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Purpose The purpose of this study was to understand the experience of parenting an adolescent with type 1 diabetes (T1DM), to develop a prototype of an eHealth program for parents of adolescents with T1DM, and to evaluate the prototype content and acceptability from the perspective of parents and health care providers. Methods A multiphase method was used generating both qualitative and quantitative data at multiple time points. There were 27 parents of adolescents aged 12 to 18 years with T1DM and 16 health care providers who participated in semistructured interviews to identify parental challenges; 53 parents and 27 providers evaluated the prototype. Thematic content analysis was used to analyze interview transcripts, and descriptive statistics were used to summarize survey data. Results Challenges experienced by parents of adolescents with T1DM included understanding the developmental and hormonal changes of adolescence that affect diabetes care, feeling tension between adolescent independence and parent control, communicating without nagging or conflict, transferring diabetes care responsibility safely, dealing with feelings of stress and distress, and perceiving a lack of resources for T1DM care and insufficient personal time for self-care. In the prototype evaluation, both parents and providers found content to be relevant and provided feedback to guide the development of the full program. Conclusions Parents of adolescents with T1DM and providers expressed a need for parents to have more support in transitioning diabetes care from parent to adolescent. eHealth programs offer an ideal way to address these needs and ultimately can be linked to electronic medical records improving quality and efficiency of health care in this population.
BACKGROUND - Mentorship programs in surgery are used to overcome barriers to clinical and academic productivity, research success, and work-life balance. We sought to determine if the Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma (EAST) Mentoring Program has met its goals of fostering academic and personal growth in young acute care surgeons.
METHODS - We conducted a systematic program evaluation of EAST Mentoring Program's first 4 years. Demographic information was collected from EAST records, mentorship program applications, and mentee-mentor career development plans. We reviewed the career development plans for thematic commonalities and results of a structured, online questionnaire distributed since program inception. A mixed methods approach was used to better understand the program goals from both mentee and mentor perspectives, as well as attitudes and barriers regarding the perceived success of this career development program.
RESULTS - During 2012 to 2015, 65 mentoring dyads were paired and 60 completed the program. Of 184 surveys distributed, 108 were returned (57% response rate). Respondents were evenly distributed between mentees and mentors (53 vs. 55, p = 0.768). In participant surveys, mentoring relationships were viewed to focus on research (45%), "sticky situations" (e.g., communication, work-life balance) (27%), education (18%), or administrative issues (10%). Mentees were more focused on research and education versus mentors (74% vs. 50%; p = 0.040). Mentees felt that goals were "always" or "usually" met versus mentors (89% vs. 77%; p = 0.096). Two barriers to successful mentorship included time and communication, with most pairs communicating by email. Most respondents (91%) planned to continue the relationship beyond the EAST Mentoring Program and recommended the experience to colleagues.
CONCLUSION - Mentee satisfaction with the EAST Mentoring Program was high. Mentoring is a beneficial tool to promote success among EAST's young members, but differences exist between mentee and mentor perceptions. Revising communication expectations and time commitment to improve career development may help our young acute care surgeons.
Our objective was to prospectively evaluate implementation of a new cochlear implant (CI) mapping technique, image-guided cochlear implant programming (IGCIP), at a site distant to the site of development. IGCIP consists of identifying the geometric relationship between CI electrodes and the modiolus and deactivating electrodes that interfere with neighboring electrodes. IGCIP maps for 17 ears of 15 adult CI patients were developed at a central image-processing center, Vanderbilt, and implemented at a distant tertiary care center, House Ear Institute. Before IGCIP and again 4 weeks after, qualitative and quantitative measures were made. While there were no statistically significant groupwise differences detected between baseline and IGCIP qualitative or quantitative measures, 11 of the 17 (64.7%) elected to keep the IGCIP map. Computed tomography (CT) image quality appears to be crucial for successful IGCIP, with 100% of those with high-resolution CT scans keeping their maps compared to 53.8% without.
BACKGROUND - Obesity prevalence is disproportionately high among Hispanic children.
OBJECTIVES - The Healthy Families Study assessed the efficacy of a culturally targeted, family-based weight gain prevention intervention for Hispanic immigrant families with children ages 5-7 years.
METHODS - The study used a two-group, cluster randomized trial design, assigning 136 families (clusters) to the active intervention (weight gain prevention) and 136 families to attention control (oral health). The active intervention included a 4-month intensive phase (eight classes) and an 8-month reinforcement phase (monthly mail/telephone contact). Children's body mass index z-score (BMI-Z) was the primary outcome.
RESULTS - The BMI-Z growth rate of the active intervention group did not differ from the attention control group at short-term follow-up (median 6 months; 168 families, 206 children) or long-term follow-up (median 16 months; 142 families, 169 children). Dose response analyses indicated a slower increase in BMI-Z at short term among overweight/obese children who attended more intervention classes. Moderate physical activity on weekends increased at short term. Weekend screen time decreased at short term among those attending at least one class session.
CONCLUSION - Low class attendance likely impacted intention-to-treat results. Future interventions targeting this population should test innovative strategies to maximize intervention engagement to produce and sustain effects on weight gain prevention.
© 2016 World Obesity Federation.
OBJECTIVES - We describe the development, implementation, and evaluation of a model to pre-emptively select patients for genotyping based on medication exposure risk.
STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING - Using deidentified electronic health records, we derived a prognostic model for the prescription of statins, warfarin, or clopidogrel. The model was implemented into a clinical decision support (CDS) tool to recommend pre-emptive genotyping for patients exceeding a prescription risk threshold. We evaluated the rule on an independent validation cohort and on an implementation cohort, representing the population in which the CDS tool was deployed.
