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OBJECTIVE - Inconclusive findings about infection risks, importantly the use of immunosuppressive medications in patients who have undergone large-joint total joint arthroplasty, challenge efforts to provide evidence-based perioperative total joint arthroplasty recommendations to improve surgical outcomes. Thus, the aim of this study was to describe risk factors for developing a post-operative infection in patients undergoing TJA of a large joint (total hip arthroplasty, total knee arthroplasty, or total shoulder arthroplasty) by identifying clinical and demographic factors, including the use of high-risk medications (i.e., prednisone and immunosuppressive medications) and diagnoses [i.e., rheumatoid arthritis (RA), osteoarthritis (OA), gout, obesity, and diabetes mellitus] that are linked to infection status, controlling for length of follow-up.
METHODS - A retrospective, case-control study (N = 2212) using de-identified patient health claims information from a commercially insured, U.S. dataset representing 15 million patients annually (from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2009) was conducted. Descriptive statistics, t-test, chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, and multivariate logistic regression were used.
RESULTS - Male gender (OR = 1.42, p < 0.001), diagnosis of RA (OR = 1.47, p = 0.031), diabetes mellitus (OR = 1.38, p = 0.001), obesity (OR = 1.66, p < 0.001) or gout (OR = 1.95, p = 0.001), and a prescription for prednisone (OR = 1.59, p < 0.001) predicted a post-operative infection following total joint arthroplasty. Persons with post-operative joint infections were significantly more likely to be prescribed allopurinol (p = 0.002) and colchicine (p = 0.006); no significant difference was found for the use of specific disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs and TNF-α inhibitors.
CONCLUSION - High-risk, post-operative joint infection groups were identified allowing for precautionary clinical measures to be taken.
Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
BACKGROUND - The use of cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) has expanded dramatically over the past decade, but net clinical benefit has been curtailed by increasing infectious complications. In particular, CIED-related infectious endocarditis (IE) is a serious condition with significant morbidity and mortality.
METHODS - We performed a single-center, retrospective study between July 2006 and February 2011 with CIED-related IE, defined by either lead vegetations detected on echocardiography or by fulfilling Duke criteria for definite endocarditis. Clinical parameters and outcomes were detailed by electronic medical record review and vital status was confirmed by the Social Security Death Index.
RESULTS - Eighty patients (median age 67, interquartile range 56-75, 58 M/22 F) were diagnosed with CIED-related IE. Overall mortality was 36% with a median time to death of 95 days from presentation. Over half (52%) of the deaths were infection related with a median time to death of 29 days. Multivariate analysis showed methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection (odds ratio [OR] 0.158; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.047-0.534; P = .003) and concomitant valve endocarditis (OR 0.141, CI 0.041-0.491, P = .002) independently predicted mortality.
CONCLUSION - In this contemporary series, all-cause mortality in patients with CIED-related IE was high with a short time to death from onset of infection. MRSA and concomitant valve infection were the most powerful independent predictors of mortality.
©2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
INTRODUCTION - The incidence of cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) infections has risen rapidly since 2004. A commercially available minocycline and rifampin impregnated antibacterial envelope has been associated with a low CIED infection rate. We performed a retrospective cohort study analyzing CIED infection rates in patients receiving an antibacterial envelope.
METHODS - Prospectively applied criteria for use of the antibacterial envelope included ≥2 of the following: diabetes, renal insufficiency, anticoagulation, chronic corticosteroid use, fever or leukocytosis at the time of implantation, prior CIED infection, ≥3 leads (cardiac resynchronization therapy or abandoned leads), pacemaker dependence, or early pocket reentry. CIED infection rate was compared to a cohort of patients with matched risk factors and a CIED implanted prior to use of the antibacterial envelope.
RESULTS - A total of 260 antibacterial envelopes were implanted from November 1, 2009 to April 30, 2012. The mean number of CIED infection risk factors was 2.8 ± 1.2. The control cohort (N = 639) was matched for mean number of CIED infection risk factors (2.8 ± 1.2), though individual risk factors differed. After a minimum of 90 days of follow-up, there was one CIED infection among patients who received an antibacterial envelope (0.4%), compared to 19 (3%) in controls (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] 0.13 [0.02-0.95], P = 0.04). This difference persisted after adjustment for covariates (0.09 [0.01-0.73], P = 0.02) and propensity score matching (0.11 [0.01-0.85], P = 0.04).
CONCLUSIONS - In patients prospectively identified at high risk for CIED infection, use of a commercially available antibacterial envelope was associated with a marked reduction in CIED infections when compared to a matched control cohort.
©2012, The Authors. Journal compilation ©2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
We performed a retrospective cohort study of 84 patients to determine the incidence and predictors of acute kidney injury after antibiotic-impregnated cement spacer (ACS) placement for infected total knee arthroplasties. Acute kidney injury was defined as a more than 50% rise in serum creatinine from a preoperative baseline to a level greater than 1.4 mg/dL within 90 days postoperatively. Total incidence was 17% (n = 14; 95% confidence interval [CI], 10%-26%), and acute kidney injury was significantly associated with ACS tobramycin dose as both a dichotomous variable (>4.8 g; odds ratio, 5.87; 95% CI, 1.43-24.19; P = .01) and linear variable (odds ratio, 1.24 for every 1-g increase; 95% CI, 1.00-1.52; P = .049). Routine monitoring of serum creatinine and measurement of serum aminoglycoside levels in response to a threshold creatinine rise may be warranted after the placement of an aminoglycoside-containing ACS.
Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
INTRODUCTION - Inflatable penile prostheses (IPPs) are a well-established and reliable treatment for medication refractory erectile dysfunction. The most serious complication with IPPs is infection, with the reported incidence after primary placement 1% to 3% and after revision surgery 8% to 18%.
AIM - The aim of this report is to describe an infected decommissioned IPP reservoir with Actinomyces neuii with successful preservation of a functioning implant.
METHODS - After 9 years of successful use with an IPP (AMS 700 CX) for Peyronie's disease and organic erectile dysfunction, a 79-year-old man underwent replacement with an AMS 700 LGX. The decommissioned reservoir was kept in the right prevesical space, and the new reservoir was placed in the left prevesical space. Three months later, he presented with right inguinal pain and swelling.
RESULTS - He was found to have an infected right reservoir with A. neuii, sparing his new IPP. After removal of the right reservoir, he had an uneventful recovery and has shown no evidence of infection in the new device.
CONCLUSION - Revision surgery for IPPs carries a higher risk for implant infection. This is the first report of a genitourinary implant infection with A. neuii. Aggressive surgical and medical treatment may allow preservation of the functioning implant, despite gross infection of the decommissioned reservoir.
© 2010 International Society for Sexual Medicine.
Closure of the abdominal wall after trauma or major surgery may be difficult due to visceral edema or fascial weakness; thus, the risk of developing a ventral hernia (VH) is high. Commonly, these hernias are repaired using a prosthetic mesh. Complications following mesh repair can develop. We hypothesize that the type of prosthetic material affects outcome. This is a retrospective chart review of patients admitted from 1996 to 2002 undergoing VH (> or = 20 x 10 cm) repair with prosthetic mesh. Data collected included age, sex, and race. Patients were stratified by prosthetic material as follows: Gore-Tex (GR), Marlex + Gore-Tex (MG), Marlex (MR), and Marlex + Vicryl (MV). For the purpose of clinical analysis, the groups were collapsed into subgroups: Gore-Tex exposure (GT) or non-Gore-Tex exposure (NG). Outcome measures were hernia recurrence (HR), wound infection (WI), and fistula formation (FF). Statistical analysis utilized chi2 test and Fisher's exact test. There were 55 VH repairs in 37 patients. The mean age was 43.9 (+/- 16.3), males out-numbered females 22 (59.5%) to 15 (40.5%). The majority of the patients were Caucasian (29; 78.4%). There were 30 trauma patients (81.1%), and 7 general surgery patients (18.9%). The HR for the study (n = 55) was 20 (36.4%), the WI was 17 (30.9%), and the FF was 3 (5.5%). GR group (6; 66.7%) had a significant higher wound IF rate than MR group (8; 26.7%) (Chi P = 0.02, Fisher P = 0.047). All other group comparisons (HR, WI, and FF) were N.S. The Gore-Tex versus non-Gore-Tex subgroup comparison results were as follows: GT (n = 18) had a WI 8 (44.4%), HR 6 (33.3%), and FF 0 (0%). NG (n = 37) had a WI 9 (24.3%), HR 14 (37.8%), and a FF 3 (8.1%). There was a trend toward a higher wound infection in the GT versus NG, but it did not reach statistical significance. We conclude that 1) the wound infection rate was higher in the Gore-Tex versus the Marlex group (Chi P = 0.02, Fisher P = 0.047). Wound infection in the presence of Gore-Tex usually mandates the removal of the mesh resulting in a hernia recurrence. 2) There was a trend toward a higher wound infection in the GT (44.4%) versus NG (24.3%), but it did not reach statistical significance.
Resistance to vancomycin has emerged among Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS), and enterococci, and this emergence has particular prevalence in dialysis units. It has therefore become imperative that physicians use vancomycin judiciously. General recommendations regarding the appropriate use of vancomycin have been developed. Although in theory implementation of these guidelines should not be difficult, the medical community may be unable or unwilling to make the necessary adjustments in practice. The onslaught of cost constraints and bureaucratic encumbrance has occurred simultaneously with the increase in vancomycin resistance among pathogens commonly isolated among the dialysis population. When a patient responds to empiric antibiotic therapy and susceptibility data indicate that an antibiotic other than vancomycin would be appropriate, the clinician far too often does not make the change to this alternative. Previously there was no biological imperative to change the antibiotic. That complacency has infected an entire generation of physicians, and especially nephrologists. Furthermore, there is an active movement against change, driven by concerns such as malpractice accusations and frank errors in the interpretation of medical facts.
Previous studies suggest that sequential technetium-99-hydroxymethyl diphosphonate bone scanning and indium-111 leukocyte scintigraphy may play a role during revision arthroplasty. Preoperative sequential imaging was compared with joint aspiration and clinical assessment during revision knee or hip arthroplasty. Scans were considered positive if indium-111 leukocyte uptake was incongruent or focally more intense than that of technetium-99-hydroxymethyl diphosphonate uptake. Of 166 cases, 22 were infected. Sequential technetium-99-hydroxymethyl diphosphonate and indium-111 leukocyte imaging was 64% sensitive and 78% specific. Fever, physical findings, or sedimentation rate did not identify infection reliably, and preoperative aspirate culture was only 28% sensitive. Positive scintigraphy increased the likelihood of finding infection intraoperatively from 14% to 30%, although negative scintigraphy decreased this likelihood to 7%. Based on the current study, the routine use of sequential technetium-99-hydroxymethyl diphosphonate and indium-111 leukocyte imaging cannot be advocated for differentiating occult infection from mechanical failure in painful, loose total joint arthroplasties.