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Hypoxia-Inducible Factor Activators in Renal Anemia: Current Clinical Experience.
Sanghani NS, Haase VH
(2019) Adv Chronic Kidney Dis 26: 253-266
MeSH Terms: Anemia, Barbiturates, Glycine, Humans, Isoquinolines, Picolinic Acids, Prolyl-Hydroxylase Inhibitors, Renal Insufficiency, Chronic, Treatment Outcome
Show Abstract · Added March 24, 2020
Prolyl hydroxylase domain oxygen sensors are dioxygenases that regulate the activity of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF), which controls renal and hepatic erythropoietin production and coordinates erythropoiesis with iron metabolism. Small molecule inhibitors of prolyl hydroxylase domain dioxygenases (HIF-PHI [prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor]) stimulate the production of endogenous erythropoietin and improve iron metabolism resulting in efficacious anemia management in patients with CKD. Three oral HIF-PHIs-daprodustat, roxadustat, and vadadustat-have now advanced to global phase III clinical development culminating in the recent licensing of roxadustat for oral anemia therapy in China. Here, we survey current clinical experience with HIF-PHIs, discuss potential therapeutic advantages, and deliberate over safety concerns regarding long-term administration in patients with renal anemia.
Copyright © 2019 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
0 Communities
1 Members
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9 MeSH Terms
Aberrant FGFR signaling mediates resistance to CDK4/6 inhibitors in ER+ breast cancer.
Formisano L, Lu Y, Servetto A, Hanker AB, Jansen VM, Bauer JA, Sudhan DR, Guerrero-Zotano AL, Croessmann S, Guo Y, Ericsson PG, Lee KM, Nixon MJ, Schwarz LJ, Sanders ME, Dugger TC, Cruz MR, Behdad A, Cristofanilli M, Bardia A, O'Shaughnessy J, Nagy RJ, Lanman RB, Solovieff N, He W, Miller M, Su F, Shyr Y, Mayer IA, Balko JM, Arteaga CL
(2019) Nat Commun 10: 1373
MeSH Terms: Aminopyridines, Animals, Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal, Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols, Breast Neoplasms, Circulating Tumor DNA, Cyclin D1, Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4, Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 6, Drug Resistance, Neoplasm, Female, Fulvestrant, High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing, Humans, MCF-7 Cells, Mice, Mutation, Naphthalenes, Piperazines, Progression-Free Survival, Proportional Hazards Models, Protein Kinase Inhibitors, Purines, Pyrazoles, Pyridines, Quinolines, Quinoxalines, Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 1, Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 2, Receptors, Estrogen, Signal Transduction, Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays
Show Abstract · Added April 2, 2019
Using an ORF kinome screen in MCF-7 cells treated with the CDK4/6 inhibitor ribociclib plus fulvestrant, we identified FGFR1 as a mechanism of drug resistance. FGFR1-amplified/ER+ breast cancer cells and MCF-7 cells transduced with FGFR1 were resistant to fulvestrant ± ribociclib or palbociclib. This resistance was abrogated by treatment with the FGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) lucitanib. Addition of the FGFR TKI erdafitinib to palbociclib/fulvestrant induced complete responses of FGFR1-amplified/ER+ patient-derived-xenografts. Next generation sequencing of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) in 34 patients after progression on CDK4/6 inhibitors identified FGFR1/2 amplification or activating mutations in 14/34 (41%) post-progression specimens. Finally, ctDNA from patients enrolled in MONALEESA-2, the registration trial of ribociclib, showed that patients with FGFR1 amplification exhibited a shorter progression-free survival compared to patients with wild type FGFR1. Thus, we propose breast cancers with FGFR pathway alterations should be considered for trials using combinations of ER, CDK4/6 and FGFR antagonists.
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32 MeSH Terms
The discovery of VU0652957 (VU2957, Valiglurax): SAR and DMPK challenges en route to an mGlu PAM development candidate.
