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Normal Saline solutions cause endothelial dysfunction through loss of membrane integrity, ATP release, and inflammatory responses mediated by P2X7R/p38 MAPK/MK2 signaling pathways.
Cheung-Flynn J, Alvis BD, Hocking KM, Guth CM, Luo W, McCallister R, Chadalavada K, Polcz M, Komalavilas P, Brophy CM
(2019) PLoS One 14: e0220893
MeSH Terms: Adenosine Triphosphate, Animals, Aorta, Cell Membrane, Endothelial Cells, Humans, Inflammation, Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins, Phosphorylation, Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases, Rats, Receptors, Purinergic P2X7, Saline Solution, Saphenous Vein, Signal Transduction, Swine, p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
Show Abstract · Added March 3, 2020
Resuscitation with 0.9% Normal Saline (NS), a non-buffered acidic solution, leads to increased morbidity and mortality in the critically ill. The goal of this study was to determine the molecular mechanisms of endothelial injury after exposure to NS. The hypothesis of this investigation is that exposure of endothelium to NS would lead to loss of cell membrane integrity, resulting in release of ATP, activation of the purinergic receptor (P2X7R), and subsequent activation of stress activated signaling pathways and inflammation. Human saphenous vein endothelial cells (HSVEC) incubated in NS, but not buffered electrolyte solution (Plasma-Lyte, PL), exhibited abnormal morphology and increased release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and decreased transendothelial resistance (TEER), suggesting loss of membrane integrity. Incubation of intact rat aorta (RA) or human saphenous vein in NS but not PL led to impaired endothelial-dependent relaxation which was ameliorated by apyrase (hydrolyzes ATP) or SB203580 (p38 MAPK inhibitor). Exposure of HSVEC to NS but not PL led to activation of p38 MAPK and its downstream substrate, MAPKAP kinase 2 (MK2). Treatment of HSVEC with exogenous ATP led to interleukin 1β (IL-1β) release and increased vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM) expression. Treatment of RA with IL-1β led to impaired endothelial relaxation. IL-1β treatment of HSVEC led to increases in p38 MAPK and MK2 phosphorylation, and increased levels of arginase II. Incubation of porcine saphenous vein (PSV) in PL with pH adjusted to 6.0 or less also led to impaired endothelial function, suggesting that the acidic nature of NS is what contributes to endothelial dysfunction. Volume overload resuscitation in a porcine model after hemorrhage with NS, but not PL, led to acidosis and impaired endothelial function. These data suggest that endothelial dysfunction caused by exposure to acidic, non-buffered NS is associated with loss of membrane integrity, release of ATP, and is modulated by P2X7R-mediated inflammatory responses.
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17 MeSH Terms
Direct Activation of Human MLKL by a Select Repertoire of Inositol Phosphate Metabolites.
McNamara DE, Dovey CM, Hale AT, Quarato G, Grace CR, Guibao CD, Diep J, Nourse A, Cai CR, Wu H, Kalathur RC, Green DR, York JD, Carette JE, Moldoveanu T
(2019) Cell Chem Biol 26: 863-877.e7
MeSH Terms: Animals, Cell Survival, HT29 Cells, Humans, Inositol Phosphates, Protein Kinases, Sf9 Cells, Spodoptera
Show Abstract · Added March 30, 2020
Necroptosis is an inflammatory form of programmed cell death executed through plasma membrane rupture by the pseudokinase mixed lineage kinase domain-like (MLKL). We previously showed that MLKL activation requires metabolites of the inositol phosphate (IP) pathway. Here we reveal that I(1,3,4,6)P, I(1,3,4,5,6)P, and IP promote membrane permeabilization by MLKL through directly binding the N-terminal executioner domain (NED) and dissociating its auto-inhibitory region. We show that IP and inositol pentakisphosphate 2-kinase (IPPK) are required for necroptosis as IPPK deletion ablated IP production and inhibited necroptosis. The NED auto-inhibitory region is more extensive than originally described and single amino acid substitutions along this region induce spontaneous necroptosis by MLKL. Activating IPs bind three sites with affinity of 100-600 μM to destabilize contacts between the auto-inhibitory region and NED, thereby promoting MLKL activation. We therefore uncover MLKL's activating switch in NED triggered by a select repertoire of IP metabolites.
