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OBJECTIVE - Gastric cancer is the third leading cause of cancer death worldwide and infection by is the strongest risk factor. We have reported increased epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) phosphorylation in the -induced human carcinogenesis cascade, and association with DNA damage. Our goal was to determine the role of EGFR activation in gastric carcinogenesis.
DESIGN - We evaluated gefitinib, a specific EGFR inhibitor, in chemoprevention of -induced gastric inflammation and cancer development. Mice with genetically targeted epithelial cell-specific deletion of ( mice) were also used.
RESULTS - In C57BL/6 mice, gefitinib decreased and expression by gastric epithelial cells, myeloperoxidase-positive inflammatory cells in the mucosa and epithelial DNA damage induced by infection. Similar reductions in chemokines, inflammatory cells and DNA damage occurred in infected versus control mice. In -infected transgenic insulin-gastrin (INS-GAS) mice and gerbils, gefitinib treatment markedly reduced dysplasia and carcinoma. Gefitinib blocked ri-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase 1/3 (MAPK1/3) and activator protein 1 in gastric epithelial cells, resulting in inhibition of chemokine synthesis. MAPK1/3 phosphorylation and JUN activation was reduced in gastric tissues from infected wild-type and INS-GAS mice treated with gefitinib and in primary epithelial cells from versus mice. Epithelial EGFR activation persisted in humans and mice after eradication, and gefitinib reduced gastric carcinoma in INS-GAS mice treated with antibiotics.
CONCLUSIONS - These findings suggest that epithelial EGFR inhibition represents a potential strategy to prevent development of gastric carcinoma in -infected individuals.
Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
We report a gatekeeper mutation in a patient with -mutant breast cancer with acquired resistance to neratinib. Laboratory studies suggested that is a neratinib-sensitive, gain-of-function mutation that upon dimerization with mutant HER3, also present in the breast cancer, amplifies HER2 signaling. The patient was treated with neratinib and exhibited a sustained partial response. Upon clinical progression, was detected in plasma tumor cell-free DNA. Structural modeling of this acquired mutation suggested that the increased bulk of isoleucine in HER2 reduces neratinib binding. Neratinib blocked HER2-mediated signaling and growth in cells expressing HER2 but not HER2 In contrast, afatinib and the osimertinib metabolite AZ5104 strongly suppressed HER2-induced signaling and cell growth. Acquisition of HER2 upon development of resistance to neratinib in a breast cancer with an initial activating mutation suggests is a driver mutation. HER2-mediated neratinib resistance may be overcome by other irreversible HER2 inhibitors like afatinib. We found an acquired gatekeeper mutation in a patient with -mutant breast cancer upon clinical progression on neratinib. We speculate that may arise as a secondary mutation following response to effective HER2 tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) in other cancers with -activating mutations. This resistance may be overcome by other irreversible HER2 TKIs, such as afatinib. .
©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.
BACKGROUND - Diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) signal attenuation is often not mono-exponential (i.e. non-Gaussian diffusion) with stronger diffusion weighting. Several non-Gaussian diffusion models have been developed and may provide new information or higher sensitivity compared with the conventional apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) method. However the relative merits of these models to detect tumor therapeutic response is not fully clear.
METHODS - Conventional ADC, and three widely-used non-Gaussian models, (bi-exponential, stretched exponential, and statistical model), were implemented and compared for assessing SW620 human colon cancer xenografts responding to barasertib, an agent known to induce apoptosis via polyploidy. Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) was used for model selection among all three non-Gaussian models.
RESULTS - All of tumor volume, histology, conventional ADC, and three non-Gaussian DWI models could show significant differences between control and treatment groups after four days of treatment. However, only the non-Gaussian models detected significant changes after two days of treatment. For any treatment or control group, over 65.7% of tumor voxels indicate the bi-exponential model is strongly or very strongly preferred.
CONCLUSION - Non-Gaussian DWI model-derived biomarkers are capable of detecting tumor earlier chemotherapeutic response of tumors compared with conventional ADC and tumor volume. The bi-exponential model provides better fitting compared with statistical and stretched exponential models for the tumor and treatment models used in the current work.
Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This Letter describes the chemical optimization of a novel series of M4 positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) based on a 5,6-dimethyl-4-(piperidin-1-yl)thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidine core, identified from an MLPCN functional high-throughput screen. The HTS hit was potent and selective, but not CNS penetrant. Potency was maintained, while CNS penetration was improved (rat brain:plasma Kp=0.74), within the original core after several rounds of optimization; however, the thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidine core was subject to extensive oxidative metabolism. Ultimately, we identified a 6-fluoroquinazoline core replacement that afforded good M4 PAM potency, muscarinic receptor subtype selectivity and CNS penetration (rat brain:plasma Kp>10). Moreover, this campaign provided fundamentally distinct M4 PAM chemotypes, greatly expanding the available structural diversity for this exciting CNS target.
Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
PURPOSE - Aberrant activation of EGFR is a hallmark of glioblastoma. However, EGFR inhibitors exhibit at best modest efficacy in glioblastoma. This is in sharp contrast with the observations in EGFR-mutant lung cancer. We examined whether activation of functionally redundant receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) conferred resistance to EGFR inhibitors in glioblastoma.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN - We collected a panel of patient-derived glioblastoma xenograft (PDX) lines that maintained expression of wild-type or mutant EGFR in serial xenotransplantation and tissue cultures. Using this physiologically relevant platform, we tested the abilities of several RTK ligands to protect glioblastoma cells against an EGFR inhibitor, gefitinib. Based on the screening results, we further developed a combination therapy cotargeting EGFR and insulin receptor (InsR)/insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R).
RESULTS - Insulin and IGF1 induced significant protection against gefitinib in the majority of EGFR-dependent PDX lines with one exception that did not express InsR or IGF1R. Blockade of the InsR/IGF1R pathway synergistically improved sensitivity to gefitinib or dacomitinib. Gefitinib alone effectively attenuated EGFR activities and the downstream MEK/ERK pathway. However, repression of AKT and induction of apoptosis required concurrent inhibition of both EGFR and InsR/IGF1R. A combination of gefitinib and OSI-906, a dual InsR/IGF1R inhibitor, was more effective than either agent alone to treat subcutaneous glioblastoma xenograft tumors.
CONCLUSIONS - Our results suggest that activation of the InsR/IGF1R pathway confers resistance to EGFR inhibitors in EGFR-dependent glioblastoma through AKT regulation. Concurrent blockade of these two pathways holds promise to treat EGFR-dependent glioblastoma.
©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.
UNLABELLED - Oncogenic EGFR mutations are found in 10% to 35% of lung adenocarcinomas. Such mutations, which present most commonly as small in-frame deletions in exon 19 or point mutations in exon 21 (L858R), confer sensitivity to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI). In analyzing the tumor from a 33-year-old male never-smoker, we identified a novel EGFR alteration in lung cancer: EGFR exon 18-25 kinase domain duplication (EGFR-KDD). Through analysis of a larger cohort of tumor samples, we detected additional cases of EGFR-KDD in lung, brain, and other cancers. In vitro, EGFR-KDD is constitutively active, and computational modeling provides potential mechanistic support for its auto-activation. EGFR-KDD-transformed cells are sensitive to EGFR TKIs and, consistent with these in vitro findings, the index patient had a partial response to the EGFR TKI afatinib. The patient eventually progressed, at which time resequencing revealed an EGFR-dependent mechanism of acquired resistance to afatinib, thereby validating EGFR-KDD as a driver alteration and therapeutic target.
SIGNIFICANCE - We identified oncogenic and drug-sensitive EGFR-KDD that is recurrent in lung, brain, and soft-tissue cancers and documented that a patient with metastatic lung adenocarcinoma harboring the EGFR-KDD derived significant antitumor response from treatment with the EGFR inhibitor afatinib. Findings from these studies will be immediately translatable, as there are already several approved EGFR inhibitors in clinical use.
©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.
Approximately 25% of breast cancers overexpress and depend on the receptor tyrosine kinase ERBB2, one of 4 ERBB family members. Targeted therapies directed against ERBB2 have been developed and used clinically, but many patients continue to develop resistance to such therapies. Although much effort has been focused on elucidating the mechanisms of acquired resistance to ERBB2-targeted therapies, the involvement of ERBB4 remains elusive and controversial. We demonstrate that genetic ablation of ERBB4, but not ERBB1-3, led to apoptosis in lapatinib-resistant cells, suggesting that the efficacy of pan-ERBB inhibitors was, at least in part, mediated by the inhibition of ERBB4. Moreover, ERBB4 was upregulated at the protein level in ERBB2+ breast cancer cell lines selected for acquired lapatinib resistance in vitro and in MMTV-Neu mice following prolonged lapatinib treatment. Knockdown of ERBB4 caused a decrease in AKT phosphorylation in resistant cells but not in sensitive cells, suggesting that ERBB4 activated the PI3K/AKT pathway in lapatinib-resistant cells. Importantly, ERBB4 knockdown triggered apoptosis not only in lapatinib-resistant cells but also in trastuzumab-resistant cells. Our results suggest that although ERBB4 is dispensable for naïve ERBB2+ breast cancer cells, it may play a key role in the survival of ERBB2+ cancer cells after they develop resistance to ERBB2 inhibitors, lapatinib and trastuzumab.
