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Left Ventricular Mass at MRI and Long-term Risk of Cardiovascular Events: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).
Kawel-Boehm N, Kronmal R, Eng J, Folsom A, Burke G, Carr JJ, Shea S, Lima JAC, Bluemke DA
(2019) Radiology 293: 107-114
MeSH Terms: Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Atherosclerosis, Cohort Studies, Comorbidity, Ethnic Groups, Female, Heart Failure, Heart Ventricles, Humans, Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Male, Middle Aged, Myocardial Infarction, Prospective Studies, Risk, Risk Factors, United States
Show Abstract · Added January 10, 2020
Background Few data exist on the long-term risk prediction of elevated left ventricular (LV) mass quantified by MRI for cardiovascular (CV) events in a contemporary, ethnically diverse cohort. Purpose To assess the long-term impact of elevated LV mass on CV events in a prospective cohort study of a multiethnic population in relationship to risk factors and coronary artery calcium (CAC) score. Materials and Methods The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, or MESA (: NCT00005487), is an ongoing prospective multicenter population-based study in the United States. A total of 6814 participants (age range, 45-84 years) free of clinical CV disease at baseline were enrolled between 2000 and 2002. In 4988 participants (2613 [52.4%] women; mean age, 62 years ± 10.1 [standard deviation]) followed over 15 years for CV events, LV mass was derived from cardiac MRI at baseline enrollment by using semiautomated software at a central core laboratory. Cox proportional hazard models, Kaplan-Meier curves, and scores were applied to assess the impact of LV hypertrophy. Results A total of 290 participants had hard coronary heart disease (CHD) events (207 myocardial infarctions [MIs], 95 CHD deaths), 57 had other CV disease-related deaths, and 215 had heart failure (HF). LV hypertrophy was an independent predictor of hard CHD events (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.7; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.9, 3.8), MI (HR: 2.8; 95% CI: 1.8, 4.0), CHD death (HR: 4.3; 95% CI: 2.5, 7.3), other CV death (HR: 7.5; 95% CI: 4.2, 13.5), and HF (HR: 5.4; 95% CI: 3.8, 7.5) ( < .001 for all end points). LV hypertrophy was a stronger predictor than CAC for CHD death, other CV death, and HF ( scores: 5.4 vs 3.4, 6.8 vs 2.4, and 9.7 vs 3.2 for LV hypertrophy vs CAC, respectively). Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated an increased risk of CV events in participants with LV hypertrophy, particularly after 5 years. Conclusion Elevated left ventricular mass was strongly associated with hard coronary heart disease events, other cardiovascular death, and heart failure over 15 years of follow-up, independent of traditional risk factors and coronary artery calcium score. © RSNA, 2019 See also the editorial by Hanneman in this issue.
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The impact of frailty on treatment for overactive bladder in older adults.
Suskind AM, Kowalik C, Quanstrom K, Boscardin J, Zhao S, Reynolds WS, Mishra K, Finlayson E
(2019) Neurourol Urodyn 38: 1915-1923
MeSH Terms: Aged, Botulinum Toxins, Type A, Electric Stimulation Therapy, Female, Frailty, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, Postural Balance, Prospective Studies, Quality of Life, Surveys and Questionnaires, Treatment Outcome, Urinary Bladder, Overactive, Urological Agents
Show Abstract · Added September 16, 2019
AIMS - To examine the impact of frailty on treatment outcomes for overactive bladder (OAB) in older adults starting pharmacotherapy, onabotulinumtoxinA, and sacral neuromodulation.
METHODS - This is a prospective study of men and women age ≥60 years starting pharmacotherapy, onabotulinumtoxinA, or sacral neuromodulation. Subjects were administered questionnaires at baseline and again at 1- and 3-months. Frailty was assessed at baseline using the timed up and go test (TUGT), whereby a TUGT time of ≥12 seconds was considered to be slow, or frail. Response to treatment was assessed using the overactive bladder symptom score (OABSS) and the OAB-q SF (both Bother and HRQOL subscales). Information on side effects/adverse events was also collected. Mixed effects linear modeling was used to model changes in outcomes over time both within and between groups.
