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Myocarditis is an inflammatory disease of the heart that may occur because of infections, immune system activation, or exposure to drugs. The diagnosis of myocarditis has changed due to the introduction of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. We present an expert consensus document aimed to summarize the common terminology related to myocarditis meanwhile highlighting some areas of controversies and uncertainties and the unmet clinical needs. In fact, controversies persist regarding mechanisms that determine the transition from the initial trigger to myocardial inflammation and from acute myocardial damage to chronic ventricular dysfunction. It is still uncertain which viruses (besides enteroviruses) cause direct tissue damage, act as triggers for immune-mediated damage, or both. Regarding terminology, myocarditis can be characterized according to etiology, phase, and severity of the disease, predominant symptoms, and pathological findings. Clinically, acute myocarditis (AM) implies a short time elapsed from the onset of symptoms and diagnosis (generally <1 month). In contrast, chronic inflammatory cardiomyopathy indicates myocardial inflammation with established dilated cardiomyopathy or hypokinetic nondilated phenotype, which in the advanced stages evolves into fibrosis without detectable inflammation. Suggested diagnostic and treatment recommendations for AM and chronic inflammatory cardiomyopathy are mainly based on expert opinion given the lack of well-designed contemporary clinical studies in the field. We will provide a shared and practical approach to patient diagnosis and management, underlying differences between the European and US scientific statements on this topic. We explain the role of histology that defines subtypes of myocarditis and its prognostic and therapeutic implications.
Here, we present a joint-tissue imputation (JTI) approach and a Mendelian randomization framework for causal inference, MR-JTI. JTI borrows information across transcriptomes of different tissues, leveraging shared genetic regulation, to improve prediction performance in a tissue-dependent manner. Notably, JTI includes the single-tissue imputation method PrediXcan as a special case and outperforms other single-tissue approaches (the Bayesian sparse linear mixed model and Dirichlet process regression). MR-JTI models variant-level heterogeneity (primarily due to horizontal pleiotropy, addressing a major challenge of transcriptome-wide association study interpretation) and performs causal inference with type I error control. We make explicit the connection between the genetic architecture of gene expression and of complex traits and the suitability of Mendelian randomization as a causal inference strategy for transcriptome-wide association studies. We provide a resource of imputation models generated from GTEx and PsychENCODE panels. Analysis of biobanks and meta-analysis data, and extensive simulations show substantially improved statistical power, replication and causal mapping rate for JTI relative to existing approaches.
OBJECTIVES - Idiopathic subglottic stenosis (iSGS) is an inflammatory process leading to fibrosis and narrowing of the laryngotracheal airway. There is variability in patient response to surgical intervention, but the mechanisms underlying this variability are unknown. In this pilot study, we measure expression of candidate targets at the mucosal surface of the subglottis in iSGS patients. We aim to identify putative biomarkers for iSGS that provide insights into the molecular basis of disease progression, yield a gene signature for the disease, and/or predict a response to therapy.
STUDY DESIGN - In vitro comparative study of human cells.
METHODS - Levels of candidate transcripts and proteins were measured in healthy and stenotic laryngotracheal tissue specimens taken from the mucosal surface in 16 iSGS patients undergoing endoscopic balloon dilation. Pre- and post-operative pulmonary function test and patient reported voice and breathing outcomes were also assessed. Unsupervised clustering was used to define patient subgroups based on expression profile.
RESULTS - Pulmonary function and voice and breathing outcome metrics demonstrated significant post-operative improvement. Transcript levels of αSMA, CCL2, COL1A1, COL3A1, FN1, IFNG, and TGFB1 and protein levels of CCL2, IFNG, and IL-6 were significantly upregulated in stenotic as compared to healthy tissues. Marked heterogeneity was observed in the patterns of expression of candidate markers across individuals and tissue types. Patient subgroups defined by expression profile did not show a statistically significant difference in dilation interval.
CONCLUSION - Pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic pathways are significantly upregulated along the mucosal surface of stenotic laryngotracheal tissues, and CCL2 and IFNG merit further investigation as potential iSGS biomarkers.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE - 4 Laryngoscope, 131:342-349, 2021.
© 2020 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.
