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Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics-2020 Update: A Report From the American Heart Association.
Virani SS, Alonso A, Benjamin EJ, Bittencourt MS, Callaway CW, Carson AP, Chamberlain AM, Chang AR, Cheng S, Delling FN, Djousse L, Elkind MSV, Ferguson JF, Fornage M, Khan SS, Kissela BM, Knutson KL, Kwan TW, Lackland DT, Lewis TT, Lichtman JH, Longenecker CT, Loop MS, Lutsey PL, Martin SS, Matsushita K, Moran AE, Mussolino ME, Perak AM, Rosamond WD, Roth GA, Sampson UKA, Satou GM, Schroeder EB, Shah SH, Shay CM, Spartano NL, Stokes A, Tirschwell DL, VanWagner LB, Tsao CW, American Heart Association Council on Epidemiology and Prevention Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee
(2020) Circulation 141: e139-e596
MeSH Terms: American Heart Association, Comorbidity, Health Status, Heart Diseases, Humans, Life Style, Preventive Health Services, Protective Factors, Risk Assessment, Risk Factors, Risk Reduction Behavior, Stroke, Time Factors, United States
Show Abstract · Added March 3, 2020
BACKGROUND - The American Heart Association, in conjunction with the National Institutes of Health, annually reports on the most up-to-date statistics related to heart disease, stroke, and cardiovascular risk factors, including core health behaviors (smoking, physical activity, diet, and weight) and health factors (cholesterol, blood pressure, and glucose control) that contribute to cardiovascular health. The Statistical Update presents the latest data on a range of major clinical heart and circulatory disease conditions (including stroke, congenital heart disease, rhythm disorders, subclinical atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, heart failure, valvular disease, venous disease, and peripheral artery disease) and the associated outcomes (including quality of care, procedures, and economic costs).
METHODS - The American Heart Association, through its Statistics Committee, continuously monitors and evaluates sources of data on heart disease and stroke in the United States to provide the most current information available in the annual Statistical Update. The 2020 Statistical Update is the product of a full year's worth of effort by dedicated volunteer clinicians and scientists, committed government professionals, and American Heart Association staff members. This year's edition includes data on the monitoring and benefits of cardiovascular health in the population, metrics to assess and monitor healthy diets, an enhanced focus on social determinants of health, a focus on the global burden of cardiovascular disease, and further evidence-based approaches to changing behaviors, implementation strategies, and implications of the American Heart Association's 2020 Impact Goals.
RESULTS - Each of the 26 chapters in the Statistical Update focuses on a different topic related to heart disease and stroke statistics.
CONCLUSIONS - The Statistical Update represents a critical resource for the lay public, policy makers, media professionals, clinicians, healthcare administrators, researchers, health advocates, and others seeking the best available data on these factors and conditions.
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14 MeSH Terms
Pregnancy Intention and Maternal Alcohol Consumption.
Pryor J, Patrick SW, Sundermann AC, Wu P, Hartmann KE
(2017) Obstet Gynecol 129: 727-733
MeSH Terms: Adult, Alcohol Drinking, Cohort Studies, Female, Health Promotion, Humans, Intention, Pregnancy, Pregnancy Trimester, First, Pregnancy, Unplanned, Preventive Health Services, Reproductive Behavior, Reproductive Health Services, Risk Reduction Behavior, Tennessee
Show Abstract · Added February 21, 2019
OBJECTIVE - To evaluate whether women planning a pregnancy are less likely to use alcohol in early pregnancy than those with unintended pregnancies.
METHODS - Right From the Start (2000-2012) is a prospective, community-based pregnancy cohort. Maternal demographic, reproductive, and behavioral data were collected in telephone interviews at enrollment (mean±standard deviation 48±13 days of gestation) and later in the first trimester (mean±standard deviation 85±21 days of gestation). Alcohol consumption characteristics were included in the interviews. We used logistic regression to investigate the association of pregnancy intention with alcohol use.
RESULTS - Among 5,036 women, 55% reported using alcohol in the first trimester with 6% continuing use at the first-trimester interview. Pregnancy was planned by 70% of participants. Alcohol use occurred in 55% and 56% of intended and unintended pregnancies, respectively (P=.32). Adjusting for confounders, women with intended pregnancies were 31% less likely to consume any alcohol in early pregnancy (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.69, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.60-0.81) or binge drink (adjusted OR 0.68, 95% CI 0.54-0.86). Most women, regardless of intention, stopped or decreased alcohol consumption in early pregnancy.
CONCLUSION - The majority of women, irrespective of intention, stopped or decreased drinking after pregnancy recognition. This suggests promoting early pregnancy awareness could prove more effective than promoting abstinence from alcohol among all who could conceive.
