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Internal representation of hierarchical sequences involves the default network.
Rogers BP, Avery SN, Heckers S
(2010) BMC Neurosci 11: 54
MeSH Terms: Association Learning, Brain Mapping, Cognition, Executive Function, Frontal Lobe, Humans, Image Processing, Computer-Assisted, Judgment, Logic, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Mental Processes, Nerve Net, Neural Pathways, Neuropsychological Tests, Parietal Lobe, Psychophysiology, Task Performance and Analysis
Show Abstract · Added February 12, 2015
BACKGROUND - The default network is a set of brain regions that exhibit a reduction in BOLD response during attention-demanding cognitive tasks, and distinctive patterns of functional connectivity that typically include anti-correlations with a fronto-parietal network involved in attention, working memory, and executive control. The function of the default network regions has been attributed to introspection, self-awareness, and theory of mind judgments, and some of its regions are involved in episodic memory processes.
RESULTS - Using the method of psycho-physiological interactions, we studied the functional connectivity of several regions in a fronto-parietal network involved in a paired image discrimination task involving transitive inference. Some image pairs were derived from an implicit underlying sequence A>B>C>D>E, and some were independent (F>G, H>J, etc). Functional connectivity between the fronto-parietal regions and the default network regions depended on the presence of the underlying sequence relating the images. When subjects viewed learned and novel pairs from the sequence, connectivity between these two networks was higher than when subjects viewed learned and novel pairs from the independent sets.
CONCLUSIONS - These results suggest that default network regions were involved in maintaining the internal model that subserved discrimination of image pairs derived from the implicit sequence, and contributed to introspective access of an internal sequence model built during training. The default network may not be a unified entity with a specific function, but rather may interact with other functional networks in task-dependent ways.
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17 MeSH Terms
Trait anger management style moderates effects of actual ("state") anger regulation on symptom-specific reactivity and recovery among chronic low back pain patients.
Burns JW, Holly A, Quartana P, Wolff B, Gray E, Bruehl S
(2008) Psychosom Med 70: 898-905
MeSH Terms: Adaptation, Psychological, Adult, Affect, Anger, Arousal, Blood Pressure, Character, Electromyography, Female, Heart Rate, Humans, Inhibition (Psychology), Low Back Pain, Male, Middle Aged, Muscle Tonus, Problem Solving, Psychophysiology, Reinforcement (Psychology), Semantics, Social Environment, Thematic Apperception Test, Verbal Behavior
Show Abstract · Added March 5, 2014
OBJECTIVES - We examined whether "state" anger regulation-inhibition or expression-among chronic low back pain (CLBP) patients would affect lower paraspinal (LP) muscle tension following anger-induction, and whether these effects were moderated by trait anger management style.
METHOD - Eighty-four CLBP patients underwent harassment, then they regulated anger under one of two conditions: half expressed anger by telling stories about people depicted in pictures, whereas half inhibited anger by only describing objects appearing in the same pictures. They completed the anger-out and anger-in subscales (AOS; AIS) of the anger expression inventory.
RESULTS - General Linear Model procedures were used to test anger regulation condition by AOS/AIS by period interactions for physiological indexes. Significant three-way interactions were found such that: a) high trait anger-out patients in the inhibition condition appeared to show the greatest LP reactivity during the inhibition period followed by the slowest recovery; b) high trait anger-out patients in the expression condition appeared to show the greatest systolic blood pressure (SBP) reactivity during the expression period followed by rapid recovery.
CONCLUSIONS - Results implicate LP muscle tension as a potential physiological mechanism that links the actual inhibition of anger following provocation to chronic pain severity among CLBP patients. Results also highlight the importance of mismatch situations for patients who typically regulate anger by expressing it. These CLBP patients may be at particular risk for elevated pain severity if circumstances at work or home regularly dictate that they should inhibit anger expression.
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23 MeSH Terms
Examining pain-related distress in relation to pain intensity and psychological distress.