RESULTS - A total of 45 subjects enrolled in the study, 40% (N = 18) of whom had a TUGT ≥12 seconds. Both TUGT groups demonstrated improvement in OAB symptoms over time and there were no statistically significant differences in these responses per group (all P-values >.05). Similar trends were found for both OAB-q SF Bother and OAB-q SF HRQOL questionnaire responses. Side effects and adverse events were not significantly different between groups (all P's >.05).
CONCLUSIONS - Adults ≥60 years of age starting second- and third-line treatments for OAB, regardless of TUGT time, demonstrated improvement in OAB symptoms at 3 months. These findings suggest that frail older adults may receive comparable benefit and similar rates of side effects compared with less frail older individuals.
© 2019 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Three-Year Findings on Intraocular Pressure Changes in The Prospective Retinal and Optic Nerve Vitrectomy Evaluation (PROVE) Study.
Patel SN, Kim SJ, Lalezary M, Shah R, Kuchtey RW, Joos KM, Kammer JA, Cherney EF
(2019) Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina 50: 371-376
MeSH Terms: Adult, Aged, Analysis of Variance, Female, Glaucoma, Humans, Intraocular Pressure, Male, Middle Aged, Prospective Studies, Pseudophakia, Vitrectomy
Show Abstract · Added March 24, 2020
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE - This paper reports 3-year intraocular pressure (IOP) outcomes of the Prospective Retinal and Optic Nerve Vitrectomy Evaluation (PROVE) study.
PATIENTS AND METHODS - The prospective, controlled, observational study included 80 eyes of 40 participants undergoing routine pars plana vitrectomy. Study patients underwent preoperative evaluation and multimodal testing of the study (surgical) and fellow (control) eye. This testing was repeated at 3 months postoperatively and then annually for 3 years.
RESULTS - Thirty-two of 40 patients (80%) completed 3-year follow-up. At 3 years postoperatively, there was no difference in IOP measurements in surgical eyes overall from baseline (P = .36). Subgroup analysis of pseudophakic eyes at baseline showed a significant elevation in IOP from 14.3 mm Hg ± 2.9 mm Hg at baseline to 16.8 mm Hg ± 3.2 mm Hg at 3-year follow-up (P < .029). Fellow eyes did not experience a significant change from baseline.
CONCLUSION - The authors' 3-year results show that IOP is consistently and significantly elevated in pseudophakic eyes compared to baseline following routine vitrectomy. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2019;50:371-376.].
Copyright 2019, SLACK Incorporated.
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Coronary Artery Calcium From Early Adulthood to Middle Age and Left Ventricular Structure and Function.