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MeSH Terms
Nutrigenomics, the Microbiome, and Gene-Environment Interactions: New Directions in Cardiovascular Disease Research, Prevention, and Treatment: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.
Ferguson JF, Allayee H, Gerszten RE, Ideraabdullah F, Kris-Etherton PM, Ordovás JM, Rimm EB, Wang TJ, Bennett BJ, American Heart Association Council on Functional Genomics and Translational Biology, Council on Epidemiology and Prevention, and Stroke Council
(2016) Circ Cardiovasc Genet 9: 291-313
MeSH Terms: American Heart Association, Animals, Biomedical Research, Cardiovascular Diseases, Diet, Diffusion of Innovation, Epigenesis, Genetic, Forecasting, Gastrointestinal Microbiome, Gastrointestinal Tract, Gene-Environment Interaction, Genetic Predisposition to Disease, Genetic Variation, Host-Pathogen Interactions, Humans, Metagenomics, Nutrigenomics, Nutrition Assessment, Nutritional Status, Phenotype, Preventive Health Services, Risk Assessment, Risk Factors, United States
Show Abstract · Added June 14, 2016
Cardiometabolic diseases are the leading cause of death worldwide and are strongly linked to both genetic and nutritional factors. The field of nutrigenomics encompasses multiple approaches aimed at understanding the effects of diet on health or disease development, including nutrigenetic studies investigating the relationship between genetic variants and diet in modulating cardiometabolic risk, as well as the effects of dietary components on multiple "omic" measures, including transcriptomics, metabolomics, proteomics, lipidomics, epigenetic modifications, and the microbiome. Here, we describe the current state of the field of nutrigenomics with respect to cardiometabolic disease research and outline a direction for the integration of multiple omics techniques in future nutrigenomic studies aimed at understanding mechanisms and developing new therapeutic options for cardiometabolic disease treatment and prevention.
© 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.
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24 MeSH Terms
Use of Six Sigma for eliminating missed opportunities for prevention services.
Gittner LS, Husaini BA, Hull PC, Emerson JS, Tropez-Sims S, Reece MC, Zoorob R, Levine RS
(2015) J Nurs Care Qual 30: 254-60
MeSH Terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities, Evidence-Based Nursing, Female, Humans, Male, Medical Staff, Minority Groups, Nurse Administrators, Organizational Case Studies, Preventive Health Services, Primary Health Care, Quality Improvement, Total Quality Management
Show Abstract · Added February 21, 2017
Delivery of primary care preventative services can be significantly increased utilizing Six Sigma methods. Missed preventative service opportunities were compared in the study clinic with the community clinic in the same practice. The study clinic had 100% preventative services, compared with only 16.3% in the community clinic. Preventative services can be enhanced to Six Sigma quality when the nurse executive and medical staff agree on a single standard of nursing care executed via standing orders.
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13 MeSH Terms
A meta-analysis of the effects of dropout prevention programs on school absenteeism.
Tanner-Smith EE, Wilson SJ
(2013) Prev Sci 14: 468-78
MeSH Terms: Absenteeism, Humans, Preventive Health Services, School Health Services
Show Abstract · Added February 22, 2016
This study reports findings from a systematic review and meta-analysis of literature examining the effects of school dropout prevention and intervention programs on students' school absenteeism outcomes. The meta-analysis synthesized 74 effect sizes measuring posttest differences in school absenteeism outcomes for youth enrolled in dropout prevention programs relative to a comparison group. Although results from randomized controlled trials indicated significant beneficial program effects, findings from quasi-experimental studies indicated no significant beneficial or detrimental effects. Examination of study characteristics suggested that dropout programs may have beneficial effects on school absenteeism among primarily male samples, and younger samples. Although no single type of intervention program was consistently more effective than others, vocational oriented and supplemental academic training programs showed some promise. However, the inconsistency in results and the possibility of small study bias mean the quality of evidence in this literature is low; at this time there is not enough evidence to conclude that dropout prevention programs have a universal impact on youth's school absenteeism outcomes.
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4 MeSH Terms
A community-driven intervention for prostate cancer screening in African Americans.