PURPOSE - CUDC-101 is a small molecule that simultaneously inhibits the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), human growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), and histone deacetylase (HDAC) with preclinical activity in head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC). The primary objective of this investigation is to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of CUDC-101 with cisplatin-radiotherapy in the treatment of HNSCC.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN - CUDC-101 monotherapy was administered intravenously three times weekly (Monday, Wednesday, Friday) for a one-week run-in, then continued with concurrent cisplatin (100 mg/m(2) every 3 weeks) and external beam radiation (70 Gy to gross disease) over 7 weeks.
RESULTS - Twelve patients with intermediate or high-risk HNSCC enrolled. Eleven were p16INKa (p16)-negative. The MTD of CUDC-101-based combination therapy was established at 275 mg/m(2)/dose. Five patients discontinued CUDC-101 due to an adverse event (AE); only one was considered a dose-limiting toxicity (DLT), at the MTD. Pharmacokinetic evaluation suggested low accumulation with this dosing regimen. HDAC inhibition was demonstrated by pharmacodynamic analyses in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), tumor biopsies, and paired skin biopsies. Paired tumor biopsies demonstrated a trend of EGFR inhibition. At 1.5 years of median follow-up, there has been one recurrence and two patient deaths (neither attributed to CUDC-101). The remaining nine patients are free of progression.
CONCLUSIONS - CUDC-101, cisplatin, and radiation were feasible in intermediate-/high-risk patients with HNSCC, with no unexpected patterns of AE. Although the MTD was identified, a high rate of DLT-independent discontinuation of CUDC-101 suggests a need for alternate schedules or routes of administration.
©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.
Metastatic EGFR-mutant lung cancers are sensitive to the first- and second-generation EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) gefitinib, erlotinib, and afatinib, but resistance develops. Acquired resistance to gefitinib or erlotinib occurs most commonly (>50%) via the emergence of a second-site EGFR mutation, T790M. Two strategies to overcome T790M-mediated resistance are dual inhibition of EGFR with afatinib plus the anti-EGFR antibody cetuximab (A+C), or mutant-specific EGFR inhibition with AZD9291. A+C and AZD9291 are now also being tested as first-line therapies, but whether these therapies will extend progression-free survival or induce more aggressive forms of resistance in this setting remains unknown. We modeled resistance to multiple generations of anti-EGFR therapies preclinically to understand the effects of sequential treatment with anti-EGFR agents on drug resistance and determine the optimal order of treatment. Using a panel of erlotinib/afatinib-resistant cells, including a novel patient-derived cell line (VP-2), we found that AZD9291 was more potent than A+C at inhibiting cell growth and EGFR signaling in this setting. Four of four xenograft-derived A+C-resistant cell lines displayed in vitro and in vivo sensitivity to AZD9291, but four of four AZD9291-resistant cell lines demonstrated cross-resistance to A+C. Addition of cetuximab to AZD9291 did not confer additive benefit in any preclinical disease setting. This work, emphasizing a mechanistic understanding of the effects of therapies on tumor evolution, provides a framework for future clinical trials testing different treatment sequences. This paradigm is applicable to other tumor types in which multiple generations of inhibitors are now available.
©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.
Experiments have shown that, even in a homogeneous population of cells, the distribution of division times is highly variable. In addition, a homogeneous population of cells will exhibit a heterogeneous response to drug therapy. We present a simple stochastic model of the cell cycle as a multistep stochastic process. The model, which is based on our conception of the cell cycle checkpoint, is used to derive an analytical expression for the distribution of cell cycle times. We demonstrate that this distribution provides an accurate representation of cell cycle time variability and show how the model relates drug-induced changes in basic biological parameters to variability in response to drug treatment.
Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.