AIMS - Myocarditis is a potentially fatal complication of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI). Sparse data exist on the use of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in ICI-associated myocarditis. In this study, the CMR characteristics and the association between CMR features and cardiovascular events among patients with ICI-associated myocarditis are presented.
METHODS AND RESULTS - From an international registry of patients with ICI-associated myocarditis, clinical, CMR, and histopathological findings were collected. Major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) were a composite of cardiovascular death, cardiogenic shock, cardiac arrest, and complete heart block. In 103 patients diagnosed with ICI-associated myocarditis who had a CMR, the mean left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was 50%, and 61% of patients had an LVEF ≥50%. Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) was present in 48% overall, 55% of the reduced EF, and 43% of the preserved EF cohort. Elevated T2-weighted short tau inversion recovery (STIR) was present in 28% overall, 30% of the reduced EF, and 26% of the preserved EF cohort. The presence of LGE increased from 21.6%, when CMR was performed within 4 days of admission to 72.0% when CMR was performed on Day 4 of admission or later. Fifty-six patients had cardiac pathology. Late gadolinium enhancement was present in 35% of patients with pathological fibrosis and elevated T2-weighted STIR signal was present in 26% with a lymphocytic infiltration. Forty-one patients (40%) had MACE over a follow-up time of 5 months. The presence of LGE, LGE pattern, or elevated T2-weighted STIR were not associated with MACE.
CONCLUSION - These data suggest caution in reliance on LGE or a qualitative T2-STIR-only approach for the exclusion of ICI-associated myocarditis.
Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2020. For permissions, please email: email@example.com.
BACKGROUND - The National Comprehensive Cancer Network and American Society of Clinical Oncology recommend consideration of the use of echocardiography 6 to 12 months after completion of anthracycline-based chemotherapy in at-risk populations. Assessment of BNP (B-type natriuretic peptide) has also been suggested by the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association/Heart Failure Society of America for the identification of Stage A (at risk) heart failure patients. The real-world frequency of the use of these tests in patients after receipt of anthracycline therapy, however, has not been studied previously.
METHODS AND RESULTS - In this retrospective study, using administrative claims data from the OptumLabs Data Warehouse, we identified 31 447 breast cancer and lymphoma patients (age ≥18 years) who were treated with an anthracycline in the United States between January 1, 2008 and January 31, 2018. Continuous medical and pharmacy coverage was required for at least 6 months before the initial anthracycline dose and 12 months after the final dose. Only 36.1% of patients had any type of cardiac surveillance (echocardiography, BNP, or cardiac imaging) in the year following completion of anthracycline therapy (29.7% echocardiography). Surveillance rate increased from 37.5% in 2008 to 42.7% in 2018 (25.6% in 2008 to 40.5% echocardiography in 2018). Lymphoma patients had a lower likelihood of any surveillance compared with patients with breast cancer (odds ratio, 0.79 [95% CI, 0.74-0.85]; <0.001). Patients with preexisting diagnoses of coronary artery disease and arrhythmia had the highest likelihood of cardiac surveillance (odds ratio, 1.54 [95% CI, 1.39-1.69] and odds ratio, 1.42 [95% CI, 1.3-1.53]; <0.001 for both), although no single comorbidity was associated with a >50% rate of surveillance.
CONCLUSIONS - The majority of survivors of breast cancer and lymphoma who have received anthracycline-based chemotherapy do not undergo cardiac surveillance after treatment, including those with a history of cardiovascular comorbidities, such as heart failure.
Importance - Polygenic risk scores comprising millions of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) could be useful for population-wide coronary heart disease (CHD) screening.
Objective - To determine whether a polygenic risk score improves prediction of CHD compared with a guideline-recommended clinical risk equation.
Design, Setting, and Participants - A retrospective cohort study of the predictive accuracy of a previously validated polygenic risk score was assessed among 4847 adults of white European ancestry, aged 45 through 79 years, participating in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study and 2390 participating in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) from 1996 through December 31, 2015, the final day of follow-up. The performance of the polygenic risk score was compared with that of the 2013 American College of Cardiology and American Heart Association pooled cohort equations.
Exposures - Genetic risk was computed for each participant by summing the product of the weights and allele dosage across 6 630 149 SNPs. Weights were based on an international genome-wide association study.