Patel K, Ukoli F, Liu J, Beech D, Beard K, Brown B, Sanderson M, Kenerson D, Cooper L, Canto M, Blot B, Hargreaves M
(2013) Health Educ Behav 40: 11-8
MeSH Terms: African Americans, Early Detection of Cancer, Educational Status, Health Services Accessibility, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, Patient Acceptance of Health Care, Patient Education as Topic, Preventive Health Services, Prostatic Neoplasms, Socioeconomic Factors
Show Abstract · Added March 11, 2014
The purpose of the study was to assess the impact of an educational intervention on prostate cancer screening behavior and knowledge. Participants were 104 African American men, 45 years and older, who had not been screened for prostate cancer with a prostate-specific antigen and/or digital rectal exam within the past year. All participants received an intervention delivered by trained lay community educators using a prostate cancer educational brochure developed in collaboration with the community, with structured interviews preintervention and 3 months postintervention. The main study outcomes included prostate-specific antigen screening rates during the 3-month interval and knowledge, barriers to screenings, and decisional conflict around screening. Compared with the 46 men who did not get screened, the 58 participants who got screened were more likely to have greater than a high school education, annual household incomes ≥$25,000, and a family history of non-prostate cancer (p < .05). Average knowledge scores increased, and barriers to screening scores decreased, from preintervention to postintervention only for participants who had been screened (p < .05). The results of this study demonstrate the feasibility and efficacy of an academic institution collaborating with the African American community to develop a successful prostate cancer educational intervention, an approach that can be expanded to other cancers and other chronic diseases.
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12 MeSH Terms
Commentary on Valentine, Jeffrey, et al.: Replication in prevention science. The Advisory Board of Blueprints for Violence Prevention.
Aos S, Cook TD, Elliott DS, Gottfredson DC, Hawkins JD, Lipsey MW, Tolan P
(2011) Prev Sci 12: 121-2; discussion 123-5
MeSH Terms: Preventive Health Services, Reproducibility of Results
Added May 19, 2014
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2 MeSH Terms
Integrating cervical cancer prevention in HIV/AIDS treatment and care programmes.
Mwanahamuntu MH, Sahasrabuddhe VV, Stringer JS, Parham GP
(2008) Bull World Health Organ 86: D-E
MeSH Terms: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, Africa South of the Sahara, Cooperative Behavior, Delivery of Health Care, Integrated, Female, HIV Infections, Humans, Mass Screening, Preventive Health Services, Reproductive Health Services, Uterine Cervical Neoplasms
Added March 5, 2014
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11 MeSH Terms
Prompting clinicians about preventive care measures: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials.
Dexheimer JW, Talbot TR, Sanders DL, Rosenbloom ST, Aronsky D
(2008) J Am Med Inform Assoc 15: 311-20
MeSH Terms: Humans, Practice Patterns, Physicians', Preventive Health Services, Preventive Medicine, Quality Assurance, Health Care, Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic, Reminder Systems
Show Abstract · Added December 10, 2013
Preventive care measures remain underutilized despite recommendations to increase their use. The objective of this review was to examine the characteristics, types, and effects of paper- and computer-based interventions for preventive care measures. The study provides an update to a previous systematic review. We included randomized controlled trials that implemented a physician reminder and measured the effects on the frequency of providing preventive care. Of the 1,535 articles identified, 28 met inclusion criteria and were combined with the 33 studies from the previous review. The studies involved 264 preventive care interventions, 4,638 clinicians and 144,605 patients. Implementation strategies included combined paper-based with computer generated reminders in 34 studies (56%), paper-based reminders in 19 studies (31%), and fully computerized reminders in 8 studies (13%). The average increase for the three strategies in delivering preventive care measures ranged between 12% and 14%. Cardiac care and smoking cessation reminders were most effective. Computer-generated prompts were the most commonly implemented reminders. Clinician reminders are a successful approach for increasing the rates of delivering preventive care; however, their effectiveness remains modest. Despite increased implementation of electronic health records, randomized controlled trials evaluating computerized reminder systems are infrequent.
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7 MeSH Terms
EPSDT preventive services in a low-income pediatric population: impact of a nursing protocol.
Hull PC, Husaini BA, Tropez-Sims S, Reece M, Emerson J, Levine R
(2008) Clin Pediatr (Phila) 47: 137-42
MeSH Terms: Adolescent, Child, Child, Preschool, Feasibility Studies, Female, Humans, Infant, Mass Screening, Medicaid, Nursing Assessment, Office Visits, Pediatrics, Poverty, Preventive Health Services, Primary Health Care, United States
Show Abstract · Added March 5, 2014
Medicaid mandates coverage of clinical preventive services for children under the Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment program (EPSDT). This article assesses the usefulness of a nursing protocol for delivering comprehensive EPSDT services to pediatric patients during any primary care visit. Secondary data from a recent controlled trial were analyzed. An intervention group received the clinical protocol (n = 514 children in a low-income pediatric clinic), whereas data from a "usual care" comparison group were obtained from medical records (n = 115 children). The nursing protocol included 52 items corresponding to EPSDT services and was administered by a prevention nurse. In the intervention group, 11 605 out of 11 607 (approximately 100.0%) EPSDT service needs were initiated, as compared to 21.2% (572 out of 2695) in the comparison group (P < .001). The study demonstrates the feasibility of using a nursing protocol to integrate EPSDT clinical preventive services into pediatric visits.
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16 MeSH Terms