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1. 1-Chloropyrene, one of the major chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contaminants, was incubated with human cytochrome P450 (P450 or CYP) enzymes including CYP1A1, 1A2, 1B1, 2A6, 2A13, 2B6, 2C9, 2D6, 2E1, 3A4 and 3A5. Catalytic differences in 1-chloropyrene oxidation by polymorphic two CYP1B1 and five CYP2A13 allelic variants were also examined. 2. CYP1A1 oxidized 1-chloropyrene at the 6- and 8-positions more actively than at the 3-position, while both CYP1B1.1 and 1B1.3 preferentially catalyzed 6-hydroxylation. 3. Five CYP2A13 allelic variants oxidized 8-hydroxylation much more than 6- and 3-hydroxylation, and the variant CYP2A13.3 was found to slowly catalyze these reactions with a lower k value than other CYP2A13.1 variants. 4. CYP2A6 catalyzed 1-chloropyrene 6-hydroxylation at a higher rate than the CYP2A13 enzymes, but the rate was lower than the CYP1A1 and 1B1 variants. Other human P450 enzymes had low activities towards 1-chloropyrene. 5. Molecular docking analysis suggested differences in the interaction of 1-chloropyrene with active sites of CYP1 and 2 A enzymes. In addition, a naturally occurring Thr134 insertion in CYP2A13.3 was found to affect the orientation of Asn297 in the I-helix in interacting with 1-chloropyrene (and also 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone, NNK) and caused changes in the active site of CYP2A13.3 as compared with CYP2A13.1.
1. The polycyclic hydrocarbons (PAHs), pyrene, 1-hydroxypyrene, 1-nitropyrene and 1-acetylpyrene, were found to induce Type I binding spectra with human cytochrome P450 (P450) 2A13 and were converted to various mono- and di-oxygenated products by this enzyme. 2. Pyrene was first oxidized by P450 2A13 to 1-hydroxypyrene which was further oxidized to di-oxygenated products, i.e. 1,8- and 1,6-dihydroxypyrene. Of five other human P450s examined, P450 1B1 catalyzed pyrene oxidation to 1-hydroxypyrene at a similar rate to P450 2A13 but was less efficient in forming dihydroxypyrenes. P450 2A6, a related human P450 enzyme, which did not show any spectral changes with these four PAHs, showed lower activities in oxidation of these compounds than P450 2A13. 3. 1-Nitropyrene and 1-acetylpyrene were also found to be efficiently oxidized by P450 2A13 to several oxygenated products, based on mass spectrometry analysis. 4. Molecular docking analysis supported preferred orientations of pyrene and its derivatives in the active site of P450 2A13, with lower interaction energies (U values) than observed for P450 2A6 and that several amino acid residues (including Ala-301, Asn-297 and Ala-117) play important roles in directing the orientation of these PAHs in the P450 2A13 active site. In addition, Phe-231 and Gly-329 were found to interact with pyrene to orient this compound in the active site of P450 1B1. 5. These results suggest that P450 2A13 is one of the important enzymes that oxidizes these PAH compounds and may determine how these chemicals are detoxicated and bioactivated in humans.
BACKGROUND - Associations between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and colorectal cancer have been reported previously but few studies have characterized PAH exposure using biological measurements. We evaluated colorectal cancer risk in relation to urinary concentration of 1-hydroxypyrene glucuronide (1-OHPG), a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolite, and assessed determinants of PAH exposure among controls in the Shanghai Women's Health Study (SWHS).
METHODS - Concentrations of 1-OHPG were measured in spot urine samples collected from 343 colorectal cancer cases and 343 individually matched controls. Questionnaires were administered to collect information on demographic characteristics and reported exposures. Odds ratios were calculated for risk of colorectal cancer in relation to quartiles of urinary 1-OHPG concentration. Potential determinants of natural log-transformed urinary 1-OHPG concentration were evaluated among a combined sample of controls from this study and another nested case-control study in the SWHS (N(total)=652).
RESULTS - No statistically significant differences in risk of colorectal cancer by urinary 1-OHPG levels were observed. Among controls, the median (interquartile range) urinary 1-OHPG concentration was 2.01 pmol/mL (0.95-4.09). Active and passive smoking, using coal as a cooking fuel, eating foods that were cooked well done, and recent consumption of fried dough (e.g., yóutiáo) were associated with elevated levels of 1-OHPG, though only active smoking and fried dough consumption achieved statistical significance in multivariate analyses.
