The publication data currently available has been vetted by Vanderbilt faculty, staff, administrators and trainees. The data itself is retrieved directly from NCBI's PubMed and is automatically updated on a weekly basis to ensure accuracy and completeness.
If you have any questions or comments, please contact us.
The role of cholecystokinin in bombesin-stimulated pancreatic secretion in dogs was examined by the use of a specific cholecystokinin antagonist, proglumide. The primary component of bombesin-stimulated pancreatic secretion at the lowest tested dose was due to cholecystokinin, with only 25 percent of bombesin-stimulated protein output preserved during proglumide infusion. Maximal stimulation of cholecystokinin release was achieved by even the lowest dose of bombesin, whereas dose-related increases in bombesin-stimulated protein secretion were observed. This increase in exocrine secretion is probably explained by increased direct bombesin stimulation. Our findings suggest that the maximal dose of bombesin is lower for cholecystokinin release than its effective dose for enzyme secretion. We conclude that, in all probability, postprandial release of bombesin (or its analogue, gastrin-releasing peptide) affects pancreatic function primarily through release of cholecystokinin.
We have recently demonstrated that gastrin stimulates growth of mouse colon cancer (MC-26) in vivo by regulation of gastrin receptors (GR). In the present study, we have tested the effect of proglumide (PGL), a GR antagonist, on the trophic and GR-regulatory effects of gastrin on MC-26 tumors. Four groups of 12 mice each were inoculated with 5 X 10(4) MC-26 cells and given injections of either normal saline (control), pentagastrin (PG), PGL, or both PG + PGL for 21 days. At the end of the treatment period, body, tumor, fundic, and colon weights were noted and GR measured. Two types of specific gastrin-binding sites were found on tumor cell membranes of control mice, one with high binding affinity (Kd = less than 1.0 nM) and low capacity (GR), and the other with a very high capacity and a low affinity (Kd = greater than 0.1 microM) (type 2 gastrin-binding sites). Only the type 1 GR were observed on the fundic mucosal and colon membranes. PG treatment resulted in a significant weight increase of the tumors with an up-regulation of only type 1 GR. On the other hand, PG had no significant effect on fundic mucosal and colonic GR levels, but caused a significant increase in fundic mucosal weights. PGL completely inhibited both the trophic and GR up-regulatory effects of PG on tumors, but incompletely reduced the PG-stimulated fundic mucosal weight gain, indicating differential sensitivity of tumor and normal tissues to PGL. PGL, in the absence of PG, was slightly trophic for normal fundic mucosa, but had no effect on MC-26 tumors and normal colon. The one striking effect of PGL, in the presence of PG, was the significant lowering of the binding affinity of type 1 GR for gastrin on both the tumor and normal gastrointestinal tissues. This effect may be another mechanism by which PGL interferes with the actions of PG on MC-26 tumors and fundic mucosa of mice.
Some tumors are responsive to hormone manipulation. Some gastric and colonic adenocarcinomas from both humans and animals have specific gastrin receptors. A transplantable mouse colon adenocarcinoma cell line (MC-26) contains gastrin receptors; growth of MC-26 colon cancer in vivo is stimulated by pentagastrin (PG). The purpose of this study was to determine whether a gastrin-receptor antagonist, proglumide (PGL), would inhibit growth of MC-26 colon cancer and prolong survival in tumor-bearing mice. Subcutaneous tumors were induced by injecting single-cell suspensions of MC-26 cells into 50 mice divided into 10/group. In Experiment 1, all mice received 1 X 10(5) tumor cells and treatment groups were divided as follows: Group A received intraperitoneal (IP) saline (0.2 ml tid beginning on day 1); B, IP, PGL (250 mg/kg tid) from day of tumor cell inoculation; and C, IP PGL (250 mg/kg tid) from day 7 after tumor implantation. In Experiment 2, mice were inoculated with half the number of tumor cells. Group I mice received saline and Group II received PGL in the same manner starting on day 1. Tumors were measured and all mice were sacrificed on day 23. In Experiment 1, mean tumor area in Group B (PGL-treated) was significantly smaller than Group A on days 11, 14, 17, and 21. Tumors of Group C were significantly smaller than controls on day 21. Survival of PGL-treated mice was significantly prolonged. In Experiment 2, mean tumor area, mean tumor weight, and tumor DNA and RNA content were significantly less in the PGL-treated group than control. It was concluded that growth of a gastrin-responsive colon cancer was inhibited and host survival was enhanced by treatment with a gastrin-receptor antagonist. Hormone manipulation may be a useful treatment for gastrointestinal cancers.
Exogenously administered cholecystokinin is a potent stimulant of pancreatic exocrine secretion and pancreatic polypeptide release. Release of cholecystokinin by amino acids and fats is strongly correlated with both pancreatic exocrine secretion and pancreatic polypeptide release. Despite this correlation, direct evidence that cholecystokinin is a physiologic mediator of these actions is not available. We have studied this problem in fasted dogs with chronic pancreatic fistulas by means of a specific cholecystokinin antagonist, proglumide, to inhibit the effect of cholecystokinin. Secretion, neurotensin (with secretin stimulation infusion), or cholecystokinin-octapeptide was infused intravenously, either with saline solution or with proglumide (300 mg/kg/hr). For endogenous release of cholecystokinin, intraduodenal infusions of phenylalanine and tryptophan or of sodium oleate were given with either intravenous saline solution or intravenous proglumide. Pancreatic secretion and release of cholecystokinin and pancreatic polypeptide were measured in plasma. Cholecystokinin-octapeptide stimulated pancreatic secretion of water and protein; both of these were significantly inhibited by proglumide. Intraduodenal amino acids and sodium oleate both caused significant release of cholecystokinin, which was not altered by proglumide; however, proglumide inhibited pancreatic secretion stimulated by intraduodenal amino acids and sodium oleate. Release of pancreatic polypeptide stimulated by amino acid and sodium oleate was also significantly inhibited by proglumide. Since proglumide appears to block actions of cholecystokinin, our results show that cholecystokinin is physiologically important for pancreatic secretion and for release of pancreatic polypeptide.
The objective of this study was to characterize the effect of proglumide, a cholecystokinin (CCK) antagonist, on gallbladder contraction stimulated by CCK in conscious dogs. The gallbladder contraction was monitored by a strain-gauge force transducer that was chronically sutured onto the serosal surface of the gallbladder. The results of this study show that proglumide, given as an intravenous bolus (2.5, 5, 10, 20, and 40 mg/kg) or as a continuous intravenous infusion (150 or 300 mg/kg/h, 10 min), can block the stimulatory action of CCK in a dose-related manner. Bolus administration of proglumide resulted in a transient inhibition, whereas continuous infusion of proglumide resulted in a prolonged antagonism of CCK-stimulated gallbladder contraction. Review of the data leads to the conclusion that the antagonistic action of intravenously administered proglumide on CCK-stimulated gallbladder contraction may be characterized as rapid and reversible.