Copyright © 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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8 MeSH Terms
Toll-like receptor 3-mediated inflammation by p38 is enhanced by endothelial nitric oxide synthase knockdown.
Koch SR, Choi H, Mace EH, Stark RJ
(2019) Cell Commun Signal 17: 33
MeSH Terms: Capillary Permeability, Cells, Cultured, Chemokine CXCL10, Endothelium, Vascular, Gene Knockdown Techniques, Humans, Inflammation, Interleukin-6, Interleukin-8, Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III, Poly I-C, RNA, Small Interfering, Toll-Like Receptor 3, p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
Show Abstract · Added April 17, 2019
BACKGROUND - Vascular dysfunction is commonly seen during severe viral infections. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), has been postulated to play an important role in regulating vascular homeostasis as well as propagation of the inflammatory reaction. We hypothesized that the loss of eNOS would negatively impact toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) signaling and worsen vascular function to viral challenge.
METHODS - Human microvascular endothelial cells (HMVECs) were exposed to either control or eNOS siRNA and then treated with Poly I:C, a TLR3 agonist and mimicker of dsRNA viruses. Cells were assessed for protein-protein associations, cytokine and chemokine analysis as well as transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) as a surrogate of permeability.
RESULTS - HMVECs that had reduced eNOS expression had a significantly elevated increase in IL-6, IL-8 and IP-10 production after Poly I:C. In addition, the knockdown of eNOS enhanced the change in TEER after Poly I:C stimulation. Western blot analysis showed enhanced phosphorylation of p38 in sieNOS treated cells with Poly I:C compared to siControl cells. Proximity ligation assays further demonstrated direct eNOS-p38 protein-protein interactions. The addition of the p38 inhibitor, SB203580, in eNOS knockdown cells reduced both cytokine production after Poly I:C, and as well as mitigated the reduction in TEER, suggesting a direct link between eNOS and p38 in TLR3 signaling.
CONCLUSIONS - These results suggest that reduction of eNOS increases TLR3-mediated inflammation in human endothelial cells in a p38-dependent manner. This finding has important implications for understanding the pathogenesis of severe viral infections and the associated vascular dysfunction.
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14 MeSH Terms
NDR Kinase Sid2 Drives Anillin-like Mid1 from the Membrane to Promote Cytokinesis and Medial Division Site Placement.
Willet AH, DeWitt AK, Beckley JR, Clifford DM, Gould KL
(2019) Curr Biol 29: 1055-1063.e2
MeSH Terms: Actin Cytoskeleton, Cell Cycle Checkpoints, Cytokinesis, Mitosis, Phosphorylation, Protein Kinases, Schizosaccharomyces, Schizosaccharomyces pombe Proteins, Signal Transduction
Show Abstract · Added April 10, 2019
In animals and fungi, cytokinesis is facilitated by the constriction of an actomyosin contractile ring (CR) [1]. In Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the CR forms mid-cell during mitosis from clusters of proteins at the medial cell cortex called nodes [2]. The anillin-like protein Mid1 localizes to nodes and is required for CR assembly at mid-cell [3]. When CR constriction begins, Mid1 leaves the division site. How Mid1 disassociates and whether this step is important for cytokinetic progression has been unknown. The septation initiation network (SIN), analogous to the Hippo pathway of multicellular organisms, is a signaling cascade that triggers node dispersal, CR assembly and constriction, and septum formation [4, 5]. We report that the terminal SIN kinase, Sid2 [6], phosphorylates Mid1 to drive its removal from the cortex at CR constriction onset. A Mid1 mutant that cannot be phosphorylated by Sid2 remains cortical during cytokinesis, over-accumulates in interphase nodes following cell division in a manner dependent on the SAD kinase Cdr2, advances the G2/M transition, precociously recruits other CR components to nodes, pulls Cdr2 aberrantly into the CR, and reduces rates of CR maturation and constriction. When combined with cdr2 mutants that affect node assembly or disassembly, gross defects in division site positioning result. Our findings identify Mid1 as a key Sid2 substrate for SIN-mediated remodeling of the division site for efficient cytokinesis and provide evidence that nodes serve to integrate signals coordinating cell cycle progression and cytokinesis.