Main Outcomes and Measures - Prediction of 10-year first CHD events (including myocardial infarctions, fatal coronary events, silent infarctions, revascularization procedures, or resuscitated cardiac arrest) assessed using measures of model discrimination, calibration, and net reclassification improvement (NRI).
Results - The study population included 4847 adults from the ARIC study (mean [SD] age, 62.9 [5.6] years; 56.4% women) and 2390 adults from the MESA cohort (mean [SD] age, 61.8 [9.6] years; 52.2% women). Incident CHD events occurred in 696 participants (14.4%) and 227 participants (9.5%), respectively, over median follow-up of 15.5 years (interquartile range [IQR], 6.3 years) and 14.2 (IQR, 2.5 years) years. The polygenic risk score was significantly associated with 10-year CHD incidence in ARIC with hazard ratios per SD increment of 1.24 (95% CI, 1.15 to 1.34) and in MESA, 1.38 (95% CI, 1.21 to 1.58). Addition of the polygenic risk score to the pooled cohort equations did not significantly increase the C statistic in either cohort (ARIC, change in C statistic, -0.001; 95% CI, -0.009 to 0.006; MESA, 0.021; 95% CI, -0.0004 to 0.043). At the 10-year risk threshold of 7.5%, the addition of the polygenic risk score to the pooled cohort equations did not provide significant improvement in reclassification in either ARIC (NRI, 0.018, 95% CI, -0.012 to 0.036) or MESA (NRI, 0.001, 95% CI, -0.038 to 0.076). The polygenic risk score did not significantly improve calibration in either cohort.
Conclusions and Relevance - In this analysis of 2 cohorts of US adults, the polygenic risk score was associated with incident coronary heart disease events but did not significantly improve discrimination, calibration, or risk reclassification compared with conventional predictors. These findings suggest that a polygenic risk score may not enhance risk prediction in a general, white middle-aged population.
AIMS - Clopidogrel is prescribed for the prevention of atherothrombotic events. While investigations have identified genetic determinants of inter-individual variability in on-treatment platelet inhibition (e.g. CYP2C19*2), evidence that these variants have clinical utility to predict major adverse cardiovascular events (CVEs) remains controversial.
METHODS AND RESULTS - We assessed the impact of 31 candidate gene polymorphisms on adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-stimulated platelet reactivity in 3391 clopidogrel-treated coronary artery disease patients of the International Clopidogrel Pharmacogenomics Consortium (ICPC). The influence of these polymorphisms on CVEs was tested in 2134 ICPC patients (N = 129 events) in whom clinical event data were available. Several variants were associated with on-treatment ADP-stimulated platelet reactivity (CYP2C19*2, P = 8.8 × 10-54; CES1 G143E, P = 1.3 × 10-16; CYP2C19*17, P = 9.5 × 10-10; CYP2B6 1294 + 53 C > T, P = 3.0 × 10-4; CYP2B6 516 G > T, P = 1.0 × 10-3; CYP2C9*2, P = 1.2 × 10-3; and CYP2C9*3, P = 1.5 × 10-3). While no individual variant was associated with CVEs, generation of a pharmacogenomic polygenic response score (PgxRS) revealed that patients who carried a greater number of alleles that associated with increased on-treatment platelet reactivity were more likely to experience CVEs (β = 0.17, SE 0.06, P = 0.01) and cardiovascular-related death (β = 0.43, SE 0.16, P = 0.007). Patients who carried eight or more risk alleles were significantly more likely to experience CVEs [odds ratio (OR) = 1.78, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.14-2.76, P = 0.01] and cardiovascular death (OR = 4.39, 95% CI 1.35-14.27, P = 0.01) compared to patients who carried six or fewer of these alleles.
CONCLUSION - Several polymorphisms impact clopidogrel response and PgxRS is a predictor of cardiovascular outcomes. Additional investigations that identify novel determinants of clopidogrel response and validating polygenic models may facilitate future precision medicine strategies.
Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2019. For permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Background Identification of occult diastolic dysfunction often requires invasive right heart catheterization with provocative maneuvers such as fluid challenge. Non-invasive predictors of occult diastolic dysfunction have not been identified. We hypothesized that echocardiographic measures of diastolic function are associated with occult diastolic dysfunction identified at catheterization. Methods and Results We retrospectively examined hemodynamic and echocardiographic data from consecutive patients referred for right heart catheterization with fluid challenge from 2009 to 2017. A replication cohort of 52 patients who prospectively underwent simultaneous echocardiography and right heart catheterization before and after fluid challenge at Monaldi Hospital, Naples, Italy. In the retrospective cohort of 126 patients (83% female, 56+14 years), 27/126 (21%) had occult diastolic dysfunction. After adjusting for tricuspid regurgitant velocity and left atrial volume index, E velocity (odds ratio 1.8, 95% CI 1.1-2.9, P=0.01) and E/e' (odds ratio 1.9, 95% CI 1.1-3, P=0.005) were associated with occult diastolic dysfunction with an optimal threshold of E/e' >8.6 for occult diastolic dysfunction (sensitivity 70%, specificity 64%). In the prospective cohort, 5/52 (10%) patients had diastolic dysfunction after fluid challenge. Resting E/e' (odds ratio 8.75, 95% CI 2.3-33, P=0.001) and E velocity (odds ratio 7.7, 95% CI 2-29, P=0.003) remained associated with occult diastolic dysfunction with optimal threshold of E/e' >8 (sensitivity 73%, specificity 90%). Conclusions Among patients referred for right heart catheterization with fluid challenge, E velocity and E/e' are associated with occult diastolic dysfunction after fluid challenge. These findings suggest that routine echocardiographic measurements may help identify patients like to have occult diastolic dysfunction non-invasively.
BACKGROUND - Pediatric acute kidney injury (AKI) is common and associated with increased morbidity, mortality, and length of stay. We performed a pragmatic randomized trial testing the hypothesis that AKI risk alerts increase AKI screening.
METHODS - All intensive care and ward admissions of children aged 28 days through 21 years without chronic kidney disease from 12/6/2016 to 11/1/2017 were included. The intervention alert displayed if calculated AKI risk was > 50% and no serum creatinine (SCr) was ordered within 24 h. The primary outcome was SCr testing within 48 h of AKI risk > 50%.
RESULTS - Among intensive care admissions, 973/1909 (51%) were randomized to the intervention. Among those at risk, more SCr tests were ordered for the intervention group than for controls (418/606, 69% vs. 361/597, 60%, p = 0.002). AKI incidence and severity were the same in intervention and control groups. Among ward admissions, 5492/10997 (50%) were randomized to the intervention, and there were no differences between groups in SCr testing, AKI incidence, or severity of AKI.
CONCLUSIONS - Alerts based on real-time prediction of AKI risk increased screening rates in intensive care but not pediatric ward settings. Pragmatic clinical trials provide the opportunity to assess clinical decision support and potentially eliminate ineffective alerts.
Purpose Auditory-perceptual assessment, in which trained listeners rate a large number of perceptual features of speech samples, is the gold standard for the differential diagnosis of motor speech disorders. The goal of this study was to investigate the feasibility of applying a similar, formalized auditory-perceptual approach to the assessment of language deficits in connected speech samples from individuals with aphasia. Method Twenty-seven common features of connected speech in aphasia were defined, each of which was rated on a 5-point scale. Three experienced researchers evaluated 24 connected speech samples from the AphasiaBank database, and 12 student clinicians evaluated subsets of 8 speech samples each. We calculated interrater reliability for each group of raters and investigated the validity of the auditory-perceptual approach by comparing feature ratings to related quantitative measures derived from transcripts and clinical measures, and by examining patterns of feature co-occurrence. Results Most features were rated with good-to-excellent interrater reliability by researchers and student clinicians. Most features demonstrated strong concurrent validity with respect to quantitative connected speech measures computed from AphasiaBank transcripts and/or clinical aphasia battery subscores. Factor analysis showed that 4 underlying factors, which we labeled Paraphasia, Logopenia, Agrammatism, and Motor Speech, accounted for 79% of the variance in connected speech profiles. Examination of individual patients' factor scores revealed striking diversity among individuals classified with a given aphasia type. Conclusion Auditory-perceptual rating of connected speech in aphasia shows potential to be a comprehensive, efficient, reliable, and valid approach for characterizing connected speech in aphasia.