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BACKGROUND - Ablation is a widely used therapy for atrial fibrillation (AF); however, arrhythmia recurrence and repeat procedures are common. Studies examining surrogate markers of genetic susceptibility to AF, such as family history and individual AF susceptibility alleles, suggest these may be associated with recurrence outcomes. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to test the association between AF genetic susceptibility and recurrence after ablation using a comprehensive polygenic risk score for AF.
METHODS - Ten centers from the AF Genetics Consortium identified patients who had undergone de novo AF ablation. AF genetic susceptibility was measured using a previously described polygenic risk score (N=929 single-nucleotide polymorphisms) and tested for an association with clinical characteristics and time-to-recurrence with a 3 month blanking period. Recurrence was defined as >30 seconds of AF, atrial flutter, or atrial tachycardia. Multivariable analysis adjusted for age, sex, height, body mass index, persistent AF, hypertension, coronary disease, left atrial size, left ventricular ejection fraction, and year of ablation.
RESULTS - Four thousand two hundred seventy-six patients were eligible for analysis of baseline characteristics and 3259 for recurrence outcomes. The overall arrhythmia recurrence rate between 3 and 12 months was 44% (1443/3259). Patients with higher AF genetic susceptibility were younger (<0.001) and had fewer clinical risk factors for AF (=0.001). Persistent AF (hazard ratio [HR], 1.39 [95% CI, 1.22-1.58]; <0.001), left atrial size (per cm: HR, 1.32 [95% CI, 1.19-1.46]; <0.001), and left ventricular ejection fraction (per 10%: HR, 0.88 [95% CI, 0.80-0.97]; =0.008) were associated with increased risk of recurrence. In univariate analysis, higher AF genetic susceptibility trended towards a higher risk of recurrence (HR, 1.08 [95% CI, 0.99-1.18]; =0.07), which became less significant in multivariable analysis (HR, 1.06 [95% CI, 0.98-1.15]; =0.13).
CONCLUSIONS - Higher AF genetic susceptibility was associated with younger age and fewer clinical risk factors but not recurrence. Arrhythmia recurrence after AF ablation may represent a genetically different phenotype compared to AF susceptibility.
OBJECTIVES - Recent increases in opioid-related mortality have prompted a critical evaluation of postoperative pain management across all specialties. However, successfully limiting narcotic overprescription requires perioperative identification of patients who are at risk for high postoperative pain. Unfortunately, quality data to guide practice patterns are lacking. We therefore prospectively investigated several possible predictive factors of postoperative pain after endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS).
METHODS - Sixty-four consecutive patients undergoing ESS were enrolled. Baseline 22-item SinoNasal Outcomes Test (SNOT-22) and Short-Form 8 (SF-8) scores were obtained. Pain scores were collected postoperatively using a numeric rating scale. Spearman correlations and univariate linear regression models were used to investigate relationships between postoperative pain, patient factors, and SNOT-22/SF-8 domain scores. Multivariate linear regression was then performed to control for potential confounding variables.
RESULTS - Day-of-surgery pain scores were significantly correlated with the SF-8 role-physical domain (Rs = 0.32, P = 0.04). Whereas SF-8 pain scores were initially nonsignificant, at postoperative day 3 (POD3) the preoperative SF-8 pain score became correlated with self-reported pain (Rs = 0.39, P = 0.02). SNOT-22 total and subdomain scores were not associated with pain scores at any time point. Multivariate linear regression modelling identified baseline SF-8 role-physical and pain scores, smoking status, and undergoing a modified Lothrop procedure as significant independent predictors of POD3 pain (adjusted R = 0.359, P < 0.0001).
CONCLUSION - Baseline patient-reported global quality-of-life measures are associated with postoperative pain after ESS. Large multicenter studies are necessary to validate these findings and investigate additional factors associated with postoperative pain following ESS.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE - 2c Laryngoscope, 129:1274-1279, 2019.
© 2019 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.