Copyright © 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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9 MeSH Terms
Activation of Nrf2 attenuates delayed gastric emptying in obesity induced diabetic (T2DM) female mice.
Sampath C, Sprouse JC, Freeman ML, Gangula PR
(2019) Free Radic Biol Med 135: 132-143
MeSH Terms: Acrolein, Animals, Antioxidants, Diabetes Complications, Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2, Diet, High-Fat, Gastric Emptying, Gastroparesis, Humans, MAP Kinase Signaling System, Mice, Muscle Relaxation, NF-E2-Related Factor 2, Nitric Oxide Synthase Type I, Obesity, Stomach, p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
Show Abstract · Added March 3, 2020
Diabetic gastroparesis (GP) is a clinical syndrome characterized by delayed gastric emptying (DGE). Loss of Nrf2 (Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2) led to reduced nNOSα mediated gastric motility and DGE. The molecular signaling of cinnamaldehyde (CNM) mediated Nrf2 activation and its mechanistic role on DGE were further investigated in obese/T2D female mice. Adult female homozygous Nfe2l2 (C57BL/6J) and their wild-type (WT) littermates (Nfe2l2) mice were fed with high fat diet (HFD; Obese/T2D model), or normal diet (ND) with or without CNM (50 mg/kg b.w; i.p). Supplementation of CNM attenuated (p < 0.05) DGE in WT female but not in Nrf2 KO Obese/T2D mice. CNM (1) normalized serum estradiol-17β levels, (2) induced gastric Nrf2 and phase II antioxidant enzymes through extracellular signal-regulated kinase, (ERK)/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), (3) reduced glucose synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3β) and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and this was associated with (4) increased estrogen receptor expression, BH (Cofactor of nNOS) biosynthesis enzyme GCH-1 and nNOSα dimerization in WT Obese/T2 diabetic female mice. In addition, CNM restored impaired nitrergic relaxation in hyperglycemic conditions. These findings emphasize the importance of Nrf2 in maintaining nNOSα mediated GE and may have a translational relevance to treat obese/diabetic gastroparesis in women.
Copyright © 2019. Published by Elsevier Inc.
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17 MeSH Terms
Somatostatin receptor 2 signaling promotes growth and tumor survival in small-cell lung cancer.
Lehman JM, Hoeksema MD, Staub J, Qian J, Harris B, Callison JC, Miao J, Shi C, Eisenberg R, Chen H, Chen SC, Massion PP
(2019) Int J Cancer 144: 1104-1114
MeSH Terms: AMP-Activated Protein Kinases, Animals, Apoptosis, Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors, Biomarkers, Tumor, Cell Line, Tumor, Cell Proliferation, Disease Progression, Down-Regulation, Humans, Lung Neoplasms, Mice, Mice, Nude, Nerve Tissue Proteins, RNA, Messenger, Receptors, Somatostatin, Signal Transduction, Small Cell Lung Carcinoma
Show Abstract · Added March 31, 2020
Somatostatin receptor 2 (SSTR2) is overexpressed in a majority of neuroendocrine neoplasms, including small-cell lung carcinomas (SCLCs). SSTR2 was previously considered an inhibitory receptor on cell growth, but its agonists had poor clinical responses in multiple clinical trials. The role of this receptor as a potential therapeutic target in lung cancer merits further investigation. We evaluated the expression of SSTR2 in a cohort of 96 primary tumors from patients with SCLC and found 48% expressed SSTR2. Correlation analysis in both CCLE and an SCLC RNAseq cohort confirmed high-level expression and identified an association between NEUROD1 and SSTR2. There was a significant association with SSTR2 expression profile and poor clinical outcome. We tested whether SSTR2 expression might contribute to tumor progression through activation of downstream signaling pathways, using in vitro and in vivo systems and downregulated SSTR2 expression in lung cancer cells by shRNA. SSTR2 downregulation led to increased apoptosis and dramatically decreased tumor growth in vitro and in vivo in multiple cell lines with decreased AMPKα phosphorylation and increased oxidative metabolism. These results demonstrate a role for SSTR2 signaling in SCLC and suggest that SSTR2 is a poor prognostic biomarker in SCLC and potential future therapeutic signaling target.