Yared GS, Moreira HT, Ambale-Venkatesh B, Vasconcellos HD, Nwabuo CC, Ostovaneh MR, Reis JP, Lloyd-Jones DM, Schreiner PJ, Lewis CE, Sidney S, Carr JJ, Gidding SS, Lima JAC
(2019) Circ Cardiovasc Imaging 12: e009228
MeSH Terms: Age Factors, Coronary Artery Disease, Coronary Vessels, Female, Heart Ventricles, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, Prospective Studies, Risk Factors, Tomography, X-Ray Computed, Vascular Calcification, Ventricular Dysfunction, Left
Show Abstract · Added January 10, 2020
Background The relationship of coronary artery calcium (CAC) with adverse cardiac remodeling is not well established. We aimed to study the association of CAC in middle age and change in CAC from early adulthood to middle age with left ventricular (LV) function. Methods CAC score was measured by computed tomography at CARDIA study (Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults) year-15 examination and at year-25 examination (Y25) in 3043 and 3189 participants, respectively. CAC score was assessed as a continuous variable and log-transformed to account for nonlinearity. Change in CAC from year-15 examination to Y25 was evaluated as the absolute difference of log-transformed CAC from year-15 examination to Y25. LV structure and function were evaluated by echocardiography at Y25. Results At Y25, mean age was 50.1±3.6 years, 56.6% women, 52.4% black. In the multivariable analysis at Y25, higher CAC was related to higher LV mass (β=1.218; adjusted P=0.007), higher LV end-diastolic volume (β=0.811; adjusted P=0.007), higher LV end-systolic volume (β=0.350; adjusted P=0.048), higher left atrial volume (β=0.214; adjusted P=0.009), and higher E/e' ratio (β=0.059; adjusted P=0.014). CAC was measured at both year-15 examination and Y25 in 2449 individuals. Higher change in CAC score during follow-up was independently related to higher LV mass index in blacks (β=4.789; adjusted P<0.001), but not in whites (β=1.051; adjusted P=0.283). Conclusions Higher CAC in middle age is associated with higher LV mass and volumes and worse LV diastolic function. Being free of CAC from young adulthood to middle age correlates to better LV function at middle age. Higher change in CAC score during follow-up is independently related to higher LV mass index in blacks.
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On the accuracy of optically tracked transducers for image-guided transcranial ultrasound.
Chaplin V, Phipps MA, Jonathan SV, Grissom WA, Yang PF, Chen LM, Caskey CF
(2019) Int J Comput Assist Radiol Surg 14: 1317-1327
MeSH Terms: Animals, Brain, Calibration, Equipment Design, Macaca, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Male, Motion, Neuroimaging, Optics and Photonics, Phantoms, Imaging, Prospective Studies, Reproducibility of Results, Thermometry, Transducers, Ultrasonography
Show Abstract · Added March 3, 2020
PURPOSE - Transcranial focused ultrasound (FUS) is increasingly being explored to modulate neuronal activity. To target neuromodulation, researchers often localize the FUS beam onto the brain region(s) of interest using spatially tracked tools overlaid on pre-acquired images. Here, we quantify the accuracy of optically tracked image-guided FUS with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) thermometry, evaluate sources of error and demonstrate feasibility of these procedures to target the macaque somatosensory region.
METHODS - We developed an optically tracked FUS system capable of projecting the transducer focus onto a pre-acquired MRI volume. To measure the target registration error (TRE), we aimed the transducer focus at a desired target in a phantom under image guidance, heated the target while imaging with MR thermometry and then calculated the TRE as the difference between the targeted and heated locations. Multiple targets were measured using either an unbiased or bias-corrected calibration. We then targeted the macaque S1 brain region, where displacement induced by the acoustic radiation force was measured using MR acoustic radiation force imaging (MR-ARFI).
RESULTS - All calibration methods enabled registration with TRE on the order of 3 mm. Unbiased calibration resulted in an average TRE of 3.26 mm (min-max: 2.80-4.53 mm), which was not significantly changed by prospective bias correction (TRE of 3.05 mm; 2.06-3.81 mm, p = 0.55). Restricting motion between the transducer and target and increasing the distance between tracked markers reduced the TRE to 2.43 mm (min-max: 0.79-3.88 mm). MR-ARFI images showed qualitatively similar shape and extent as projected beam profiles in a living non-human primate.
CONCLUSIONS - Our study describes methods for image guidance of FUS neuromodulation and quantifies errors associated with this method in a large animal. The workflow is efficient enough for in vivo use, and we demonstrate transcranial MR-ARFI in vivo in macaques for the first time.
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Accelerating Biomarker Discovery Through Electronic Health Records, Automated Biobanking, and Proteomics.