BACKGROUND - Acute kidney injury (AKI) after cardiac surgery is associated with increased short- and long-term mortality. Inflammation, oxidative stress, and endothelial dysfunction and damage play important roles in the development of AKI. High-density lipoproteins (HDLs) have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties and improve endothelial function and repair. Statins enhance HDL's anti-inflammatory and antioxidant capacities. We hypothesized that a higher preoperative HDL cholesterol concentration is associated with decreased AKI after cardiac surgery and that perioperative statin exposure potentiates this association.
METHODS AND RESULTS - We tested our hypothesis in 391 subjects from a randomized clinical trial of perioperative atorvastatin to reduce AKI after cardiac surgery. A 2-component latent variable mixture model was used to assess the association between preoperative HDL cholesterol concentration and postoperative change in serum creatinine, adjusted for known AKI risk factors and suspected confounders. Interaction terms were used to examine the effects of preoperative statin use, preoperative statin dose, and perioperative atorvastatin treatment on the association between preoperative HDL and AKI. A higher preoperative HDL cholesterol concentration was independently associated with a decreased postoperative serum creatinine change (=0.02). The association between a high HDL concentration and an attenuated increase in serum creatinine was strongest in long-term statin-using patients (=0.008) and was further enhanced with perioperative atorvastatin treatment (=0.004) and increasing long-term statin dose (=0.003).
CONCLUSIONS - A higher preoperative HDL cholesterol concentration was associated with decreased AKI after cardiac surgery. Preoperative and perioperative statin treatment enhanced this association, demonstrating that pharmacological potentiation is possible during the perioperative period.
CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION - URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique Identifier: NCT00791648.
© 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.
BACKGROUND - Thrombocytosis has been associated with poor ovarian cancer prognosis. However, comparisons of thresholds to define thrombocytosis and evaluation of relevant timing of platelet measurement has not been previously conducted.
METHODS - We selected Tumor Registry confirmed ovarian, primary peritoneal, and fallopian tube cancer cases diagnosed between 1995-2013 from the Vanderbilt University Medical Center. Laboratory measured platelet values from electronic medical records (EMR) were used to determine thrombocytosis at three thresholds: a platelet count greater than 350, 400, or 450 × 10(9)/liter. Timing was evaluated with 5 intervals: on the date of diagnosis, and up to 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks prior to the date of diagnosis. Cox regression was used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and confidence intervals (CI) for association with overall survival; adjustment included age, stage, grade, and histologic subtype of disease.
RESULTS - Pre-diagnosis platelet measures were available for 136, 241, 280, 297, and 304 cases in the five intervals. The prevalence of thrombocytosis decreased with increasing thresholds and was generally consistent across the five time intervals, ranging from 44.8-53.2 %, 31.6-39.4 %, and 19.9-26.1 % across the three thresholds. Associations with higher grade and stage of disease gained significance as the threshold increased. With the exception of the lowest threshold on the date of diagnosis (HR350: 1.55, 95 % CI: 0.97-2.47), all other survival associations were significant, with the highest reaching twice the risk of death for thrombocytosis on the date of diagnosis (HR400: 2.01, 95 % CI: 1.25-3.23).
CONCLUSIONS - Our EMR approach yielded associations comparable to published findings from medical record abstraction approaches. In addition, our results indicate that lower thrombocytosis thresholds and platelet measures up to 8 weeks before diagnosis may inform ovarian cancer characteristics and prognosis.
BACKGROUND - Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) core competencies of systems-based practice and practice-based learning and improvement are difficult to assess, as they are often not directly measurable or observable. Reviewing day-of-surgery cancellations could provide resident learning opportunities in these areas.
OBJECTIVE - An automated system to facilitate anesthesiology resident review of cancelled cases was implemented on the Preoperative Evaluation Clinic (PEC) rotation at the authors' institution. This study aims to evaluate its impact on resident education.
METHODS - Residents on the PEC rotation during the 6 months preceding (n = 22) and following (n = 13) implementation in 2014 were surveyed about their experience performing cancelled case reviews in order to ascertain the effect of the intervention on their training.
