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Results: 1 to 10 of 23

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Psychiatry's Obligation to Treat and Mitigate the Rising Burden of Age-Related Mental Disorders.
Taylor WD, Reynolds CF
(2020) JAMA Psychiatry 77: 5-6
MeSH Terms: Age Factors, Aged, Cost of Illness, Humans, Mental Disorders, Psychiatry, Social Responsibility, United States
Added March 3, 2020
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8 MeSH Terms
Impact of substance use disorder on gray matter volume in schizophrenia.
Quinn M, McHugo M, Armstrong K, Woodward N, Blackford J, Heckers S
(2018) Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging 280: 9-14
MeSH Terms: Adolescent, Adult, Amygdala, Cerebral Cortex, Diagnosis, Dual (Psychiatry), Female, Frontal Lobe, Gray Matter, Humans, Image Processing, Computer-Assisted, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Male, Occipital Lobe, Organ Size, Schizophrenia, Schizophrenic Psychology, Substance-Related Disorders, Young Adult
Show Abstract · Added March 26, 2019
Substance use may confound the study of brain structure in schizophrenia. We used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to examine whether differences in regional gray matter volumes exist between schizophrenia patients with (n = 92) and without (n = 66) clinically significant cannabis and/or alcohol use histories compared to 88 healthy control subjects. Relative to controls, patients with schizophrenia had reduced gray matter volume in the bilateral precentral gyrus, right medial frontal cortex, right visual cortex, right occipital pole, right thalamus, bilateral amygdala, and bilateral cerebellum regardless of substance use history. Within these regions, we found no volume differences between patients with schizophrenia and a history of cannabis and/or alcohol compared to patients with schizophrenia without a clinically significant substance use history. Our data support the idea that a clinically meaningful history of alcohol or cannabis use does not significantly compound the gray matter deficits associated with schizophrenia.
Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.
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18 MeSH Terms
Project for a Scientific Psychiatry: Neuroscience Literacy.
Heckers S
(2017) JAMA Psychiatry 74: 315
MeSH Terms: Curriculum, Forecasting, Humans, Internship and Residency, Literacy, Neurosciences, Psychiatry, United States
Added March 30, 2020
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MeSH Terms
Biological Aging and the Future of Geriatric Psychiatry.
Rutherford BR, Taylor WD, Brown PJ, Sneed JR, Roose SP
(2017) J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 72: 343-352
MeSH Terms: Aged, Aging, Biomedical Research, Depression, Forecasting, Geriatric Psychiatry, Humans, Resilience, Psychological
Show Abstract · Added April 6, 2017
Advances in understanding the biological bases of aging have intellectually revitalized the field of geriatric psychiatry and broadened its scope to include promoting successful aging and studying resilience factors in older adults. To describe the process by which this paradigm shift has occurred and illustrate its implications for treatment and research of late-life brain disorders, late-life depression is discussed as a prototype case. Prior phases of geriatric psychiatry research were focused on achieving depressive symptom relief, outlining pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic differences between older and younger adults, and identifying moderators of treatment response. Building on this work, current geriatric psychiatry researchers have begun to disentangle the etiologic complexity in late-life depression by focusing on the causative aging-related processes involved, identifying both neurobiological and behavioral intermediates, and finally delineating depression subtypes that are distinguishable by their underlying biology and the treatment approach required. In this review, we discuss several age-related processes that are critical to the development of late-life mood disorders, outline implications of these processes for the clinical evaluation and management of later-life psychiatric disorders, and finally put forth suggestions for better integrating aging and developmental processes into the National Institute of Mental Health's Research Domain Criteria.
© The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
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8 MeSH Terms
Should antidepressant medication be used in the elderly?
Taylor WD
(2015) Expert Rev Neurother 15: 961-3
MeSH Terms: Aged, Antidepressive Agents, Depression, Geriatric Psychiatry, Humans, Psychotherapy
Show Abstract · Added April 6, 2017
Late-life depression is a serious illness accompanied by medical morbidity, cognitive decline and risk of suicide. Antidepressant medications are a cornerstone of treatment for depressed elders. Although they are optimally provided in conjunction with psychotherapy, in many cases they are used alone. Recently, concern has developed over modern antidepressant medication, including concerns about their ultimate efficacy and particular risks that may be seen in older adult populations. Ultimately, antidepressant medications are effective for many individuals and continue to play an important role in treating depressed elders, although the potential risks must be weighed with the patient and their families. Current data do not support restriction of their use and untreated depression has serious negative health consequences. Patients need treatments with better efficacy and safety, including new pharmacological options and better access to and dissemination of nonpharmacological treatment.
