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BACKGROUND - Low lung function is known to predict mortality in the general population, but the prognostic significance of emphysema on computed tomography (CT) in persons without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is uncertain.
OBJECTIVE - To determine whether greater emphysema-like lung on CT is associated with all-cause mortality among persons in the general population without airflow obstruction or COPD.
DESIGN - Prospective cohort study.
SETTING - Population-based, multiethnic sample from 6 U.S. communities.
PARTICIPANTS - 2965 participants aged 45 to 84 years without airflow obstruction on spirometry.
MEASUREMENTS - Emphysema-like lung was defined as the number of lung voxels with attenuation less than -950 Hounsfield units on cardiac CT and was adjusted for the number of total imaged lung voxels.
RESULTS - Among 2965 participants, 50.9% of whom had never smoked, there were 186 deaths over a median of 6.2 years. Greater emphysema-like lung was independently associated with increased mortality (adjusted hazard ratio per one-half interquartile range, 1.14 [95% CI, 1.04 to 1.24]; P=0.004) after adjustment for potential confounders, including cardiovascular risk factors and FEV1. Generalized additive models supported a linear association between emphysema-like lung and mortality without evidence for a threshold. The association was of greatest magnitude among smokers, although multiplicative interaction terms did not support effect modification by smoking status.
LIMITATIONS - Cardiac CT scans did not include lung apices. The number of deaths was limited among subgroup analyses.
CONCLUSION - Emphysema-like lung on CT was associated with all-cause mortality among persons without airflow obstruction or COPD in a general population sample, particularly among smokers. Recognition of the independent prognostic significance of emphysema on CT among patients without COPD on spirometry is warranted.
PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.
BACKGROUND/AIMS - Rehabilitation of the bilaterally paralyzed human larynx remains a complex clinical problem. Conventional treatment generally involves surgical enlargement of the compromised airway, but often with resultant dysphonia and risk of aspiration. In this retrospective study, we compared one such treatment, posterior cordotomy, with unilateral laryngeal pacing: reanimation of vocal fold opening by functional electrical stimulation of the posterior cricoarytenoid muscle.
METHODS - Postoperative peak inspiratory flow (PIF) values and overall voice grade ratings were compared between the two surgical groups, and pre- and postoperative PIF were compared within the pacing group.
RESULTS - There were 5 patients in the unilateral pacing group and 12 patients in the unilateral cordotomy group. Within the pacing group, postoperative PIF values were significantly improved from preoperative PIF values (p = 0.04) without a significant effect on voice (grade; p = 0.62). Within the pacing group, the mean postoperative PIF value was significantly higher than that in the cordotomy group (p = 0.05). Also, the mean postoperative overall voice grade values in the pacing group were significantly lower (better) than those of the cordotomy group (p = 0.03).
CONCLUSION - Unilateral pacing appears to be an effective treatment superior to posterior cordotomy with respect to postoperative ventilation and voice outcome measures.
Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Andean high-altitude (HA) natives have a low (blunted) hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR), lower effective alveolar ventilation, and lower ventilation (VE) at rest and during exercise compared with acclimatized newcomers to HA. Despite blunted chemosensitivity and hypoventilation, Andeans maintain comparable arterial O(2) saturation (Sa(O(2))). This study was designed to evaluate the influence of ancestry on these trait differences. At sea level, we measured the HVR in both acute (HVR-A) and sustained (HVR-S) hypoxia in a sample of 32 male Peruvians of mainly Quechua and Spanish origins who were born and raised at sea level. We also measured resting and exercise VE after 10-12 h of exposure to altitude at 4,338 m. Native American ancestry proportion (NAAP) was assessed for each individual using a panel of 80 ancestry-informative molecular markers (AIMs). NAAP was inversely related to HVR-S after 10 min of isocapnic hypoxia (r = -0.36, P = 0.04) but was not associated with HVR-A. In addition, NAAP was inversely related to exercise VE (r = -0.50, P = 0.005) and ventilatory equivalent (VE/Vo(2), r = -0.51, P = 0.004) measured at 4,338 m. Thus Quechua ancestry may partly explain the well-known blunted HVR (10, 35, 36, 57, 62) at least to sustained hypoxia, and the relative exercise hypoventilation at altitude of Andeans compared with European controls. Lower HVR-S and exercise VE could reflect improved gas exchange and/or attenuated chemoreflex sensitivity with increasing NAAP. On the basis of these ancestry associations and on the fact that developmental effects were completely controlled by study design, we suggest both a genetic basis and an evolutionary origin for these traits in Quechua.
Chronically hypoxic humans and some mammals have attenuated ventilatory responses, which have been associated with high dopamine level in carotid bodies. Alveolar hypoventilation and blunted ventilatory response have been recognized to be at the basis of Chronic Mountain Sickness by generating arterial hypoxemia and polycythemia. To investigate whether dopamine antagonism could decrease the hemoglobin concentration by stimulating resting ventilation (VE) and/or hypoxic ventilatory response, 18 chronically hypoxic rats (5 weeks, PB=433 Torr) were studied with and without domperidone treatment (a peripheral dopamine antagonist). Acute and prolonged treatment significantly increased poikilocapnic ventilatory response to hypoxia (RVE ml/min/kg=VE at 0.1 FI(O(2))-VE at 0.21 FI(O(2))), from 506+/-36 to 697+/-48; and from 394+/-37 to 660+/-81, respectively. In addition, Domperidone treatment decreased hemoglobin concentration from 21.6+/-0.29 to 18.9+/-0.19 (P<0.01) in rats chronically exposed to hypobaric hypoxia. Our study suggests that the stimulant effect of D(2)-R blockade on ventilatory response to hypoxia seems to compensate the low hypoxic peripheral chemosensitivity after chronic exposure and the latter in turn decrease hemoglobin concentration.