CONCLUSIONS - This study does not provide evidence of an association between urinary levels of 1-OHPG and risk of colorectal cancer among women. Several environmental and dietary sources of PAH exposure were identified. Overall, the levels of 1-OHPG in this population of predominantly non-smoking women were considerably higher than levels typically observed among non-smokers in Europe, North America, and other developed regions.
Fifty-one chemicals including derivatives of 16 flavonoids, three stilbenes, six pyrenes, seven naphthalenes, seven phenanthrenes, 10 biphenyls, 17beta-estradiol, and estrone were examined for their abilities to induce reverse type I binding spectra with human cytochrome P450 (P450) 1B1 and to inhibit 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation (EROD) activities catalyzed by P450 1B1. Forty-nine chemicals showed reverse type I spectra with P450 1B1, and we found that 3,5,7-trihydroxyflavone, 3',4'-dimethoxy-5,7-dihydroxyflavone, 4'-methoxy-5,7-dihydroxyflavone, alpha- and beta-naphthoflavones, 2,4,3',5'-tetramethoxystilbene, pyrene, and several acetylenic pyrenes and phenanthrenes were strong inducers of the spectra and also potent inhibitors of EROD activities catalyzed by P450 1B1. The spectral dissociation constant (K(s)) and the magnitude of the binding (DeltaA(max)/K(s)) of 49 chemicals were correlated with the inhibition potencies of EROD activities by these chemicals [correlation coefficients (r) of 0.72 and 0.74, respectively]. The K(s) and DeltaA(max)/K(s) values were more correlated with IC(50) values when compared in a group of derivatives of flavonoids, stilbenes, and estrogens (r = 0.81 and 0.88, respectively) or a group of derivatives of pyrenes, naphthalenes, phenanthrenes, and biphenyls (r = 0.88 and 0.91, respectively). Among 14 flavonoids examined, 3,5,7-trihydroxyflavone and 4'-methoxy- and 3',4'-dimethoxy-5,7-dihydroxyflavone were more active than flavone in interacting with P450 1B1, but the respective 7,8-dihydroxyflavones were less active. Pyrene itself was highly active in interacting with P450 1B1, but its binding was slightly decreased when substituted with acetylenic groups. In contrast, substitution of naphthalene with methyl and ethyl propargyl ethers led to more interaction with P450 1B1 than with naphthalene itself. Similarly, substitution on phenanthrene or biphenyl with acetylenic groups and propargyl ethers increased affinities to P450 1B1. These results suggest that the reverse type I binding of chemicals to P450 1B1 may determine how they interact with and inhibit the catalytic activity of the enzyme. Substitutions on the compounds with various acetylenic groups and propargyl ethers cause an increase or decrease of their affinities to P450 1B1, depending on the parent compound used.
Rabbit liver cytochrome P450 (P450) 1A2 was found to catalyze the 5,6-epoxidation of alpha-naphthoflavone (alphaNF), 1-hydroxylation of pyrene, and the subsequent 6-, 8-, and other hydroxylations of 1-hydroxy (OH) pyrene. Plots of steady-state rates of product formation versus substrate concentration were hyperbolic for alphaNF epoxidation but highly cooperative (Hill n coefficients of 2-4) for pyrene and 1-OH pyrene hydroxylation. When any of the three substrates (alphaNF, pyrene, 1-OH pyrene) were mixed with ferric P450 1A2 using stopped-flow methods, the changes in the heme Soret spectra were relatively slow and multiphasic. Changes in the fluorescence of all of the substrates were much faster, consistent with rapid initial binding to P450 1A2 in a manner that does not change the heme spectrum. For binding of pyrene to ferrous P450 1A2, the course of the spectra revealed sequential changes in opposite directions, consistent with P450 1A2 being involved in a series of transitions to explain the kinetic multiphasicity as opposed to multiple, slowly interconverting populations of enzyme undergoing the same event at different rates. Models of rabbit P450 1A2 based on a published crystal structure of a human P450 1A2-alphaNF complex show active site space for only one alphaNF or for two pyrenes. The spectral changes observed for binding and hydroxylation of pyrene and 1-OH pyrene could be fit to a kinetic model in which hydroxylation occurs only when two substrates are bound. Elements of this mechanism may be relevant to other cases of P450 cooperativity.