Panarese JD, Engers DW, Wu YJ, Guernon JM, Chun A, Gregro AR, Bender AM, Capstick RA, Wieting JM, Bronson JJ, Macor JE, Westphal R, Soars M, Engers JE, Felts AS, Rodriguez AL, Emmitte KA, Jones CK, Blobaum AL, Conn PJ, Niswender CM, Hopkins CR, Lindsley CW
(2019) Bioorg Med Chem Lett 29: 342-346
MeSH Terms: Allosteric Regulation, Dose-Response Relationship, Drug, Drug Discovery, Heterocyclic Compounds, 2-Ring, Humans, Isoquinolines, Molecular Structure, Myotonin-Protein Kinase, Receptors, Metabotropic Glutamate, Structure-Activity Relationship
Show Abstract · Added March 3, 2020
This letter describes the first account of the chemical optimization (SAR and DMPK profiling) of a new series of mGlu positive allosteric modulators (PAMs), leading to the identification of VU0652957 (VU2957, Valiglurax), a compound profiled as a preclinical development candidate. Here, we detail the challenges faced in allosteric modulator programs (e.g., steep SAR, as well as subtle structural changes affecting overall physiochemical/DMPK properties and CNS penetration).
Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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2 Members
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MeSH Terms
Discovery of 6-(pyrimidin-5-ylmethyl)quinoline-8-carboxamide negative allosteric modulators of metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5.
Felts AS, Rodriguez AL, Morrison RD, Blobaum AL, Byers FW, Daniels JS, Niswender CM, Conn PJ, Lindsley CW, Emmitte KA
(2018) Bioorg Med Chem Lett 28: 1679-1685
MeSH Terms: Allosteric Regulation, Animals, Dose-Response Relationship, Drug, Drug Discovery, Humans, Male, Molecular Structure, Pyrimidines, Quinolines, Rats, Rats, Sprague-Dawley, Receptor, Metabotropic Glutamate 5, Structure-Activity Relationship
Show Abstract · Added March 3, 2020
Based on previous work that established fused heterocycles as viable alternatives for the picolinamide core of our lead series of mGlu negative allosteric modulators (NAMs), we designed a novel series of 6-(pyrimidin-5-ylmethyl)quinoline-8-carboxamide mGlu NAMs. These new quinoline derivatives also contained carbon linkers as replacements for the diaryl ether oxygen atom common to our previously published chemotypes. Compounds were evaluated in a cell-based functional mGlu assay, and an exemplar analog 27 was >60-fold selective versus the other seven mGlu receptors. Selected compounds were also studied in metabolic stability assays in rat and human S9 hepatic fractions and exhibited a mixture of P450- and non-P450-mediated metabolism.
Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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1 Members
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MeSH Terms
Discovery of a novel, CNS penetrant M PAM chemotype based on a 6-fluoro-4-(piperidin-1-yl)quinoline-3-carbonitrile core.
Bewley BR, Spearing PK, Weiner RL, Luscombe VB, Zhan X, Chang S, Cho HP, Rodriguez AL, Niswender CM, Conn PJ, Bridges TM, Engers DW, Lindsley CW
(2017) Bioorg Med Chem Lett 27: 4274-4279
MeSH Terms: Animals, Central Nervous System, Dose-Response Relationship, Drug, Drug Discovery, Humans, Molecular Structure, Piperidines, Quinolines, Rats, Receptor, Muscarinic M4, Structure-Activity Relationship
Show Abstract · Added March 3, 2020
This Letter details the discovery and subsequent optimization of a novel M PAM scaffold based on an 6-fluoro-4-(piperidin-1-yl)quinoline-3-carbonitrile core, which represents a distinct departure from the classical M PAM chemotypes. Optimized compounds in this series demonstrated improved M PAM potency on both human and rat M (4 to 5-fold relative to HTS hit), and displayed attractive physicochemical and DMPK profiles, including good CNS penetration (rat brain:plasma K=5.3, K=2.4; MDCK-MDR1 (P-gp) ER=1.1).
Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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1 Members
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MeSH Terms
HIF-prolyl hydroxylases as therapeutic targets in erythropoiesis and iron metabolism.
Haase VH
(2017) Hemodial Int 21 Suppl 1: S110-S124
MeSH Terms: Anemia, Barbiturates, Clinical Trials as Topic, Erythropoiesis, Erythropoietin, Glycine, Humans, Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-Proline Dioxygenases, Iron, Isoquinolines, Picolinic Acids, Prolyl-Hydroxylase Inhibitors, Renal Dialysis
Show Abstract · Added April 28, 2017
A classic response to systemic hypoxia is the increase in red blood cell production. This response is controlled by the prolyl hydroxylase domain/hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) pathway, which regulates a broad spectrum of cellular functions. The discovery of this pathway as a key regulator of erythropoiesis has led to the development of small molecules that stimulate the production of endogenous erythropoietin and enhance iron metabolism. This review provides a concise overview of the cellular and molecular mechanisms that govern HIF-induced erythropoietic responses and provides an update on clinical experience with compounds that target HIF-prolyl hydroxylases for anemia therapy.
