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All nephrons in the mammalian kidney arise from a transient nephron progenitor population that is lost close to the time of birth. The generation of new nephron progenitors and their maintenance in culture are central to the success of kidney regenerative strategies. Using a lentiviral screening approach, we previously generated a human induced nephron progenitor-like state in vitro using a pool of six transcription factors. Here, we sought to develop a more efficient approach for direct reprogramming of human cells that could be applied in vivo. PiggyBac transposons are a non-viral integrating gene delivery system that is suitable for in vivo use and allows for simultaneous delivery of multiple genes. Using an inducible piggyBac transposon system, we optimized a protocol for the direct reprogramming of HK2 cells to induced nephron progenitor-like cells with expression of only 3 transcription factors (SNAI2, EYA1, and SIX1). Culture in conditions supportive of the nephron progenitor state further increased the expression of nephron progenitor genes. The refined protocol was then applied to primary human renal epithelial cells, which integrated into developing nephron structures in vitro and in vivo. Such inducible reprogramming to nephron progenitor-like cells could facilitate direct cellular reprogramming for kidney regeneration.
Copyright © 2019 International Society of Nephrology. All rights reserved.
Renal vascular development is a coordinated process that requires ordered endothelial cell proliferation, migration, intercellular adhesion, and morphogenesis. In recent decades, studies have defined the pivotal role of endothelial receptor tyrosine kinases (RPTKs) in the development and maintenance of renal vasculature. However, the expression and the role of receptor tyrosine phosphatases (RPTPs) in renal endothelium are poorly understood, though coupled and counterbalancing roles of RPTKs and RPTPs are well defined in other systems. In this study, we evaluated the promoter activity and immunolocalization of two endothelial RPTPs, VE-PTP and PTPμ, in developing and adult renal vasculature using the heterozygous LacZ knock-in mice and specific antibodies. In adult kidneys, both VE-PTP and PTPμ were expressed in the endothelium of arterial, glomerular, and medullary vessels, while their expression was highly limited in peritubular capillaries and venous endothelium. VE-PTP and PTPμ promoter activity was also observed in medullary tubular segments in adult kidneys. In embryonic (E12.5, E13.5, E15.5, E17.5) and postnatal (P0, P3, P7) kidneys, these RPTPs were expressed in ingrowing renal arteries, developing glomerular microvasculature (as early as the S-shaped stage), and medullary vessels. Their expression became more evident as the vasculatures matured. Peritubular capillary expression of VE-PTP was also noted in embryonic and postnatal kidneys. Compared to VE-PTP, PTPμ immunoreactivity was relatively limited in embryonic and neonatal renal vasculature and evident immunoreactivity was observed from the P3 stage. These findings indicate 1) VE-PTP and PTPμ are expressed in endothelium of arterial, glomerular, and medullary renal vasculature, 2) their expression increases as renal vascular development proceeds, suggesting that these RPTPs play a role in maturation and maintenance of these vasculatures, and 3) peritubular capillary VE-PTP expression is down-regulated in adult kidneys, suggesting a role of VE-PTP in the development of peritubular capillaries.
Genome-wide association studies have identified >50 common variants associated with kidney function, but these variants do not fully explain the variation in eGFR. We performed a two-stage meta-analysis of associations between genotypes from the Illumina exome array and eGFR on the basis of serum creatinine (eGFRcrea) among participants of European ancestry from the CKDGen Consortium (: 111,666; : 48,343). In single-variant analyses, we identified single nucleotide polymorphisms at seven new loci associated with eGFRcrea (, , and ; <3.7×10), of which most were common and annotated as nonsynonymous variants. Gene-based analysis identified associations of functional rare variants in three genes with eGFRcrea, including a novel association with the SOS Ras/Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor 2 gene, (=5.4×10 by sequence kernel association test). Experimental follow-up in zebrafish embryos revealed changes in glomerular gene expression and renal tubule morphology in the embryonic kidney of and -knockdowns. These developmental abnormalities associated with altered blood clearance rate and heightened prevalence of edema. This study expands the number of loci associated with kidney function and identifies novel genes with potential roles in kidney formation.
Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.