RESULTS - Significant changes were reported in the number of cases reviewed by each resident (p < 0.0001), perceived importance of review (p = 0.03), and ease of review (p = 0.03) after system implementation. There was also an increase in the proportion of cancelled cases reviewed from 17.3% (34 of 196) to 95.6% (194 of 203) (p < 0.0001). Non-significant trends were seen in perceived rotation effect on ACGME competencies, including systems-based practice. Several specific improvements to our clinical practice, including the creation of standardized guidelines, arose from these case reviews.
CONCLUSION - Implementation of automated systems can improve compliance with educational goals by clarifying priorities and simplifying workflow. This system increased the number of cases reviewed by residents and the perceived importance of this review as a part of their educational experience.
OBJECTIVE Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a common hospital-acquired infection. Previous reports on the incidence, risk factors, and impact of CDI on resources in the surgical population are limited. In this context, we study CDI across diverse surgical settings. METHODS We prospectively identified patients with laboratory-confirmed postoperative CDI after 40 different general, vascular, or gynecologic surgeries at 52 academic and community hospitals between July 2012 and September 2013. We used multivariable regression models to identify CDI risk factors and to determine the impact of CDI on resource utilization. RESULTS Of 35,363 patients, 179 (0.51%) developed postoperative CDI. The highest rates of CDI occurred after lower-extremity amputation (2.6%), followed by bowel resection or repair (0.9%) and gastric or esophageal operations (0.7%). Gynecologic and endocrine operations had the lowest rates (0.1% and 0%, respectively). By multivariable analyses, older age, chronic immunosuppression, hypoalbuminemia (≤3.5 g/dL), and preoperative sepsis were associated with CDI. Use of prophylactic antibiotics was not independently associated with CDI, neither was sex, body mass index (BMI), surgical priority, weight loss, or comorbid conditions. Three procedure groups had higher odds of postoperative CDI: lower-extremity amputations (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 3.5; P=.03), gastric or esophageal operations (aOR, 2.1; P=.04), and bowel resection or repair (aOR, 2; P=.04). Postoperative CDI was independently associated with increased length of stay (mean, 13.7 d vs 4.5 d), emergency department presentations (18.9 vs 9.1%) and readmissions (38.9% vs 7.2%, all P<.001). CONCLUSIONS Incidence of postoperative CDI varies by surgical procedure. Postoperative CDI is also associated with higher rates of extended length of stay, emergency room presentations, and readmissions, which places a potentially preventable burden on hospital resources.
PURPOSE - The treatment of ventral hernias (VH) has been a challenging problem for medical care. Repair of these hernias is fraught with failure; recurrence rates ranging from 24% to 43% have been reported, even with the use of biocompatible mesh. Currently, computed tomography (CT) is used to guide intervention through expert, but qualitative, clinical judgments, notably, quantitative metrics based on image-processing are not used. The authors propose that image segmentation methods to capture the three-dimensional structure of the abdominal wall and its abnormalities will provide a foundation on which to measure geometric properties of hernias and surrounding tissues and, therefore, to optimize intervention.
METHODS - In this study with 20 clinically acquired CT scans on postoperative patients, the authors demonstrated a novel approach to geometric classification of the abdominal. The authors' approach uses a texture analysis based on Gabor filters to extract feature vectors and follows a fuzzy c-means clustering method to estimate voxelwise probability memberships for eight clusters. The memberships estimated from the texture analysis are helpful to identify anatomical structures with inhomogeneous intensities. The membership was used to guide the level set evolution, as well as to derive an initial start close to the abdominal wall.
RESULTS - Segmentation results on abdominal walls were both quantitatively and qualitatively validated with surface errors based on manually labeled ground truth. Using texture, mean surface errors for the outer surface of the abdominal wall were less than 2 mm, with 91% of the outer surface less than 5 mm away from the manual tracings; errors were significantly greater (2-5 mm) for methods that did not use the texture.
CONCLUSIONS - The authors' approach establishes a baseline for characterizing the abdominal wall for improving VH care. Inherent texture patterns in CT scans are helpful to the tissue classification, and texture analysis can improve the level set segmentation around the abdominal region.
