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BACKGROUND - The purpose of this study was to compare hemiepiphysiodesis implants for late-onset tibia vara and to evaluate patient characteristics that may predict surgical failure.
METHODS - This is a retrospective review of late-onset tibia vara patients treated with temporary hemiepiphysiodesis from 1998 to 2012. Mechanical axis deviation (MAD), mechanical axis angle, mechanical lateral distal femoral angle, and medial proximal tibial angle were measured on standing bone length radiographs. Surgical failure was defined as residual deformity requiring osteotomy, revision surgery, or MAD exceeding 40 mm at the time of final follow-up. Implant failure was recorded. Costs included implants and disposables required for construct placement. Staple constructs included 2 or 3 staples. Plate constructs included the plate, screws, guide wires, and drill bits.
RESULTS - A total of 25 patients with 38 temporary lateral proximal tibia hemiepiphysiodeses met the inclusion criteria. The average body mass index (BMI) was 39.1 kg/m with an average follow-up of 3.0 years (minimum 1 y). Surgical failure occurred in 57.9% of patients. Greater BMI (P=0.05) and more severe deformity (MAD, mechanical axis angle, and medial proximal tibial angle; P<0.01) predicted higher rates of surgical failure. Younger age predicted higher rates of implant failure (P<0.01). There were no differences in surgical or implant failure between staple and plate systems. Hospital costs of plate constructs ($781 to $1244) were 1.5 to 3.5 times greater than the staple constructs ($332 to $498).
CONCLUSIONS - Greater BMI, more severe deformity, and younger age were predictive of surgical or implant failure. There was no difference in success between implant types, whereas the cost of plate constructs was 1.5 to 3.5 times greater than staples. The rate of surgical failure was high (58%) and consideration should be given to reserving hemiepiphysiodesis for patients with lower BMI and less severe deformity. In our population, if hemiepiphysiodesis was not offered to patients with BMI>35 or MAD>80 mm varus, the surgical failure rate would diminish to 28%. The failure rate outside these parameters would be 88%.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE - Level II—Prognostic.
OBJECTIVE - Minimally invasive image-guided cochlear implantation (CI) involves accessing the cochlea via a linear path from the lateral skull to the cochlea avoiding vital structures including the facial nerve. Herein, we describe and demonstrate the feasibility of the technique for pediatric patients.
STUDY DESIGN - Prospective.
SETTING - Children's Hospital.
SUBJECTS AND METHODS - Thirteen pediatric patients (1.5 to 8 years) undergoing traditional CI participated in this Institutional Review Board-approved study. Three fiducial markers were bone-implanted surrounding the ear, and a CT scan was acquired. The CT scan was processed to identify the marker locations and critical structures of the temporal bone. A safe linear path was determined to target the cochlea avoiding damage to vital structures. A custom microstereotactic frame was fabricated that would mount on the fiducial markers and constrain a tool to the desired trajectory. After traditional mastoidectomy and prior to cochleostomy, the custom microstereotactic frame was mounted on the bone-implanted markers to confirm that the achieved trajectory was safe and accurately accessed the cochlea.
RESULTS - For all the 13 patients, it was possible to determine a safe trajectory to the cochlea. Custom microstereotactic frames were validated successfully on 9 patients. Two of these patients had inner ear malformations, and this technique helped the surgeon confirm ideal location for cochleostomy. For patients with normal anatomy, the mean and standard deviation of the closest distance of the trajectory to facial nerve and chorda tympani were 1.1 ± 0.3 mm and 1.2 ± 0.5 mm, respectively.
CONCLUSION - Minimally invasive image-guided CI is feasible for pediatric patients.
PMMA particles released from bone implants are considered major contributor to osteolysis and subsequent implant failure. Although the ensuing inflammatory response has been described, the mechanisms underlying PMMA particulate-induced osteolysis remain enigmatic. In previous studies, we have established that activation of Nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) and MAP kinase pathways plays a central role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory osteolysis. Specifically, we have shown that impeding IKK complex assembly, and thus subsequent NF-κB activation, dampens particle-induced osteolysis. The IKK complex consists of IKKα, IKKβ, and IKKγ, also known as NEMO. NEMO has no catalytic activity and serves as a scaffold protein facilitating assembly and distal activation of NF-κB signaling. In fact, blocking binding of NEMO with IKKα/β abolishes NF-κB activity. In the current study, we identify Lysine 392 residue in NEMO as crucial mediator of PMMA particle-induced inflammatory osteoclastogenesis and osteolysis. Using mice in which NEMO-K392R mutation has been introduced, we provide evidence that PMMA-induced osteoclasts and osteolytic responses are impaired. Furthermore, we show that this impairment is likely due to poor activation of NF-κB and Erk, but not other MAP kinases. Our findings suggest that NEMO Lysine392, a well-established K63-linked polyubiquitination site, is an important mediator of PMMA-induced osteolysis. Therefore, this NEMO motif should be considered as a target to combat PMMA particle-induced osteolysis.
Copyright © 2011 Orthopaedic Research Society.