© 2018 UICC.
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MeSH Terms
MLKL Requires the Inositol Phosphate Code to Execute Necroptosis.
Dovey CM, Diep J, Clarke BP, Hale AT, McNamara DE, Guo H, Brown NW, Cao JY, Grace CR, Gough PJ, Bertin J, Dixon SJ, Fiedler D, Mocarski ES, Kaiser WJ, Moldoveanu T, York JD, Carette JE
(2018) Mol Cell 70: 936-948.e7
MeSH Terms: Binding Sites, Cell Death, Colonic Neoplasms, Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic, Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic, HT29 Cells, Herpesvirus 1, Human, Humans, Inositol Phosphates, Jurkat Cells, Mutation, Phosphorylation, Phosphotransferases (Alcohol Group Acceptor), Protein Kinases, Receptor-Interacting Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases, Signal Transduction, Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
Show Abstract · Added March 30, 2020
Necroptosis is an important form of lytic cell death triggered by injury and infection, but whether mixed lineage kinase domain-like (MLKL) is sufficient to execute this pathway is unknown. In a genetic selection for human cell mutants defective for MLKL-dependent necroptosis, we identified mutations in IPMK and ITPK1, which encode inositol phosphate (IP) kinases that regulate the IP code of soluble molecules. We show that IP kinases are essential for necroptosis triggered by death receptor activation, herpesvirus infection, or a pro-necrotic MLKL mutant. In IP kinase mutant cells, MLKL failed to oligomerize and localize to membranes despite proper receptor-interacting protein kinase-3 (RIPK3)-dependent phosphorylation. We demonstrate that necroptosis requires IP-specific kinase activity and that a highly phosphorylated product, but not a lowly phosphorylated precursor, potently displaces the MLKL auto-inhibitory brace region. These observations reveal control of MLKL-mediated necroptosis by a metabolite and identify a key molecular mechanism underlying regulated cell death.
Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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MeSH Terms
Cardiac natriuretic peptides promote adipose 'browning' through mTOR complex-1.
Liu D, Ceddia RP, Collins S
(2018) Mol Metab 9: 192-198
MeSH Terms: Adipose Tissue, Brown, Animals, Atrial Natriuretic Factor, Cells, Cultured, Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinases, Female, HEK293 Cells, Humans, Male, Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Complex 1, Mice, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Mitochondria, Signal Transduction, Uncoupling Protein 1
Show Abstract · Added September 25, 2018
OBJECTIVE - Activation of thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and the ability to increase uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) levels and mitochondrial biogenesis in white fat (termed 'browning'), has great therapeutic potential to treat obesity and its comorbidities because of the net increase in energy expenditure. β-adrenergic-cAMP-PKA signaling has long been known to regulate these processes. Recently PKA-dependent activation of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) was shown to be necessary for adipose 'browning' as well as proper development of the interscapular BAT. In addition to cAMP-PKA signaling pathways, cGMP-PKG signaling also promotes this browning process; however, it is unclear whether or not mTORC1 is also necessary for cGMP-PKG induced browning.
METHOD - Activation of mTORC1 by natriuretic peptides (NP), which bind to and activate the membrane-bound guanylyl cyclase, NP receptor A (NPRA), was assessed in mouse and human adipocytes in vitro and mouse adipose tissue in vivo.
RESULTS - Activation of mTORC1 by NP-cGMP signaling was observed in both mouse and human adipocytes. We show that NP-NPRA-PKG signaling activate mTORC1 by direct PKG phosphorylation of Raptor at Serine 791. Administration of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) to mice induced Ucp1 expression in inguinal adipose tissue in vivo, which was completely blocked by the mTORC1 inhibitor rapamycin.