The position of the nitro group determines the relative carcinogenic activities of mono-nitropyrene isomers (mono-NPs) in the rat mammary gland. To determine whether the results obtained in rodents treated with these environmental pollutants can be applicable to humans, we examined their metabolic activation in primary cultures of human breast cells derived from reduction mammoplasty, as well as in the cultured human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 and the immortalized human mammary epithelial cell line MCF-10A. Primary cultures as well as cell lines were competent in metabolizing all three isomers via both ring oxidation and nitro reduction pathways. Qualitatively similar metabolic patterns were observed but quantitative differences were evident. On the basis of cochromatography with synthetic standards in two HPLC systems, metabolites of 1-NP were identified as 1-OH-Py, 3-, 6-, and 8-OH-1-NP and 1-AP. In the case of 2-NP, 6-OH-2-NP and 2-AP were identified. 4-NP was metabolized to 9,10-DHD-4-NP, Py-4,5-Q, 9,10-Q-4-NP, 9/10-OH-4-NP, 6/ 8-OH-4-NP, and 4-AP. Varying degrees of sulfate and glucuronide conjugation of mono-NP metabolites were detected. In MCF-7 cells, we found that 1-, 2-, and 4-NP bind to DNA at levels of 68, 17, and 132 pmol/mg DNA, respectively. Following HPLC analysis of the DNA hydrolysates, we detected multiple DNA adducts including those derived from nitro reduction of 2- and 4-NP; however, none was detected in the case of 1-NP. To determine the P450 enzymes responsible for the metabolic activation of these carcinogens, we incubated [(3)H]mono-NPs with recombinant human P450 1A1 or 1B1. Metabolites identified were primarily derived from ring oxidation; both P450s 1A1 and 1B1 yielded similar metabolic profiles. This is the first report demonstrating that human breast (target organ) cells, immortalized human mammary epithelial cell line MCF-10A, and breast cancer cell line MCF-7 are capable of activating mono-NPs to metabolites that can damage DNA.
Metabolic activation of 1-nitropyrene (1-NP) by human cytochrome P450 (P450) family 1 enzymes co-expressed with NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (NPR) in Escherichia coli membranes was investigated. 1-NP induced umu gene expression in Salmonella typhimurium TA1535/pSK1002 in the absence of any P450 system, but the activities were influenced by the levels of bacterial O-acetyltransferase (OAT) and nitroreductase. Metabolic activation of 1-NP by human P450 1B1/NPR membranes was observed and was influenced by the levels of OAT levels in tester strains. Metabolic activation of 1-NP (0.3microM) by P450 1B1 was 750 umu units/min/nmol P450 1B1 in an OAT-overexpressing strain NM2009. The metabolic activation of 1-NP (3-30microM) was similar (approximately 300 umu units/min/nmol P450 1B1) using TA1535/pSK1002 or OAT-deficient strain NM2000. P450 1B1 had the highest catalytic activities among P450 family 1 enzymes for the activation of 1-aminopyrene (1-AP) in the OAT-overexpressing strain NM2009, suggesting nitrenium ion formation via N-hydroxylation/O-acetylation. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses revealed the formation of 1-nitropyrene-6-ol and also 1-nitropyrene-3-ol, 1-nitropyrene-8-ol, and trans-4,5-dihydroxy-4,5-diol-1-nitropyrene from 1-NP (10microM), catalyzed by P450 1B1. These results indicate that 1-NP can be activated by human P450 1B1 to a genotoxic agent by nitroreduction/O-acetylation at low substrate concentrations and probably by epoxidation (independent of OAT) at high concentrations.
