed to RNA-binding protein with multiple splicing to identify ganglion cells. In TH-RFP retinas, types 1 and 2 dopamine (DA) amacrine cells were identified by their characteristic cellular morphology and type 1 DA cells by their expression of TH immunoreactivity. In the TH-BAC-, TH-, and DAT-tdTomato retinas, less than 1%, ∼ 6%, and 0%, respectively, of the fluorescent cells were the expected type 1 DA amacrine cells. Instead, in the TH-BAC-tdTomato retinas, fluorescently labeled AII amacrine cells were predominant, with some medium diameter ganglion cells. In TH-tdTomato retinas, fluorescence was in multiple neurochemical amacrine cell types, including four types of polyaxonal amacrine cells. In DAT-tdTomato retinas, fluorescence was in GABA immunoreactive amacrine cells, including two types of bistratified and two types of monostratified amacrine cells. Although each of the Cre lines was generated with the intent to specifically label DA cells, our findings show a cellular diversity in Cre expression in the adult retina and indicate the importance of careful characterization of transgene labeling patterns. These mouse lines with their distinctive cellular labeling patterns will be useful tools for future studies of retinal function and visual processing.
Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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20 MeSH Terms