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6 MeSH Terms
Wayne Katon, MD.
Heckers S
(2015) JAMA Psychiatry 72: 621
MeSH Terms: History, 20th Century, History, 21st Century, Mental Health Services, Patient Care, Psychiatry, Washington
Added February 22, 2016
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6 MeSH Terms
The tradition and future of JAMA Psychiatry.
Heckers S
(2015) JAMA Psychiatry 72: 3-4
MeSH Terms: Forecasting, Humans, Patient Care Management, Psychiatry, Publishing, Research
Added February 12, 2015
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6 MeSH Terms
Future in psychopathology research.
Heckers S
(2014) Schizophr Bull 40 Suppl 2: S147-51
MeSH Terms: Biomedical Research, Forecasting, Humans, Psychiatry, Psychological Theory, Psychopathology, Time Factors
Show Abstract · Added February 12, 2015
Psychopathology research has focused either on the analysis of the mental state in the here and now or on the synthesis of mental status abnormalities with biological markers and outcome data. These two schools of psychopathology, the analytic and the synthetic, make contrasting assumptions, take different approaches, and pursue divergent goals. Analytic psychopathology favors the individual person and unique biography, whereas synthetic psychopathology abstracts from the single case and generalizes to the population level. The dimension of time, especially the prediction of future outcomes, is viewed differently by these two schools. Here I outline how Carpenter's proposal of strong inference and theory testing in psychopathology research can be used to test the value of analytic and synthetic psychopathology. The emerging field of personalized psychiatry can clarify the relevance of psychopathology for contemporary research in psychiatry.
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7 MeSH Terms
The evaluation of sexual harassment litigants: reducing discrepancies in the diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder.
Lawson AK, Wright CV, Fitzgerald LF
(2013) Law Hum Behav 37: 337-347
MeSH Terms: Adaptation, Psychological, Adult, Female, Forensic Psychiatry, Humans, Psychiatric Status Rating Scales, Reproducibility of Results, Retrospective Studies, Severity of Illness Index, Sexual Harassment, Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic, Washington, Young Adult
Show Abstract · Added March 20, 2014
Relatively few targets of sexual harassment cope with the psychological sequelae of their experiences by engaging in litigation. Those who do are often subjected to forensic examination to evaluate their history of psychological distress or disorder and to determine whether such a condition could be reasonably attributed to the alleged harassment, as opposed to some other cause. An unbiased approach to such examinations is critical to all parties, as well as to the profession itself. This study investigates the relationship between the clinical and restructured clinical scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2, the Trauma Symptom Inventory subscales, the Crime-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (CR-PTSD) scale, and an American Psychiatric Association diagnosis (APA, Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders; DSM-IV-TR; 4th ed., text rev., 2000, Washington, DC, Author) of PTSD in a sample of sexual harassment plaintiffs. All measures performed well independently, but together provided improved predictive accuracy, suggesting that the use of multiple validated measures as well as structured diagnostic interviews may help us better understand litigants' experiences and reduce bias in evaluations.
PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved
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13 MeSH Terms
Identification of neural targets for the treatment of psychiatric disorders: the role of functional neuroimaging.
Vago DR, Epstein J, Catenaccio E, Stern E
(2011) Neurosurg Clin N Am 22: 279-305, x
MeSH Terms: Brain Chemistry, History, 18th Century, History, 19th Century, History, 20th Century, History, Ancient, Humans, Mental Disorders, Models, Neurological, Nerve Net, Nervous System, Neurology, Neuropsychiatry, Neurosurgery, Neurosurgical Procedures, Phrenology, Psychosurgery
Show Abstract · Added January 4, 2020
Neurosurgical treatment of psychiatric disorders has been influenced by evolving neurobiological models of symptom generation. The advent of functional neuroimaging and advances in the neurosciences have revolutionized understanding of the functional neuroanatomy of psychiatric disorders. This article reviews neuroimaging studies of depression from the last 3 decades and describes an emerging neurocircuitry model of mood disorders, focusing on critical circuits of cognition and emotion, particularly those networks involved in the regulation of evaluative, expressive and experiential aspects of emotion. The relevance of this model for neurotherapeutics is discussed, as well as the role of functional neuroimaging of psychiatric disorders.
Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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