Wells QS, Gupta DK, Smith JG, Collins SP, Storrow AB, Ferguson J, Smith ML, Pulley JM, Collier S, Wang X, Roden DM, Gerszten RE, Wang TJ
(2019) J Am Coll Cardiol 73: 2195-2205
MeSH Terms: Academic Medical Centers, Acceleration, Aged, Automation, Biological Specimen Banks, Biomarkers, Cohort Studies, Electronic Health Records, Female, Heart Failure, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, Proportional Hazards Models, Prospective Studies, Proteomics, Reproducibility of Results, Risk Assessment, Sensitivity and Specificity, Thrombospondins
Show Abstract · Added March 3, 2020
BACKGROUND - Circulating biomarkers can facilitate diagnosis and risk stratification for complex conditions such as heart failure (HF). Newer molecular platforms can accelerate biomarker discovery, but they require significant resources for data and sample acquisition.
OBJECTIVES - The purpose of this study was to test a pragmatic biomarker discovery strategy integrating automated clinical biobanking with proteomics.
METHODS - Using the electronic health record, the authors identified patients with and without HF, retrieved their discarded plasma samples, and screened these specimens using a DNA aptamer-based proteomic platform (1,129 proteins). Candidate biomarkers were validated in 3 different prospective cohorts.
RESULTS - In an automated manner, plasma samples from 1,315 patients (31% with HF) were collected. Proteomic analysis of a 96-patient subset identified 9 candidate biomarkers (p < 4.42 × 10). Two proteins, angiopoietin-2 and thrombospondin-2, were associated with HF in 3 separate validation cohorts. In an emergency department-based registry of 852 dyspneic patients, the 2 biomarkers improved discrimination of acute HF compared with a clinical score (p < 0.0001) or clinical score plus B-type natriuretic peptide (p = 0.02). In a community-based cohort (n = 768), both biomarkers predicted incident HF independent of traditional risk factors and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (hazard ratio per SD increment: 1.35 [95% confidence interval: 1.14 to 1.61; p = 0.0007] for angiopoietin-2, and 1.37 [95% confidence interval: 1.06 to 1.79; p = 0.02] for thrombospondin-2). Among 30 advanced HF patients, concentrations of both biomarkers declined (80% to 84%) following cardiac transplant (p < 0.001 for both).
CONCLUSIONS - A novel strategy integrating electronic health records, discarded clinical specimens, and proteomics identified 2 biomarkers that robustly predict HF across diverse clinical settings. This approach could accelerate biomarker discovery for many diseases.
Copyright © 2019 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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Arteriopathy Influences Pediatric Ischemic Stroke Presentation, but Sickle Cell Disease Influences Stroke Management.
Guilliams KP, Kirkham FJ, Holzhauer S, Pavlakis S, Philbrook B, Amlie-Lefond C, Noetzel MJ, Dlamini N, Sharma M, Carpenter JL, Fox CK, Torres M, Ichord RN, Jordan LC, Dowling MM
(2019) Stroke 50: 1089-1094
MeSH Terms: Adolescent, Anemia, Sickle Cell, Brain Ischemia, Child, Child, Preschool, Disease Management, Female, Humans, Male, Prospective Studies, Registries, Stroke
Show Abstract · Added March 24, 2020
Background and Purpose- Sickle cell disease (SCD) and arteriopathy are pediatric stroke risk factors that are not mutually exclusive. The relative contributions of sickled red blood cells and arteriopathy to stroke risk are unknown, resulting in unclear guidelines for primary and secondary stroke prevention when both risk factors are present. We hypothesized that despite similarities in clinical presentation and radiographic appearance of arteriopathies, stroke evaluation and management differ in children with SCD compared with those without SCD. Methods- We compared presentation and management of children with and without SCD enrolled in the IPSS (International Pediatric Stroke Study) with acute arterial ischemic stroke, according to SCD and arteriopathy status. Regression modeling determined relative contribution of SCD and arteriopathy in variables with significant frequency differences. Results- Among 930 childhood arterial ischemic strokes, there were 98 children with SCD, 67 of whom had arteriopathy, and 466 without SCD, 392 of whom had arteriopathy. Arteriopathy, regardless of SCD status, increased likelihood of hemiparesis (odds ratio [OR], 1.94; 95% CI, 1.46-2.56) and speech abnormalities (OR, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.29-2.19). Arteriopathy also increased likelihood of headache but only among those without SCD (OR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.40-2.55). Echocardiograms were less frequently obtained in children with SCD (OR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.37-0.93), but the frequency of identified cardiac abnormalities was similar in both groups ( P=0.57). Children with SCD were less likely to receive antithrombotic therapy, even in the presence of arteriopathy (OR, 0.14; 95% CI, 0.08-0.22). Arteriopathy was associated with a significantly higher likelihood of antithrombotic therapy in children without SCD (OR, 5.36; 95% CI, 3.55-8.09). Conclusions- Arteriopathy, and not SCD status, was most influential of stroke presentation. However, SCD status influenced stroke management because children with SCD were less likely to have echocardiograms or receive antithrombotic therapy. Further work is needed to determine whether management differences are warranted.