CD148 is a transmembrane protein tyrosine phosphatase that is expressed in multiple cell types, including vascular endothelial cells and duct epithelial cells. Previous studies have shown a prominent role of CD148 to reduce growth factor signals and suppress cell proliferation and transformation. Further, we have recently shown that thrombospondin-1 (TSP1) serves as a functionally important ligand for CD148. TSP1 has multiple structural elements and interacts with various cell surface receptors that exhibit differing effects. In order to create the CD148-specific TSP1 fragment, here we investigated the CD148-interacting region in TSP1 using a series of TSP1 fragments and biochemical and biological assays. Our results demonstrate that: 1) CD148 binds to the 1st type 1 repeat in TSP1; 2) Trimeric TSP1 fragments that contain the 1st type repeat inhibit cell proliferation in A431D cells that stably express wild-type CD148 (A431D/CD148wt cells), while they show no effects in A431D cells that lack CD148 or express a catalytically inactive form of CD148. The anti-proliferative effect of the TSP1 fragment in A431D/CD148wt cells was largely abolished by CD148 knockdown and antagonized by the 1st, but not the 2nd and 3rd, type 1 repeat fragment. Furthermore, the trimeric TSP1 fragments containing the 1st type repeat increased the catalytic activity of CD148 and reduced phospho-tyrosine contents of EGFR and ERK1/2, defined CD148 substrates. These effects were not observed in the TSP1 fragments that lack the 1st type 1 repeat. Last, we demonstrate that the trimeric TSP1 fragment containing the 1st type 1 repeat inhibits endothelial cell proliferation in culture and angiogenesis in vivo. These effects were largely abolished by CD148 knockdown or deficiency. Collectively, these findings indicate that the 1st type 1 repeat interacts with CD148, reducing growth factor signals and inhibiting epithelial or endothelial cell proliferation and angiogenesis.
Human height is associated with risk of multiple diseases and is profoundly determined by an individual's genetic makeup and shows a high degree of ethnic heterogeneity. Large-scale genome-wide association (GWA) analyses of adult height in Europeans have identified nearly 180 genetic loci. A recent study showed high replicability of results from Europeans-based GWA studies in Asians; however, population-specific loci may exist due to distinct linkage disequilibrium patterns. We carried out a GWA meta-analysis in 93 926 individuals from East Asia. We identified 98 loci, including 17 novel and 81 previously reported loci, associated with height at P < 5 × 10(-8), together explaining 8.89% of phenotypic variance. Among the newly identified variants, 10 are commonly distributed (minor allele frequency, MAF > 5%) in Europeans, with comparable frequencies with in Asians, and 7 single-nucleotide polymorphisms are with low frequency (MAF < 5%) in Europeans. In addition, our data suggest that novel biological pathway such as the protein tyrosine phosphatase family is involved in regulation of height. The findings from this study considerably expand our knowledge of the genetic architecture of human height in Asians.
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CD148 is a transmembrane tyrosine phosphatase that is expressed at cell junctions. Recent studies have shown that CD148 associates with the cadherin/catenin complex and p120 catenin (p120) may serve as a substrate. However, the role of CD148 in cadherin cell-cell adhesion remains unknown. Therefore, here we addressed this issue using a series of stable cells and cell-based assays. Wild-type (WT) and catalytically inactive (CS) CD148 were introduced to A431D (lacking classical cadherins), A431D/E-cadherin WT (expressing wild-type E-cadherin), and A431D/E-cadherin 764AAA (expressing p120-uncoupled E-cadherin mutant) cells. The effects of CD148 in cadherin adhesion were assessed by Ca2+ switch and cell aggregation assays. Phosphorylation of E-cadherin/catenin complex and Rho family GTPase activities were also examined. Although CD148 introduction did not alter the expression levels and complex formation of E-cadherin, p120, and β-catenin, CD148 WT, but not CS, promoted cadherin contacts and strengthened cell-cell adhesion in A431D/E-cadherin WT cells. This effect was accompanied by an increase in Rac1, but not RhoA and Cdc42, activity and largely diminished by Rac1 inhibition. Further, we demonstrate that CD148 reduces the tyrosine phosphorylation of p120 and β-catenin; causes the dephosphorylation of Y529 suppressive tyrosine residue in Src, a well-known CD148 site, increasing Src activity and enhancing the phosphorylation of Y228 (a Src kinase site) in p120, in E-cadherin contacts. Consistent with these findings, CD148 dephosphorylated both p120 and β-catenin in vitro. The shRNA-mediated CD148 knockdown in A431 cells showed opposite effects. CD148 showed no effects in A431D and A431D/E-cadherin 764AAA cells. In aggregate, these findings provide the first evidence that CD148 promotes E-cadherin adhesion by regulating Rac1 activity concomitant with modulation of p120, β-catenin, and Src tyrosine phosphorylation. This effect requires E-cadherin and p120 association.
Receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase sigma (RPTPσ) regulates neuronal extension and acts as a presynaptic nexus for multiple protein and proteoglycan interactions during synaptogenesis. Unknown mechanisms govern the shift in RPTPσ function, from outgrowth promotion to synaptic organization. Here, we report crystallographic, electron microscopic and small-angle X-ray scattering analyses, which reveal sufficient inter-domain flexibility in the RPTPσ extracellular region for interaction with both cis (same cell) and trans (opposite cell) ligands. Crystal structures of RPTPσ bound to its postsynaptic ligand TrkC detail an interaction surface partially overlapping the glycosaminoglycan-binding site. Accordingly, heparan sulphate and heparin oligomers compete with TrkC for RPTPσ binding in vitro and disrupt TrkC-dependent synaptic differentiation in neuronal co-culture assays. We propose that transient RPTPσ ectodomain emergence from the presynaptic proteoglycan layer allows capture by TrkC to form a trans-synaptic complex, the consequent reduction in RPTPσ flexibility potentiating interactions with additional ligands to orchestrate excitatory synapse formation.
Sensitive and specific biomarkers of protein kinase inhibition can be leveraged to accelerate drug development studies in oncology by associating early molecular responses with target inhibition. In this study, we utilized unbiased shotgun phosphotyrosine (pY) proteomics to discover novel biomarkers of response to dasatinib, a small molecule Src-selective inhibitor, in preclinical models of colorectal cancer (CRC). We performed unbiased mass spectrometry shotgun pY proteomics to reveal the pY proteome of cultured HCT-116 colonic carcinoma cells, and then extended this analysis to HCT-116 xenograft tumors to identify pY biomarkers of dasatinib-responsiveness in vivo. Major dasatinib-responsive pY sites in xenograft tumors included sites on delta-type protein kinase C (PKCδ), CUB-domain-containing protein 1 (CDCP1), Type-II SH2-domain-containing inositol 5-phosphatase (SHIP2), and receptor protein-tyrosine phosphatase alpha (RPTPα). The pY313 site PKCδ was further supported as a relevant biomarker of dasatinib-mediated Src inhibition in HCT-116 xenografts by immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting with a phosphospecific antibody. Reduction of PKCδ pY313 was further correlated with dasatinib-mediated inhibition of Src and diminished growth as spheroids of a panel of human CRC cell lines. These studies reveal PKCδ pY313 as a promising readout of Src inhibition in CRC and potentially other solid tumors and may reflect responsiveness to dasatinib in a subset of colorectal cancers.
The conserved family of Cdc14 phosphatases targets cyclin-dependent kinase substrates in yeast, mediating late mitotic signaling events. To discover substrates and regulators of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe Cdc14 phosphatase Clp1, TAP-tagged Clp1, and a substrate trapping mutant (Clp1-C286S) were purified from asynchronous and mitotic (prometaphase and anaphase) cells and binding partners were identified by 2D-LC-MS/MS. Over 100 Clp1-interacting proteins were consistently identified, over 70 of these were enriched in Clp1-C286S-TAP (potential substrates) and we and others detected Cdk1 phosphorylation sites in over half (44/73) of these potential substrates. According to GO annotations, Clp1-interacting proteins are involved in many essential cellular processes including mitosis, cytokinesis, ribosome biogenesis, transcription, and trafficking among others. We confirmed association and dephosphorylation of multiple candidate substrates, including a key scaffolding component of the septation initiation network called Cdc11, an essential kinase of the conserved morphogenesis-related NDR kinase network named Shk1, and multiple Mlu1-binding factor transcriptional regulators. In addition, we identified Sal3, a nuclear β-importin, as the sole karyopherin required for Clp1 nucleoplasmic shuttling, a key mode of Cdc14 phosphatase regulation. Finally, a handful of proteins were more abundant in wild type Clp1-TAP versus Clp1-C286S-TAP, suggesting that they may directly regulate Clp1 signaling or serve as scaffolding platforms to localize Clp1 activity.
Although phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate (PtdIns5P) is present in many cell types and its biogenesis is increased by diverse stimuli, its precise cellular function remains elusive. Here we show that PtdIns5P levels increase when cells are stimulated to move and we find PtdIns5P to promote cell migration in tissue culture and in a Drosophila in vivo model. First, class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, which produces PtdIns3P, was shown to be involved in migration of fibroblasts. In a cell migration screen for proteins containing PtdIns3P-binding motifs, we identified the phosphoinositide 5-kinase PIKfyve and the phosphoinositide 3-phosphatase MTMR3, which together constitute a phosphoinositide loop that produces PtdIns5P via PtdIns(3,5)P(2). The ability of PtdIns5P to stimulate cell migration was demonstrated directly with exogenous PtdIns5P and a PtdIns5P-producing bacterial enzyme. Thus, the identified phosphoinositide loop defines a new role for PtdIns5P in cell migration.