In megaprostheses, the tibial component is rarely a source of failure. The evolution of these implants has followed standard arthroplasty trends moving from majority use of all-polyethylene tibias (APT) to high volume use of metal-backed tibial (MBT) components. We report the results of 72 endoprostheses using either MBT (n = 42) or APT (n = 30) implanted between 1994 and 2006. Failures of the implant related to the tibial component were isolated, and 5-year survival of the tibial implant of the MBT cohort was 94%, and for the APT cohort, 87% (P = .39). The difference in tibial component failures between the 2 groups was not statistically significant (Pearson χ(2) = 0.1535, P = .6952). Revision rates for the entire implant and infection rates were not significantly different between the 2 groups.
Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Concerned by a perceived high revision rate, we retrospectively reviewed the survivorship of a series of 43 cemented, medial, mobile-bearing Preservation unicompartmental knee replacements implanted during a 2-year period at a single institution. The initial post-operative AP and lateral radiographs were independently assessed to test the hypothesis that suboptimal implantation of the prosthesis was responsible for early failure. An X-ray scoring system based on the criteria for assessing the Oxford mobile-bearing unicompartmental knee replacement was devised. The components of this score included assessment of prosthesis alignment, sizing and cementation. Nine (21%) LCS Preservation mobile-bearings prostheses had required revision at a mean of 22 months post-implantation. The commonest causes for failure were pain (44%) and tibial component loosening (33%). Analysis of post-operative radiographs showed no difference (n.s.) between the compound error scores for the revised and the surviving prostheses. No particular surgical error was identifiable leading to subsequent need for revision. The high failure rates shown in this study have led us to cease using this implant. The clinical relevance of this study is that the captive running track of the LCS mobile-bearing prosthesis may over constrain the meniscal component leading to early failure.
As the population requiring hemodialysis grows, it becomes increasingly common to encounter patients with limited options for vascular access. Because inability to secure vascular access is a life-threatening problem, it is important to consider all possible options in each patient. We report a new arteriovenous grafting procedure in which the left renal vein is used for outflow in a patient with multiple venous occlusions. Patency of the graft continues 18 months after placement. This graft carries acceptable morbidity, and can be revised. Consideration of this graft is appropriate in selected patients.
Closure of the abdominal wall after trauma or major surgery may be difficult due to visceral edema or fascial weakness; thus, the risk of developing a ventral hernia (VH) is high. Commonly, these hernias are repaired using a prosthetic mesh. Complications following mesh repair can develop. We hypothesize that the type of prosthetic material affects outcome. This is a retrospective chart review of patients admitted from 1996 to 2002 undergoing VH (> or = 20 x 10 cm) repair with prosthetic mesh. Data collected included age, sex, and race. Patients were stratified by prosthetic material as follows: Gore-Tex (GR), Marlex + Gore-Tex (MG), Marlex (MR), and Marlex + Vicryl (MV). For the purpose of clinical analysis, the groups were collapsed into subgroups: Gore-Tex exposure (GT) or non-Gore-Tex exposure (NG). Outcome measures were hernia recurrence (HR), wound infection (WI), and fistula formation (FF). Statistical analysis utilized chi2 test and Fisher's exact test. There were 55 VH repairs in 37 patients. The mean age was 43.9 (+/- 16.3), males out-numbered females 22 (59.5%) to 15 (40.5%). The majority of the patients were Caucasian (29; 78.4%). There were 30 trauma patients (81.1%), and 7 general surgery patients (18.9%). The HR for the study (n = 55) was 20 (36.4%), the WI was 17 (30.9%), and the FF was 3 (5.5%). GR group (6; 66.7%) had a significant higher wound IF rate than MR group (8; 26.7%) (Chi P = 0.02, Fisher P = 0.047). All other group comparisons (HR, WI, and FF) were N.S. The Gore-Tex versus non-Gore-Tex subgroup comparison results were as follows: GT (n = 18) had a WI 8 (44.4%), HR 6 (33.3%), and FF 0 (0%). NG (n = 37) had a WI 9 (24.3%), HR 14 (37.8%), and a FF 3 (8.1%). There was a trend toward a higher wound infection in the GT versus NG, but it did not reach statistical significance. We conclude that 1) the wound infection rate was higher in the Gore-Tex versus the Marlex group (Chi P = 0.02, Fisher P = 0.047). Wound infection in the presence of Gore-Tex usually mandates the removal of the mesh resulting in a hernia recurrence. 2) There was a trend toward a higher wound infection in the GT (44.4%) versus NG (24.3%), but it did not reach statistical significance.
Numerous procedural complications of creation of a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) have been reported. In this article, a case of an aorto-right-atrial fistula after the revision of a TIPS is reported. The fistula developed from the free edge of a stent that protruded into the right atrium. The patient developed progressive right heart failure and eventually died of complications of right heart failure. Prevention of this potential complication with careful catheter manipulations under fluoroscopic observation around newly placed stents is recommended to prevent dislodgement of the stents. Careful deployment that avoids extension of the stent into the right atrium is essential to avoid the complication of cardiac perforation.