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Stroke Recurrence in Nigerian Children With Sickle Cell Disease: Evidence for a Secondary Stroke Prevention Trial.
Abdullahi SU, DeBaun MR, Jordan LC, Rodeghier M, Galadanci NA
(2019) Pediatr Neurol 95: 73-78
MeSH Terms: Adolescent, Anemia, Sickle Cell, Antisickling Agents, Child, Child, Preschool, Female, Follow-Up Studies, Humans, Hydroxyurea, Infant, Male, Nigeria, Prospective Studies, Recurrence, Secondary Prevention, Stroke
Show Abstract · Added March 24, 2020
BACKGROUND - To improve the quality of care for children with sickle cell anemia in Kano, Nigeria, we initiated a standard care protocol in 2014 to manage children with strokes at Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital.
METHODS - The standard care protocol requires that children with acute strokes be treated with hydroxyurea at a fixed dose of 20 mg/kg/day within two months of the stroke.
RESULTS - Twenty-nine children with sickle cell anemia and initial stroke were identified based on clinical World Health Organization criteria from 2014 to 2017. Follow-up was a median of 1.04 years (interquartile range 0.43 to 1.83 years) to either July 2017 or a second stroke, corresponding to an initial stroke incidence rate of 0.88 per 100 patient-years. Eight children had a recurrent stroke, six of whom were prescribed hydroxyurea 20 mg/kg/day by two months after initial stroke. Two children died. Six of the recurrent strokes occurred within six months of the initial stroke, two before hydroxyurea prescription. The stroke recurrence rate was 17.4 events per 100 patient-years. Adherence was approximately 60%, partly because families had to pay for hydroxyurea. Stroke incidence is probably underestimated because despite formal training for stroke detection during the quality improvement period, no participant had assessment using a standardized pediatric stroke scale and neuroimaging was not available.
CONCLUSIONS - In children with sickle cell anemia, a high rate of initial and recurrent strokes exists in a low-resource setting. Ongoing needs include training to detect strokes with an objective stroke assessment and government-supported free access to hydroxyurea for stroke prevention.
Copyright © 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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Epidemiology and implications of concurrent diagnosis of eosinophilic oesophagitis and IBD based on a prospective population-based analysis.
Limketkai BN, Shah SC, Hirano I, Bellaguarda E, Colombel JF
(2019) Gut 68: 2152-2160
MeSH Terms: Adolescent, Adult, Aged, Child, Child, Preschool, Comorbidity, Eosinophilic Esophagitis, Female, Follow-Up Studies, Humans, Incidence, Infant, Infant, Newborn, Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, Male, Middle Aged, Population Surveillance, Prevalence, Prospective Studies, Risk Assessment, Risk Factors, United States, Young Adult
Show Abstract · Added March 3, 2020
OBJECTIVE - Eosinophilic oesophagitis (EoO) and IBD are immune-mediated diseases of the gastrointestinal tract with possible overlapping pathogenic mechanisms. Our aim was to define the epidemiology and clinical implications of concurrent EoO and IBD diagnoses.