A liquid flow visualization technique was used to identify the location of neutrally buoyant bead clouds injected into airway models during flows simulating high frequency intermittent jet ventilation (HFIJV) in neonatal lungs. The motions of these bead clouds show that the convective or bulk mixing that occurs during HFIJV is made up of two parts; a turbulent convective exchange with the atmosphere caused by the jet in the trachea and a streaming motion along the airways driven by an interaction between the jet and the expansion and contraction of the airways due to their compliance. These convective streaming motions combine with molecular diffusion to produce augmented diffusion which transports O2 and CO2 between the trachea and the peripheral alveoli. Optimizing HFIJV (as well as other forms of HFV) depends on maximizing these airway convective streaming flows which depend on many more lung and fluid mechanical parameters than are necessary to describe conventional mechanical ventilation.
The mechanics of gas flow in endotracheal (ET) tubes have been evaluated extensively in vitro under static and dynamic conditions. Previous bedside determinations of respiratory system mechanics in patients with acute respiratory failure have been based on assumptions derived from in vitro measurements without direct measurement of in vivo ET tube resistance (RET). We hypothesized that the RET measured in vivo would be greater than those values obtained in vitro when peak flow rates and ET tube size were held constant. We measured airflow, volume (pneumotachograph), esophageal pressure (nasogastric-esophageal balloon), and airway pressure (airway catheter) in 10 patients intubated with no. 8.0 orotracheal tubes. We also studied the static and dynamic flow-pressure relationships for five different sizes of ET tubes in vitro (artificial lung) (6.0, 7.0, 7.5, 8.0, and 8.5). The static and dynamic values of RET and the Rohrer coefficients of linear and nonlinear resistance (K1 and K2) were similar to values previously reported in the literature. Although there was considerable individual variation, values of RET measured in vivo were generally higher than those derived from in vitro measurements at both peak flow rates tested, perhaps because of secretions, head or neck position, tube deformation, or increased turbulence. We conclude that ET tubes contribute significantly to total airflow resistance and that RET is often significantly greater than indicated by in vitro studies. Estimates of work of breathing in critically ill patients must take into consideration the contribution of in vivo RET on total pulmonary system resistance.
To gain a better understanding of the adverse pulmonary response to amphotericin B administration reported in humans, we examined the effects of this agent in the chronically instrumented awake sheep. We measured pulmonary artery and left atrial pressures (Ppa and Pla), lung lymph flow (Qlymph), dynamic lung compliance (Cdyn), resistance to airflow across the lung (RL), lymph thromboxane B2 (TxB2), lymph 6-keto-PGF1 alpha, peripheral leukocyte counts, and arterial blood gases. After at least one hour of stable baseline (BL) observation, amphotericin B (Fungizone, Squibb, 1 mg/kg) was infused intravenously over 1 h. Measurements were continued for 3 h after the start of infusion. Amphotericin caused an immediate decrease in Cdyn nadiring at 55 percent of BL and an increase in Ppa from 21 +/- 1 mm Hg at BL to 44 +/- 4 at 30 minutes. RL increased to 5.5-fold over BL by 30 minutes into infusion, and lung lymph TxB2 concentrations were increased tenfold compared with BL by the end of the 1-h infusion (p less than 0.05). In this same time interval, there were increases in Qlymph (1.5 ml/15 min at BL to 4.9 +/- 0.8), but 6-keto-PGF1 alpha concentrations did not reach maximum until 2 h after the start of infusion. There was a decrease in peripheral leukocyte count and PaO2 (80 +/- 3 mm Hg at BL to 69 +/- 4 at 1 h) that returned to BL over the remaining 2 h. The temporal relationship of the TxB2 peak with these pathophysiologic changes and previous data describing the effects of thromboxane in the sheep lung suggest that a component of these alterations is due to thromboxane release. We conclude that several pulmonary system abnormalities occur following amphotericin infusion in sheep and that these findings provide a better physiologic basis for explaining the human pulmonary response to amphotericin.
Amphotericin therapy in humans has been reported to cause severe pulmonary dysfunction in some patients, and these abnormalities have been reproduced in unanesthetized sheep. To determine the role of cyclooxygenase products in this response, paired, random-order experiments in 11 sheep were done using the cyclooxygenase inhibitor ibuprofen. Ibuprofen blunted increases in pulmonary artery pressure (Ppa) after amphotericin (peak Ppa 38 +/- 3 cm H2O in amphotericin-alone group vs. 30 +/- 1 cm H2O in ibuprofen + amphotericin group, P less than .05) and reduced peak lung lymph flow to approximately 170% of baseline compared with 350% of baseline in amphotericin-alone group (P less than .05). In addition, the increase in airflow resistance across the lung and the decrease in partial pressure of oxygen seen after amphotericin was blocked by ibuprofen. Therefore, amphotericin-induced lung dysfunction is produced in part through the generation of cyclooxygenase products of arachidonic acid metabolism and can be ameliorated by pretreatment with the cyclooxygenase inhibitor ibuprofen.