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Annexin proteins function as Ca-dependent regulators of membrane trafficking and repair that may also modulate membrane curvature. Here, using high-resolution confocal imaging, we report that the intestine-specific annexin A13 (ANX A13) localizes to the tips of intestinal microvilli and determined the crystal structure of the ANX A13a isoform to 2.6 Å resolution. The structure revealed that the N terminus exhibits an alternative fold that converts the first two helices and the associated helix-loop-helix motif into a continuous α-helix, as stabilized by a domain-swapped dimer. We also found that the dimer is present in solution and partially occludes the membrane-binding surfaces of annexin, suggesting that dimerization may function as a means for regulating membrane binding. Accordingly, as revealed by binding and cellular localization assays, ANX A13a variants that favor a monomeric state exhibited increased membrane association relative to variants that favor the dimeric form. Together, our findings support a mechanism for how the association of the ANX A13a isoform with the membrane is regulated.
© 2019 McCulloch et al.
A unique aspect of arrestin-3 is its ability to support both receptor-dependent and receptor-independent signaling. Here, we show that inositol hexakisphosphate (IP) is a non-receptor activator of arrestin-3 and report the structure of IP-activated arrestin-3 at 2.4-Å resolution. IP-activated arrestin-3 exhibits an inter-domain twist and a displaced C-tail, hallmarks of active arrestin. IP binds to the arrestin phosphate sensor, and is stabilized by trimerization. Analysis of the trimerization surface, which is also the receptor-binding surface, suggests a feature called the finger loop as a key region of the activation sensor. We show that finger loop helicity and flexibility may underlie coupling to hundreds of diverse receptors and also promote arrestin-3 activation by IP. Importantly, we show that effector-binding sites on arrestins have distinct conformations in the basal and activated states, acting as switch regions. These switch regions may work with the inter-domain twist to initiate and direct arrestin-mediated signaling.
Antibodies are the principal immune effectors that mediate protection against reinfection following viral infection or vaccination. Robust techniques for human mAb isolation have been developed in the last decade. The study of human mAbs isolated from subjects with prior immunity has become a mainstay for rational structure-based, next-generation vaccine development. The plethora of detailed molecular and genetic studies coupling the structure of antigen-antibody complexes with their antiviral function has begun to reveal common principles of critical interactions on which we can build better vaccines and therapeutic antibodies. This review outlines the approaches to isolating and studying human antiviral mAbs and discusses the common principles underlying the basis for their activity. This review also examines progress toward the goal of achieving a comprehensive understanding of the chemical and physical basis for molecular recognition of viral surface proteins in order to build predictive molecular models that can be used for vaccine design.
Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
While the HIV-1-glycan shield is known to shelter Env from the humoral immune response, its quantitative impact on antibody elicitation has been unclear. Here, we use targeted deglycosylation to measure the impact of the glycan shield on elicitation of antibodies against the CD4 supersite. We engineered diverse Env trimers with select glycans removed proximal to the CD4 supersite, characterized their structures and glycosylation, and immunized guinea pigs and rhesus macaques. Immunizations yielded little neutralization against wild-type viruses but potent CD4-supersite neutralization (titers 1: >1,000,000 against four-glycan-deleted autologous viruses with over 90% breadth against four-glycan-deleted heterologous strains exhibiting tier 2 neutralization character). To a first approximation, the immunogenicity of the glycan-shielded protein surface was negligible, with Env-elicited neutralization (ID) proportional to the exponential of the protein-surface area accessible to antibody. Based on these high titers and exponential relationship, we propose site-selective deglycosylated trimers as priming immunogens to increase the frequency of site-targeting antibodies.
Published by Elsevier Inc.
Unconventional myosin 7a (Myo7a), myosin 7b (Myo7b), and myosin 15a (Myo15a) all contain MyTH4-FERM domains (myosin tail homology 4-band 4.1, ezrin, radixin, moesin; MF) in their cargo binding tails and are essential for the growth and function of microvilli and stereocilia. Numerous mutations have been identified in the MyTH4-FERM tandems of these myosins in patients suffering visual and hearing impairment. Although a number of MF domain binding partners have been identified, the molecular basis of interactions with the C-terminal MF domain (CMF) of these myosins remains poorly understood. Here we report the high-resolution crystal structure of Myo7b CMF in complex with the extended PDZ3 domain of USH1C (a.k.a., Harmonin), revealing a previously uncharacterized interaction mode both for MyTH4-FERM tandems and for PDZ domains. We predicted, based on the structure of the Myo7b CMF/USH1C PDZ3 complex, and verified that Myo7a CMF also binds to USH1C PDZ3 using a similar mode. The structure of the Myo7b CMF/USH1C PDZ complex provides mechanistic explanations for >20 deafness-causing mutations in Myo7a CMF. Taken together, these findings suggest that binding to PDZ domains, such as those from USH1C, PDZD7, and Whirlin, is a common property of CMFs of Myo7a, Myo7b, and Myo15a.
Zinc is vastly present in the mammalian brain and controls functions of various cell surface receptors to regulate neurotransmission. A distinctive characteristic of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors containing a GluN2A subunit is that their ion channel activity is allosterically inhibited by a nano-molar concentration of zinc that binds to an extracellular domain called an amino-terminal domain (ATD). Despite physiological importance, the molecular mechanism underlying the high-affinity zinc inhibition has been incomplete because of the lack of a GluN2A ATD structure. Here we show the first crystal structures of the heterodimeric GluN1-GluN2A ATD, which provide the complete map of the high-affinity zinc-binding site and reveal distinctive features from the ATD of the GluN1-GluN2B subtype. Perturbation of hydrogen bond networks at the hinge of the GluN2A bi-lobe structure affects both zinc inhibition and open probability, supporting the general model in which the bi-lobe motion in ATD regulates the channel activity in NMDA receptors.
Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
One of the goals of HIV-1 vaccine development is the elicitation of neutralizing antibodies against vulnerable regions on the envelope glycoprotein (Env) viral spike. Broadly neutralizing antibodies targeting the Env glycan-V3 region (also called the N332 glycan supersite) have been described previously, with several single lineages each derived from different individual donors. We used a high-throughput B-cell culture method to isolate neutralizing antibodies from an HIV-1-infected donor with high serum neutralization breadth. Clonal relatives from three distinct antibody lineages were isolated. Each of these antibody lineages displayed modest breadth and potency but shared several characteristics with the well-characterized glycan-V3 antibodies, including dependence on glycans N332 and N301, VH4 family gene utilization, a heavy chain complementarity-determining region 2 (CDRH2) insertion, and a longer-than-average CDRH3. In contrast to previously described glycan-V3 antibodies, these antibodies preferentially recognized the native Env trimer compared to monomeric gp120. These data indicate the diversity of antibody specificities that target the glycan-V3 site. The quaternary binding preference of these antibodies suggests that that their elicitation likely requires the presentation of a native-like trimeric Env immunogen.
IMPORTANCE - Broadly neutralizing antibodies targeting the HIV-1 glycan-V3 region with single lineages from individual donors have been described previously. Here we describe three lineages from a single donor, each of which targets glycan-V3. Unlike previously described glycan-V3 antibodies, these mature antibodies bind preferentially to the native Env trimer and weakly to the gp120 monomer. These data extend our knowledge of the immune response recognition of the N332 supersite region and suggest that the mode of epitope recognition is more complex than previously anticipated.
Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
Dengue virus (DENV) infects ~400 million people annually. There is no licensed vaccine or therapeutic drug. Only a small fraction of the total DENV-specific antibodies in a naturally occurring dengue infection consists of highly neutralizing antibodies. Here we show that the DENV-specific human monoclonal antibody 5J7 is exceptionally potent, neutralizing 50% of virus at nanogram-range antibody concentration. The 9 Å resolution cryo-electron microscopy structure of the Fab 5J7-DENV complex shows that a single Fab molecule binds across three envelope proteins and engages three functionally important domains, each from a different envelope protein. These domains are critical for receptor binding and fusion to the endosomal membrane. The ability to bind to multiple domains allows the antibody to fully coat the virus surface with only 60 copies of Fab, that is, half the amount compared with other potent antibodies. Our study reveals a highly efficient and unusual mechanism of molecular recognition by an antibody.
Many Gram-negative bacteria use Type Three Secretion Systems (T3SS) to deliver effector proteins into host cells. These protein delivery machines are composed of cytosolic components that recognize substrates and generate the force needed for translocation, the secretion conduit, formed by a needle complex and associated membrane spanning basal body, and translocators that form the pore in the target cell. A defined order of secretion in which needle component proteins are secreted first, followed by translocators, and finally effectors, is necessary for this system to be effective. While the secreted effectors vary significantly between organisms, the ∼20 individual protein components that form the T3SS are conserved in many pathogenic bacteria. One such conserved protein, referred to as either a plug or gatekeeper, is necessary to prevent unregulated effector release and to allow efficient translocator secretion. The mechanism by which translocator secretion is promoted while effector release is inhibited by gatekeepers is unknown. We present the structure of the Chlamydial gatekeeper, CopN, bound to a translocator-specific chaperone. The structure identifies a previously unknown interface between gatekeepers and translocator chaperones and reveals that in the gatekeeper-chaperone complex the canonical translocator-binding groove is free to bind translocators. Structure-based mutagenesis of the homologous complex in Shigella reveals that the gatekeeper-chaperone-translocator complex is essential for translocator secretion and for the ordered secretion of translocators prior to effectors.
Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure is a major risk factor for age-related cataract, a protein-aggregation disease of the human lens often involving the major proteins of the lens, the crystallins. γD-Crystallin (HγD-Crys) is abundant in the nucleus of the human lens, and its folding and aggregation have been extensively studied. Previous work showed that HγD-Crys photoaggregates in vitro upon exposure to UVA/UVB light and that its conserved tryptophans are not required for aggregation. Surprisingly, the tryptophan residues play a photoprotective role because of a distinctive energy-transfer mechanism. HγD-Crys also contains 14 tyrosine residues, 12 of which are organized as six pairs. We investigated the role of the tyrosines of HγD-Crys by replacing pairs with alanines and monitoring photoaggregation using light scattering and SDS-PAGE. Mutating both tyrosines in the Y16/Y28 pair to alanine slowed the formation of light-scattering aggregates. Further mutant studies implicated Y16 as important for photoaggregation. Mass spectrometry revealed that C18, in contact with Y16, is heavily oxidized during UVR exposure. Analysis of multiple mutant proteins by mass spectrometry suggested that Y16 and C18 likely participate in the same photochemical process. The data suggest an initial photoaggregation pathway for HγD-Crys in which excited-state Y16 interacts with C18, initiating radical polymerization.