Wells N, Ridner SH
(2008) Res Nurs Health 31: 52-62
MeSH Terms: Adaptation, Psychological, Affect, Arousal, Attitude to Health, Discriminant Analysis, Factor Analysis, Statistical, Humans, Mental Processes, Models, Biological, Models, Psychological, Nurse's Role, Nursing Assessment, Pain, Pain Measurement, Psychophysiology, Risk Factors, Severity of Illness Index, Stress, Psychological, Surveys and Questionnaires
Show Abstract · Added March 13, 2014
Despite frequent use of the term symptom distress in the pain literature, symptom distress is often confused with symptom intensity and psychological distress, contributing to inadequate assessment of symptoms and less than ideal symptom management. In this article we address these issues and propose a hybrid model, combining Price's interaction of pain sensation, pain unpleasantness, and secondary pain affect model with an information processing model. Recommendations on methods and techniques to reduce this confusion would assist healthcare professionals and researchers to better distinguish among these terms as they manage patient symptoms and design symptom management studies. Thus, the purpose of this article is to examine the terms symptom distress, symptom intensity, and psychological distress using pain as the example symptom.
(c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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19 MeSH Terms
Anger expression and pain: an overview of findings and possible mechanisms.
Bruehl S, Chung OY, Burns JW
(2006) J Behav Med 29: 593-606
MeSH Terms: Acute Disease, Anger, Chronic Disease, Expressed Emotion, Humans, Models, Biological, Opioid Peptides, Pain, Personality, Psychophysiology, Sex Factors
Show Abstract · Added March 5, 2014
A tendency to manage anger via direct expression (anger-out) is increasingly recognized as influencing responses to pain. Elevated trait anger-out is associated with increased responsiveness to acute experimental and clinical pain stimuli, and is generally related to elevated chronic pain intensity in individuals with diverse pain conditions. Possible mechanisms for these links are explored, including negative affect, psychodynamics, central adipose tissue, symptom specific muscle reactivity, endogenous opioid dysfunction, and genetics. The opioid dysfunction hypothesis has some experimental support, and simultaneously can account for anger-out's effects on both acute and chronic pain. Factors which may moderate the anger-out/pain link are described, including narcotic use, gender, and genetic polymorphisms. Pain exacerbating effects of trait anger-out are contrasted with the apparent pain inhibitory effects of behavioral anger expression exhibited in anger-provoking contexts. Conceptual issues related to the state versus trait effects of expressive anger regulation are discussed.
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11 MeSH Terms
Anger management style, opioid analgesic use, and chronic pain severity: a test of the opioid-deficit hypothesis.
Burns JW, Bruehl S
(2005) J Behav Med 28: 555-63
MeSH Terms: Adaptation, Psychological, Adult, Analgesics, Opioid, Anger, Case-Control Studies, Chronic Disease, Female, Humans, Male, Multivariate Analysis, Opioid Peptides, Pain, Psychological Theory, Psychophysiology, Regression Analysis
Show Abstract · Added March 5, 2014
Anger management style is related to both acute and chronic pain. Recent research suggests that individuals who predominantly express anger (anger-out) may report heightened chronic pain severity due in part to endogenous opioid antinociceptive dysfunction. If exogenous opioids serve to remediate opioid deficits, we predicted that regular use of opioid analgesics by chronic pain patients would alter these relationships such that anger-out would be related to chronic pain severity only among opioid-free patients. For 136 chronic pain patients, anger management style, depression, anxiety, pain severity, and use of opioid and antidepressant medication was assessed. Results of hierarchical multiple regressions to predict chronic pain severity showed: (a) a significant Anger-out x Opioid use interaction such that high Anger-out was associated with high pain severity only among patients not taking opioids; (b) controlling for depressed affect and anxiety did not affect this association; (c) the Anger-out x Antidepressant use interaction was nonsignificant; (d) Anger-in did not interact with use of any medication to affect pain severity. Results are consistent with an opioid-deficit hypothesis and suggest that regular use of opioid medications by patients high in anger expression may compensate for an endogenous opioid deficit, and mitigate the effects of elevated anger expression on chronic pain intensity.
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15 MeSH Terms
[Long-term monitoring of psychophysiologic values in flight physiology].
Samel A, Diedrich A, Drescher J, Lorenz B, Plath G, Vejvoda M, Wenzel J
(1997) Internist (Berl) 38: 755-69
MeSH Terms: Aircraft, Arousal, Circadian Rhythm, Documentation, Equipment Design, Humans, Monitoring, Physiologic, Occupational Diseases, Polysomnography, Psychophysiology, Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted, Work Schedule Tolerance, Workload
Added October 14, 2016
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13 MeSH Terms