DESIGN - We conducted a prospective cohort analysis using the Truven MarketScan database (2009-2016) to estimate the incidence and prevalence of EoO in patients with Crohn's disease (CD) or UC and vice versa. Cox proportional hazards and Kaplan-Meier methods were used to estimate the risk of EoO-related or IBD-related complications among patients with concurrent diagnoses.
RESULTS - Among 134 013 536 individuals, the incidence of EoO, CD and UC were 23.1, 51.2 and 55.2 per 100 000 person-years, respectively. The risk of EoO was higher among patients with CD (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 5.4, p<0.01; prevalence ratio (PR) 7.8, p<0.01) or UC (IRR 3.5, p<0.01; PR 5.0, p<0.01), while the risk of IBD was higher among patients with EoO (CD: IRR 5.7, p<0.01; PR 7.6, p<0.01; UC: IRR 3.4, p<0.01; PR 4.9, p<0.01) versus individuals without either diagnosis. Concurrent diagnosis of EoO and IBD was associated with greater composite risk of IBD-related complications (CD: adjusted HR (aHR) 1.09, p=0.01; UC: aHR 1.10, p=0.04) but lower composite risk of EoO-related complications (aHR 0.59; p<0.01).
CONCLUSION - Based on a population-based prospective cohort analysis, the risk of EoO is significantly higher among patients with IBD and vice versa. Concurrent diagnoses might modify the risk of IBD-related and EoO-related complications. Studies defining the mechanisms underlying these observations are needed.
© Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2019. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.
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Associations of Unhealthy Food Environment With the Development of Coronary Artery Calcification: The CARDIA Study.
Kelman J, Pool LR, Gordon-Larsen P, Carr JJ, Terry JG, Rana JS, Kershaw KN
(2019) J Am Heart Assoc 8: e010586
MeSH Terms: Adolescent, Adult, Coronary Angiography, Coronary Artery Disease, Coronary Vessels, Disease Progression, Female, Follow-Up Studies, Food Supply, Forecasting, Humans, Incidence, Male, Prospective Studies, Restaurants, Risk Assessment, Risk Factors, United States, Vascular Calcification, Young Adult
Show Abstract · Added April 3, 2019
Background While prior studies have linked the neighborhood environment and development of subclinical atherosclerosis, it is unknown whether living in neighborhoods with greater availability of "unhealthy" food outlets (fast-food chain restaurants and convenience stores) is associated with risk of developing coronary artery calcification ( CAC ). Methods and Results We included 2706 CARDIA study (Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults) participants who underwent CAC measurement during follow-up years 15 (2000-2001), 20 (2005-2006), and 25 (2010-2011). Neighborhood features examined included percentage of all food outlets that were convenience stores and fast-food chain restaurants within a 3-km Euclidean buffer distance from each participant's residence. Econometric fixed effects models, which by design control for all time-invariant covariates, were used to model the longitudinal association between simultaneous within-person change in percentage food outlet and change in CAC . At baseline (year 15), 9.7% of participants had prevalent CAC . During 10 years of follow-up, 21.1% of participants developed CAC . Each 1-SD increase in percentage of convenience stores was associated with a 1.34 higher odds of developing CAC (95% CI : 1.04, 1.72) after adjusting for individual- and neighborhood-level covariates; however, there was no significant association between increased percentage of fast-food chain restaurants and developing CAC (odds ratio=1.15; 95% CI : 0.96, 1.38). There were no significant associations between increases in either food outlet percentage and progression of CAC . Conclusions Our findings suggest that increases in the relative availability of convenience stores in participants' neighborhoods is related to the development of CAC over time.
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20 MeSH Terms