CONCLUSION - Our results demonstrate that NP-cGMP signaling activates mTORC1 via PKG, which is a component in the mechanism of adipose browning.
Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.
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15 MeSH Terms
AMPK in skeletal muscle function and metabolism.
Kjøbsted R, Hingst JR, Fentz J, Foretz M, Sanz MN, Pehmøller C, Shum M, Marette A, Mounier R, Treebak JT, Wojtaszewski JFP, Viollet B, Lantier L
(2018) FASEB J 32: 1741-1777
MeSH Terms: Adaptation, Physiological, Animals, Energy Metabolism, Exercise, Humans, Muscle, Skeletal, Protein Kinases
Show Abstract · Added May 16, 2019
Skeletal muscle possesses a remarkable ability to adapt to various physiologic conditions. AMPK is a sensor of intracellular energy status that maintains energy stores by fine-tuning anabolic and catabolic pathways. AMPK's role as an energy sensor is particularly critical in tissues displaying highly changeable energy turnover. Due to the drastic changes in energy demand that occur between the resting and exercising state, skeletal muscle is one such tissue. Here, we review the complex regulation of AMPK in skeletal muscle and its consequences on metabolism ( e.g., substrate uptake, oxidation, and storage as well as mitochondrial function of skeletal muscle fibers). We focus on the role of AMPK in skeletal muscle during exercise and in exercise recovery. We also address adaptations to exercise training, including skeletal muscle plasticity, highlighting novel concepts and future perspectives that need to be investigated. Furthermore, we discuss the possible role of AMPK as a therapeutic target as well as different AMPK activators and their potential for future drug development.-Kjøbsted, R., Hingst, J. R., Fentz, J., Foretz, M., Sanz, M.-N., Pehmøller, C., Shum, M., Marette, A., Mounier, R., Treebak, J. T., Wojtaszewski, J. F. P., Viollet, B., Lantier, L. AMPK in skeletal muscle function and metabolism.
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MeSH Terms
Heterologous phosphorylation-induced formation of a stability lock permits regulation of inactive receptors by β-arrestins.
Tóth AD, Prokop S, Gyombolai P, Várnai P, Balla A, Gurevich VV, Hunyady L, Turu G
(2018) J Biol Chem 293: 876-892
MeSH Terms: Angiotensin II, Animals, COS Cells, Chlorocebus aethiops, HEK293 Cells, Humans, Immunoblotting, Microscopy, Confocal, Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases, Phosphorylation, Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled, beta-Arrestins
Show Abstract · Added March 14, 2018
β-Arrestins are key regulators and signal transducers of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). The interaction between receptors and β-arrestins is generally believed to require both receptor activity and phosphorylation by GPCR kinases. In this study, we investigated whether β-arrestins are able to bind second messenger kinase-phosphorylated, but inactive receptors as well. Because heterologous phosphorylation is a common phenomenon among GPCRs, this mode of β-arrestin activation may represent a novel mechanism of signal transduction and receptor cross-talk. Here we demonstrate that activation of protein kinase C (PKC) by phorbol myristate acetate, G-coupled GPCR, or epidermal growth factor receptor stimulation promotes β-arrestin2 recruitment to unliganded AT angiotensin receptor (ATR). We found that this interaction depends on the stability lock, a structure responsible for the sustained binding between GPCRs and β-arrestins, formed by phosphorylated serine-threonine clusters in the receptor's C terminus and two conserved phosphate-binding lysines in the β-arrestin2 N-domain. Using improved FlAsH-based serine-threonine clusters β-arrestin2 conformational biosensors, we also show that the stability lock not only stabilizes the receptor-β-arrestin interaction, but also governs the structural rearrangements within β-arrestins. Furthermore, we found that β-arrestin2 binds to PKC-phosphorylated ATR in a distinct active conformation, which triggers MAPK recruitment and receptor internalization. Our results provide new insights into the activation of β-arrestins and reveal their novel role in receptor cross-talk.
© 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
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12 MeSH Terms