© 2017 International Society for Hemodialysis.
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1 Members
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13 MeSH Terms
An Acquired Gatekeeper Mutation Induces Resistance to Neratinib in a Patient with HER2 Mutant-Driven Breast Cancer.
Hanker AB, Brewer MR, Sheehan JH, Koch JP, Sliwoski GR, Nagy R, Lanman R, Berger MF, Hyman DM, Solit DB, He J, Miller V, Cutler RE, Lalani AS, Cross D, Lovly CM, Meiler J, Arteaga CL
(2017) Cancer Discov 7: 575-585
MeSH Terms: Afatinib, Antineoplastic Agents, Breast Neoplasms, Cell Line, Tumor, Drug Resistance, Neoplasm, Female, Humans, Middle Aged, Mutation, Phenotype, Protein Kinase Inhibitors, Quinazolines, Quinolines, Receptor, ErbB-2
Show Abstract · Added April 8, 2017
We report a gatekeeper mutation in a patient with -mutant breast cancer with acquired resistance to neratinib. Laboratory studies suggested that is a neratinib-sensitive, gain-of-function mutation that upon dimerization with mutant HER3, also present in the breast cancer, amplifies HER2 signaling. The patient was treated with neratinib and exhibited a sustained partial response. Upon clinical progression, was detected in plasma tumor cell-free DNA. Structural modeling of this acquired mutation suggested that the increased bulk of isoleucine in HER2 reduces neratinib binding. Neratinib blocked HER2-mediated signaling and growth in cells expressing HER2 but not HER2 In contrast, afatinib and the osimertinib metabolite AZ5104 strongly suppressed HER2-induced signaling and cell growth. Acquisition of HER2 upon development of resistance to neratinib in a breast cancer with an initial activating mutation suggests is a driver mutation. HER2-mediated neratinib resistance may be overcome by other irreversible HER2 inhibitors like afatinib. We found an acquired gatekeeper mutation in a patient with -mutant breast cancer upon clinical progression on neratinib. We speculate that may arise as a secondary mutation following response to effective HER2 tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) in other cancers with -activating mutations. This resistance may be overcome by other irreversible HER2 TKIs, such as afatinib. .
©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.
1 Communities
3 Members
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14 MeSH Terms
BMP Antagonist Gremlin 2 Limits Inflammation After Myocardial Infarction.
Sanders LN, Schoenhard JA, Saleh MA, Mukherjee A, Ryzhov S, McMaster WG, Nolan K, Gumina RJ, Thompson TB, Magnuson MA, Harrison DG, Hatzopoulos AK
(2016) Circ Res 119: 434-49
MeSH Terms: Animals, Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2, Cells, Cultured, Cytokines, Endothelial Cells, Female, Humans, Inflammation, Male, Mice, Mice, 129 Strain, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Mice, Knockout, Mice, Transgenic, Myocardial Infarction, Myocytes, Cardiac, Proteins, Pyrazoles, Quinolines
Show Abstract · Added July 5, 2016
RATIONALE - We have recently shown that the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) antagonist Gremlin 2 (Grem2) is required for early cardiac development and cardiomyocyte differentiation. Our initial studies discovered that Grem2 is strongly induced in the adult heart after experimental myocardial infarction (MI). However, the function of Grem2 and BMP-signaling inhibitors after cardiac injury is currently unknown.
OBJECTIVE - To investigate the role of Grem2 during cardiac repair and assess its potential to improve ventricular function after injury.
METHODS AND RESULTS - Our data show that Grem2 is transiently induced after MI in peri-infarct area cardiomyocytes during the inflammatory phase of cardiac tissue repair. By engineering loss- (Grem2(-/-)) and gain- (TG(Grem2)) of-Grem2-function mice, we discovered that Grem2 controls the magnitude of the inflammatory response and limits infiltration of inflammatory cells in peri-infarct ventricular tissue, improving cardiac function. Excessive inflammation in Grem2(-/-) mice after MI was because of overactivation of canonical BMP signaling, as proven by the rescue of the inflammatory phenotype through administration of the canonical BMP inhibitor, DMH1. Furthermore, intraperitoneal administration of Grem2 protein in wild-type mice was sufficient to reduce inflammation after MI. Cellular analyses showed that BMP2 acts with TNFα to induce expression of proinflammatory proteins in endothelial cells and promote adhesion of leukocytes, whereas Grem2 specifically inhibits the BMP2 effect.