The genotoxicities of four samples of diesel exhaust particle (DEP) extracts (DEPE) and nine nitroarenes found in DEPE were investigated after activation catalyzed by human cytochrome P450 (P450) family 1 enzymes co-expressed with NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (NPR) in Escherichia coli membranes. The DEPE samples induced umu gene expression in Salmonella typhimurium TA1535/pSK1002 without any P450 system and were further activated by human P450 1B1/NPR membranes. Moderate activation of the DEPE sample by P450 1A2/NPR membranes was also observed, but not by either P450 1A1/NPR or NPR membranes. 1-Nitropyrene (1-NP) was strongly activated by human P450 1B1/NPR membranes. 1,8-Dinitropyrene (1,8-DNP) was most highly activated by P450 1A1 and 1B1 systems for the three DNPs tested. In contrast, 1, 3-DNP was inactivated by P450 1A1/NPR, 1A2/NPR, and 1B1/NPR systems and slightly activated by NPR membranes. 2-Nitrofluoranthene (2-NF) and 3-nitrofluoranthene (3-NF) showed activities similar to 1-NP after bioactivation by P450 1B1/NPR membranes. However, the genotoxicities of 6-nitrochrysene, 7-nitrobenz[a]anthracene, and 6-nitrobenzo[a]pyrene were all weak in the present assay system. Apparent genotoxic activities of DEPE were very low compared with standard nitroarenes in the presence of P450s, possibly because unknown component(s) of DEPE had inhibitory effects on the bioactivation of 1-NP and 1,8-DNP catalyzed by human P450 1B1. These results suggest that environmental chemicals existing in airborne DEP, in addition to 1-NP, 1,6-DNP, 1,8-DNP, 2-NF, and 3-NF, can be activated by human P450 1B1. Biological actions of air pollutants such as nitroarenes to human extrahepatic tissues may be of concern in tissues in which P450 1B1 is expressed.
The mutagenic actions of many chemicals depend on the activities of bacterial "mutagenesis proteins", which allow replicative bypass of DNA lesions. Genes encoding these proteins occur on bacterial chromosomes and plasmids, often in the form of an operon (such as umuDC or mucAB) encoding two proteins. Many bacterial strains used in mutagenicity testing carry mutagenesis protein genes borne on plasmids, such as pKM101. Our objective was to introduce mutagenesis protein function into Escherichia coli strain DJ4309. This strain expresses recombinant human cytochrome P450 1A2 and NADPH-P450 reductase and carries out the metabolic conversion of aromatic and heterocyclic amines into DNA-reactive mutagens. We discovered that many mutagenesis-protein plasmids severely inhibit the response of strain DJ4309 to 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimid-azo[4,5-f]quinoline (MeIQ), a typical heterocyclic amine mutagen. Among many plasmids examined, one, pGY8294, a pSC101 derivative carrying the umuDC operon, did not inhibit MeIQ mutagenesis. Strain DJ4309 pGY8294 expresses active mutagenesis proteins, as shown by its response to mutagens such as 1-nitropyrene and 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4-NQO), and is as sensitive as the parent strain DJ4309 to P450-dependent mutagens, such as MeIQ and 1-aminopyrene.
Cytochrome P450 (P450) 1A2 provides an interesting paradigm for inter-individual differences in the metabolism of pro-carcinogens. The enzyme is known to vary 40-fold among individuals and may contribute to cancers caused by heterocyclic amines and other chemicals. Rat and human P450 1A2 are known to be 75% identical and were compared for several catalytic activities. The human enzyme was an order of magnitude more efficient in the N-hydroxylation of two heterocyclic amines. Further, the levels of P450 1A2 expressed in human livers show a 40-fold variation, with some as high as 0.25 nmol P450 1A2 per milligram microsomal protein. Some human liver samples are more active (than those isolated from polychlorinated biphenyl-treated rats) in the activation of heterocyclic amines. A bacterial genotoxicity assay has been developed in which human P450 1A2 and NADPH-P450 reductase are expressed within Escherichia coli and bacterial mutants can be assayed using reversion to lac prototrophy. A random mutagenesis strategy for human P450 1A2 has been developed and used to examine the changes in catalytic activity seen with many single-amino acid substitutions. These results may be of relevance in consideration of genetic polymorphisms. Further, the findings pose a challenge to molecular epidemiology effort in that results with one substrate do not necessarily predict those for others. Some dinitropyrenes are P450 1A2 substrates but others are not. 6-Nitrochrysene can be activated by human P450 1A2 but the (mono) nitropyrenes examined were not; these were oxidized by P450 3A4 instead.