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Bcl-2 family proteins reorganize mitochondrial membranes during apoptosis, to form pores and rearrange cristae. In vitro and in vivo analysis integrated with human genetics reveals a novel homeostatic mitochondrial function for Bcl-2 family protein Bid. Loss of full-length Bid results in apoptosis-independent, irregular cristae with decreased respiration. mice display stress-induced myocardial dysfunction and damage. A gene-based approach applied to a biobank, validated in two independent GWAS studies, reveals that decreased genetically determined BID expression associates with myocardial infarction (MI) susceptibility. Patients in the bottom 5% of the expression distribution exhibit >4 fold increased MI risk. Carrier status with nonsynonymous variation in Bid's membrane binding domain, Bid, associates with MI predisposition. Furthermore, Bid but not Bid associates with Mcl-1, previously implicated in cristae stability; decreased MCL-1 expression associates with MI. Our results identify a role for Bid in homeostatic mitochondrial cristae reorganization, that we link to human cardiac disease.
© 2018, Salisbury-Ruf et al.
Hyperkalemia in association with metabolic acidosis that are out of proportion to changes in glomerular filtration rate defines type 4 renal tubular acidosis (RTA), the most common RTA observed, but the molecular mechanisms underlying the associated metabolic acidosis are incompletely understood. We sought to determine whether hyperkalemia directly causes metabolic acidosis and, if so, the mechanisms through which this occurs. We studied a genetic model of hyperkalemia that results from early distal convoluted tubule (DCT)-specific overexpression of constitutively active Ste20/SPS1-related proline-alanine-rich kinase (DCT-CA-SPAK). DCT-CA-SPAK mice developed hyperkalemia in association with metabolic acidosis and suppressed ammonia excretion; however, titratable acid excretion and urine pH were unchanged compared with those in wild-type mice. Abnormal ammonia excretion in DCT-CA-SPAK mice associated with decreased proximal tubule expression of the ammonia-generating enzymes phosphate-dependent glutaminase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and overexpression of the ammonia-recycling enzyme glutamine synthetase. These mice also had decreased expression of the ammonia transporter family member Rhcg and decreased apical polarization of H-ATPase in the inner stripe of the outer medullary collecting duct. Correcting the hyperkalemia by treatment with hydrochlorothiazide corrected the metabolic acidosis, increased ammonia excretion, and normalized ammoniagenic enzyme and Rhcg expression in DCT-CA-SPAK mice. In wild-type mice, induction of hyperkalemia by administration of the epithelial sodium channel blocker benzamil caused hyperkalemia and suppressed ammonia excretion. Hyperkalemia decreases proximal tubule ammonia generation and collecting duct ammonia transport, leading to impaired ammonia excretion that causes metabolic acidosis.
Copyright © 2018 by the American Society of Nephrology.
Sorting of plasma membrane proteins into exocytic vesicles at the yeast trans-Golgi network (TGN) is believed to be mediated by their coalescence with specific lipids, but how these membrane-remodeling events are regulated is poorly understood. Here we show that the ATP-dependent phospholipid flippase Drs2 is required for efficient segregation of cargo into exocytic vesicles. The plasma membrane proteins Pma1 and Can1 are missorted from the TGN to the vacuole in drs2∆ cells. We also used a combination of flippase mutants that either gain or lose the ability to flip phosphatidylserine (PS) to determine that PS flip by Drs2 is its critical function in this sorting event. The primary role of PS flip at the TGN appears to be to control the oxysterol-binding protein homologue Kes1/Osh4 and regulate ergosterol subcellular distribution. Deletion of KES1 suppresses plasma membrane-missorting defects and the accumulation of intracellular ergosterol in drs2 mutants. We propose that PS flip is part of a homeostatic mechanism that controls sterol loading and lateral segregation of protein and lipid domains at the TGN.
© 2015 Hankins et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).