RESULTS - The model exhibited moderate discrimination with area under the receiver operator characteristic curves ranging from 0.68 to 0.75 at 1 and 2 years after index dates. Risk estimates tended to underestimate true risk. The cumulative incidences of medication prescriptions at 1 and 2 years were 0.35 and 0.48, respectively, among 1,673 patients flagged by the model. The cumulative incidences in the same number of randomly sampled subjects were 0.12 and 0.19, and in patients over 50 years with the highest body mass indices, they were 0.22 and 0.34.
CONCLUSION - We demonstrate that prognostic algorithms can guide pre-emptive pharmacogenetic testing toward those likely to benefit from it.
Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
BACKGROUND - Very few efforts have been undertaken to scale-up low-cost approaches to cervical cancer prevention in low-resource countries.
METHODS - In a public sector cervical cancer prevention program in Zambia, nurses provided visual-inspection with acetic acid (VIA) and cryotherapy in clinics co-housed with HIV/AIDS programs, and referred women with complex lesions for histopathologic evaluation. Low-cost technological adaptations were deployed for improving VIA detection, facilitating expert physician opinion, and ensuring quality assurance. Key process and outcome indicators were derived by analyzing electronic medical records to evaluate program expansion efforts.
FINDINGS - Between 2006-2013, screening services were expanded from 2 to 12 clinics in Lusaka, the most-populous province in Zambia, through which 102,942 women were screened. The majority (71.7%) were in the target age-range of 25-49 years; 28% were HIV-positive. Out of 101,867 with evaluable data, 20,419 (20%) were VIA positive, of whom 11,508 (56.4%) were treated with cryotherapy, and 8,911 (43.6%) were referred for histopathologic evaluation. Most women (87%, 86,301 of 98,961 evaluable) received same-day services (including 5% undergoing same-visit cryotherapy and 82% screening VIA-negative). The proportion of women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 and worse (CIN2+) among those referred for histopathologic evaluation was 44.1% (1,735/3,938 with histopathology results). Detection rates for CIN2+ and invasive cervical cancer were 17 and 7 per 1,000 women screened, respectively. Women with HIV were more likely to screen positive, to be referred for histopathologic evaluation, and to have cervical precancer and cancer than HIV-negative women.
INTERPRETATION - We creatively disrupted the 'no screening' status quo prevailing in Zambia and addressed the heavy burden of cervical disease among previously unscreened women by establishing and scaling-up public-sector screening and treatment services at a population level. Key determinants for successful expansion included leveraging HIV/AIDS program investments, and context-specific information technology applications for quality assurance and filling human resource gaps.
OBJECT - Recent legislation and media coverage have heightened awareness of concussion in youth sports. Previous work by the authors' group defined significant variation of care in management of children with concussion. To address this variation, a multidisciplinary concussion program was established based on a uniform management protocol, with emphasis on community outreach via traditional media sources and the Internet. This retrospective study evaluates the impact of standardization of concussion care and resource utilization before and after standardization in a large regional pediatric hospital center.
METHODS - This retrospective study included all patients younger than 18 years of age evaluated for sports-related concussion between January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2011. Emergency department, sports medicine, and neurosurgery records were reviewed. Data collected included demographics, injury details, clinical course, Sports Concussion Assessment Tool-2 (SCAT2) scores, imaging, discharge instructions, and referral for specialty care. The cohort was analyzed comparing patients evaluated before and after standardization of care.
RESULTS - Five hundred eighty-nine patients were identified, including 270 before standardization (2007-2011) and 319 after standardization (2011-2012). Statistically significant differences (p < 0.0001) were observed between the 2 groups for multiple variables: there were more girls, more first-time concussions, fewer initial presentations to the emergency department, more consistent administration of the SCAT2, and more consistent supervision of return to play and return to think after adoption of the protocol.
CONCLUSIONS - A combination of increased public awareness and legislation has led to a 5-fold increase in the number of youth athletes presenting for concussion evaluation at the authors' center. Establishment of a multidisciplinary clinic with a standardized protocol resulted in significantly decreased institutional resource utilization and more consistent concussion care for this growing patient population.
BACKGROUND - In 2011, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education Surgery Residency Review Committee first provided guidelines for elective international general surgery rotations. The Vanderbilt general surgery residency program received Surgery Residency Review Committee approval for a fourth-year elective in Kenya beginning in the 2011-2012 academic year. Because this rotation would break ground culturally and geographically, and as an educational partnership, a briefing and debriefing process was developed for this ground-breaking year.
OBJECTIVES - Our objectives were to prepare residents to maximize the experience without competing for cases with local trainees or overburdening the host institution and to perform continuous quality assessment and improvement as each resident returned back.
METHODS - Briefing included health protection strategies, a procedures manual containing step-by-step preparation activities, and cultural-sensitivity training. Institutional Review Board exemption approval was obtained to administer a questionnaire created for returning residents concerning educational value, relations with local trainees, physical environment, and personal perceptions that would provide the scaffold for the debriefing conference.
RESULTS - The questionnaire coupled with the debriefing discussion for the first 9 participants revealed overall satisfaction with the rotation and the briefing process, good health, and no duty hours or days-off issues. Other findings include the following: (1) emotional effect of observing African families weigh cost in medical decision making; (2) satisfactory access to educational resources; (3) significant exposure to specialties such as urology and radiology; and (4) toleration of 4 weeks as a single and expressed need for leisure activity materials such as books, DVDs, or games. The responses triggered adjustments in the briefing sessions and travel preparation. The host institution invited the residents to return for the 2012-2013 year as well as 2013-2014.
CONCLUSION - Detailed preparation and the follow-up evaluation for assessment and improvement of this nascent international surgery experience are associated with resident satisfaction and the host institution has agreed to continue the rotation.
Copyright © 2013 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. All rights reserved.