CONCLUSIONS - Our results indicate that Grem2 provides a molecular barrier that controls the magnitude and extent of inflammatory cell infiltration by suppressing canonical BMP signaling, thereby providing a novel mechanism for limiting the adverse effects of excessive inflammation after MI.
© 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.
2 Communities
1 Members
0 Resources
19 MeSH Terms
Lipoxin Inhibits Fungal Uptake by Macrophages and Reduces the Severity of Acute Pulmonary Infection Caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.
Ribeiro LR, Loures FV, de Araújo EF, Feriotti C, Costa TA, Serezani CH, Jancar S, Calich VL
(2015) Mediators Inflamm 2015: 852574
MeSH Terms: Acetates, Animals, Arachidonate 5-Lipoxygenase, Dinoprostone, Inflammation Mediators, Leukotriene Antagonists, Leukotriene C4, Lipoxins, Macrophages, Alveolar, Male, Mice, Mice, 129 Strain, Mice, Inbred A, Mice, Knockout, Paracoccidioides, Paracoccidioidomycosis, Quinolines, Receptors, Leukotriene, Receptors, Pattern Recognition
Show Abstract · Added May 4, 2017
Cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs) and lipoxins (LXs) are lipid mediators that control inflammation, with the former inducing and the latter inhibiting this process. Because the role played by these mediators in paracoccidioidomycosis was not investigated, we aimed to characterize the role of CysLT in the pulmonary infection developed by resistant (A/J) and susceptible (B10.A) mice. 48 h after infection, elevated levels of pulmonary LTC4 and LXA4 were produced by both mouse strains, but higher levels were found in the lungs of susceptible mice. Blocking the CysLTs receptor by MTL reduced fungal loads in B10.A, but not in A/J mice. In susceptible mice, MLT treatment led to reduced influx of PMN leukocytes, increased recruitment of monocytes, predominant synthesis of anti-inflammatory cytokines, and augmented expression of 5- and 15-lipoxygenase mRNA, suggesting a prevalent LXA4 activity. In agreement, MTL-treated macrophages showed reduced fungal burdens associated with decreased ingestion of fungal cells. Furthermore, the addition of exogenous LX reduced, and the specific blockade of the LX receptor increased the fungal loads of B10.A macrophages. This study showed for the first time that inhibition of CysLTs signaling results in less severe pulmonary paracoccidioidomycosis that occurs in parallel with elevated LX activity and reduced infection of macrophages.
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1 Members
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19 MeSH Terms
Design of 4-Oxo-1-aryl-1,4-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxamides as Selective Negative Allosteric Modulators of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor Subtype 2.
Felts AS, Rodriguez AL, Smith KA, Engers JL, Morrison RD, Byers FW, Blobaum AL, Locuson CW, Chang S, Venable DF, Niswender CM, Daniels JS, Conn PJ, Lindsley CW, Emmitte KA
(2015) J Med Chem 58: 9027-40
MeSH Terms: Animals, Central Nervous System, Drug Discovery, Mice, Protein Binding, Quinolines, Quinolones, Rats, Receptor, Muscarinic M1, Receptors, Metabotropic Glutamate, Structure-Activity Relationship
Show Abstract · Added February 18, 2016
Both orthosteric and allosteric antagonists of the group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGlus) have been used to establish a link between mGlu2/3 inhibition and a variety of CNS diseases and disorders. Though these tools typically have good selectivity for mGlu2/3 versus the remaining six members of the mGlu family, compounds that are selective for only one of the individual group II mGlus have proved elusive. Herein we report on the discovery of a potent and highly selective mGlu2 negative allosteric modulator 58 (VU6001192) from a series of 4-oxo-1-aryl-1,4-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxamides. The concept for the design of this series centered on morphing a quinoline series recently disclosed in the patent literature into a chemotype previously used for the preparation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtype 1 positive allosteric modulators. Compound 58 exhibits a favorable profile and will be a useful tool for understanding the biological implications of selective inhibition of mGlu2 in the CNS.
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2 Members
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11 MeSH Terms