We analyzed two West African samples (Guinea-Bissau: n=289 cases and 322 controls; The Gambia: n=240 cases and 248 controls) to evaluate single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Epiregulin (EREG) and V-ATPase (T-cell immune regulator 1 (TCIRG1)) using single and multilocus analyses to determine whether previously described associations with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in Vietnamese and Italians would replicate in African populations. We did not detect any significant single locus or haplotype associations in either sample. We also performed exploratory pairwise interaction analyses using Visualization of Statistical Epistasis Networks (ViSEN), a novel method to detect only interactions among multiple variables, to elucidate possible interaction effects between SNPs and demographic factors. Although we found no strong evidence of marginal effects, there were several significant pairwise interactions that were identified in either the Guinea-Bissau or the Gambian samples, two of which replicated across populations. Our results indicate that the effects of EREG and TCIRG1 variants on PTB susceptibility, to the extent that they exist, are dependent on gene-gene interactions in West African populations as detected with ViSEN. In addition, epistatic effects are likely to be influenced by inter- and intra-population differences in genetic or environmental context and/or the mycobacterial lineages causing disease.
AIMS - Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthase uses chemiosmotic energy across the inner mitochondrial membrane to convert adenosine diphosphate and orthophosphate into ATP, whereas genetic deletion of Sirt3 decreases mitochondrial ATP levels. Here, we investigate the mechanistic connection between SIRT3 and energy homeostasis.
RESULTS - By using both in vitro and in vivo experiments, we demonstrate that ATP synthase F1 proteins alpha, beta, gamma, and Oligomycin sensitivity-conferring protein (OSCP) contain SIRT3-specific reversible acetyl-lysines that are evolutionarily conserved and bind to SIRT3. OSCP was further investigated and lysine 139 is a nutrient-sensitive SIRT3-dependent deacetylation target. Site directed mutants demonstrate that OSCP(K139) directs, at least in part, mitochondrial ATP production and mice lacking Sirt3 exhibit decreased ATP muscle levels, increased ATP synthase protein acetylation, and an exercise-induced stress-deficient phenotype.
INNOVATION - This work connects the aging and nutrient response, via SIRT3 direction of the mitochondrial acetylome, to the regulation of mitochondrial energy homeostasis under nutrient-stress conditions by deacetylating ATP synthase proteins.
CONCLUSION - Our data suggest that acetylome signaling contributes to mitochondrial energy homeostasis by SIRT3-mediated deacetylation of ATP synthase proteins.
Presenilins 1 and 2 (PS1 and PS2) are the catalytic subunits of the γ-secretase complex, and genes encoding mutant PS1 and PS2 variants cause familial forms of Alzheimer's disease. Lee et al. (2010) recently reported that loss of PS1 activity lead to impairments in autophagosomal function as a consequence of lysosomal alkalinization, caused by failed maturation of the proton translocating V0a1 subunit of the vacuolar (H+)-ATPase and targeting to the lysosome. We have reexamined these issues in mammalian cells and in brains of mice lacking PS (PScdko) and have been unable to find evidence that the turnover of autophagic substrates, vesicle pH, V0a1 maturation, or lysosome function is altered compared with wild-type counterparts. Collectively, our studies fail to document a role for presenilins in regulating cellular autophagosomal function. On the other hand, our transcriptome studies of PScdko mouse brains reveal, for the first time, a role for PS in regulating lysosomal biogenesis.
BACKGROUND - Spinocerebellar ataxia syndromes presenting in adulthood have a broad range of causes, and despite extensive investigation remain undiagnosed in up to ∼50% cases. Mutations in the mitochondrially encoded MTATP6 gene typically cause infantile-onset Leigh syndrome and, occasionally, have onset later in childhood. The authors report two families with onset of ataxia in adulthood (with pyramidal dysfunction and/or peripheral neuropathy variably present), who are clinically indistinguishable from other spinocerebellar ataxia patients.
METHODS - Genetic screening study of the MTATP6 gene in 64 pedigrees with unexplained ataxia, and case series of two families who had MTATP6 mutations.
RESULTS - Three pedigrees had mutations in MTATP6, two of which have not been reported previously and are detailed in this report. These families had the m.9185T>C and m.9035T>C mutations, respectively, which have not previously been associated with adult-onset cerebellar syndromes. Other investigations including muscle biopsy and respiratory chain enzyme activity were non-specific or normal.
CONCLUSIONS - MTATP6 sequencing should be considered in the workup of undiagnosed ataxia, even if other investigations do not suggest a mitochondrial DNA disorder.
Mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (SOD2) prevents accumulation of the superoxide that arises as a consequence of oxidative phosphorylation. However, SOD2 is a target of oxidative/nitrosative inactivation, and reduced SOD2 activity has been demonstrated to contribute to portal hypertensive gastropathy. We investigated the consequences of gastric parietal cell-specific SOD2 deficiency on mitochondrial function and gastric injury susceptibility. Mice expressing Cre recombinase under control of the parietal cell Atpase4b gene promoter were crossed with mice harboring loxP sequences flanking the sod2 gene (SOD2 floxed mice). Cre-positive mice and Cre-negative littermates (controls) were used in studies of SOD2 expression, parietal cell function (ATP synthesis, acid secretion, and mitochondrial enzymatic activity), increased oxidative/nitrosative stress, and gastric susceptibility to acute injury. Parietal cell SOD2 deficiency was accompanied by a 20% (P < 0.05) reduction in total gastric SOD activity and a 93% (P < 0.001) reduction in gastric SOD2 activity. In SOD2-deficient mice, mitochondrial aconitase and ATP synthase activities were impaired by 36% (P < 0.0001) and 44% (P < 0.005), respectively. Gastric tissue ATP content was reduced by 34% (P < 0.002). Basal acid secretion and peak secretagogue (histamine)-induced acid secretion were reduced by 43% (P < 0.0001) and 40% (P < 0.0005), respectively. There was a fourfold (P < 0.02) increase in gastric mucosal apoptosis and 41% (P < 0.001) greater alcohol-induced gastric damage in the parietal cell SOD2-deficient mice. Our findings indicate that loss of parietal cell SOD2 leads to mitochondrial dysfunction, resulting in perturbed energy metabolism, impaired parietal cell function, and increased gastric mucosal oxidative stress. These alterations render the gastric mucosa significantly more susceptible to acute injury.
The complex formed by two members of the S100 calcium-binding protein family, S100A8/A9, exerts apoptosis-inducing activity in various cells of different origins. Here, we present evidence that the underlying molecular mechanisms involve both programmed cell death I (PCD I, apoptosis) and PCD II (autophagy)-like death. Treatment of cells with S100A8/A9 caused the increase of Beclin-1 expression as well as Atg12-Atg5 formation. S100A8/A9-induced cell death was partially inhibited by the specific PI3-kinase class III inhibitor, 3-methyladenine (3-MA), and by the vacuole H(+)-ATPase inhibitor, bafilomycin-A1 (Baf-A1). S100A8/A9 provoked the translocation of BNIP3, a BH3 only pro-apoptotic Bcl2 family member, to mitochondria. Consistent with this finding, DeltaTM-BNIP3 overexpression partially inhibited S100A8/A9-induced cell death, decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and partially protected against the decrease in mitochondrial transmembrane potential in S100A8/A9-treated cells. In addition, either DeltaTM-BNIP3 overexpression or N-acetyl-L-cysteine co-treatment decreased lysosomal activation in cells treated with S100A8/A9. Our data indicate that S100A8/A9-promoted cell death occurs through the cross-talk of mitochondria and lysosomes via ROS and the process involves BNIP3.
Endosome trafficking and function require acidification by the vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase). Electrogenic proton (H+) transport reduces the pH and creates a net positive charge in the endosomal lumen. Concomitant chloride (Cl-) influx has been proposed to occur via ClC Cl-=H+ exchangers. This maintains charge balance and drives Cl- accumulation, which may itself be critical to endosome function. Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in response to cytokines occurs within specialized endosomes that form in response to receptor occupation. ROS production requires an NADPH oxidase (Nox) and the ClC-3 Cl-=H+ exchanger. Like the V-ATPase, Nox activity is highly electrogenic, but separates charge with an opposite polarity (lumen negative). Here we review established paradigms of early endosomal ion transport focusing on the relation between the V-ATPase and ClC proteins. Electrophysiologic constraints on Nox-mediated vesicular ROS production are then considered. The potential for ClC-3 to participate in charge neutralization of both proton (V-ATPase) and electron (Nox) transport is discussed. It is proposed that uncompensated charge separation generated by Nox enzymatic activity could be used to drive secondary transport into negatively charged vesicles. Further experimentation will be necessary to establish firmly the biochemistry and functional implications of endosomal ROS production.