We present a rare complication of sternotomy wire removal in a patient with history of coronary artery bypass graft four years prior now undergoing redo sternotomy for aortic valve replacement. Upon removal of the third sternotomy wire the patient experienced hemoptysis from intrapulmonary hemorrhage, requiring that the procedure be aborted; careful review of preoperative computed tomography (CT) demonstrated this sternotomy wire to be traversing through lung parenchyma.
© 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
BACKGROUND - The role of malnutrition has not been well studied in patients undergoing surgery for renal cell carcinoma (RCC).
OBJECTIVE - Our aim was to evaluate whether nutritional deficiency (ND) is an important determinant of survival following surgery for RCC.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS - A total of 369 consecutive patients underwent surgery for locoregional RCC from 2003 to 2008. ND was defined as meeting one of the following criteria: body mass index <18.5 kg/m(2), albumin <3.5 g/dl, or preoperative weight loss ≥ 5% of body weight.
INTERVENTION - All patients underwent radical or partial nephrectomy.
MEASUREMENTS - Primary outcomes were overall and disease-specific mortality. Covariates included age, Charlson comorbidity index (CCI), preoperative anemia, tumor stage, Fuhrman grade, and lymph node status. Multivariate analysis was performed using a Cox proportional hazards model. Mortality rates were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier product-limit method.
RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS - Eighty-five patients (23%) were categorized as ND. Three-year overall and disease-specific survival were 58.5% and 80.4% in the ND cohort compared with 85.4% and 94.7% in controls, respectively (p<0.001). ND remained a significant predictor of overall mortality (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.41, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.40-4.18) and disease-specific mortality (HR: 2.76; 95% CI, 1.17-6.50) after correcting for age, CCI, preoperative anemia, stage, grade, and nodal status. This study is limited by its retrospective nature.
CONCLUSIONS - ND is associated with higher mortality in patients undergoing surgery for locoregional RCC, independent of key clinical and pathologic factors. Given this mortality risk, it may be important to address nutritional status preoperatively and counsel patients appropriately.
Copyright © 2011 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
BACKGROUND - Increased knee pain at the time of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction may potentially predict more difficult rehabilitation, prolonged recovery, and/or be predictive of increased knee pain at 2 years.
HYPOTHESIS - A bone bruise and/or other preoperative factors are associated with more knee pain/symptoms at the time of index anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, and the presence of a bone bruise would be associated with specific demographic and injury-related factors.
STUDY DESIGN - Cohort study (prevalence); Level of evidence, 2.
METHODS - In 2007, the Multicenter Orthopaedic Outcomes Network (MOON) database began to prospectively collect surgeon-reported magnetic resonance imaging bone bruise status. A multivariable analysis was performed to (1) determine if a bone bruise, among other preoperative factors, is associated with more knee symptoms/pain and (2) examine the association of factors related to bone bruise. To evaluate the association of a bone bruise with knee pain/symptoms, linear multiple regression models were fit using the continuous scores of the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) symptoms and pain subscales and the Short Form 36 (SF-36) bodily pain subscale as dependent variables. To examine the association between a bone bruise and risk factors, a logistic regression model was used, in which the dependent variable was the presence or absence of a bone bruise.
RESULTS - Baseline data for 525 patients were used for analysis, and a bone bruise was present in 419 (80%). The cohort comprises 58% male patients, with a median age of 23 years. The median Marx activity level was 13. Factors associated with more pain were higher body mass index (P < .0001), female sex (P = .001), lateral collateral ligament injury (P = .012), and older age (P = .038). Factors associated with more symptoms were a concomitant lateral collateral ligament injury (P = .014), higher body mass index (P < .0001), and female sex (P < .0001). Bone bruise is not associated with symptoms/pain at the time of index anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. None of the factors included in the SF-36 bodily pain model were found to be significant. After controlling for other baseline factors, the following factors were associated with a bone bruise: younger age (P = .034) and not jumping at the time of injury (P = .006).
CONCLUSION - After anterior cruciate ligament injury, risk factors associated with a bone bruise are younger age and not jumping at the time of injury. Bone bruise is not associated with symptoms/pain at the time of index anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.