The publication data currently available has been vetted by Vanderbilt faculty, staff, administrators and trainees. The data itself is retrieved directly from NCBI's PubMed and is automatically updated on a weekly basis to ensure accuracy and completeness.
If you have any questions or comments, please contact us.
Paediatric B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (BCP-ALL) is the most common cancer of childhood, yet little is known about BCP-ALL predisposition. In this study, in 2,187 cases of European ancestry and 5,543 controls, we discover and replicate a locus indexed by rs77728904 at 9p21.3 associated with BCP-ALL susceptibility (Pcombined=3.32 × 10(-15), OR=1.72) and independent from rs3731217, the previously reported ALL-associated variant in this region. Of correlated SNPs tagged by this locus, only rs662463 is significant in African Americans, suggesting it is a plausible causative variant. Functional analysis shows that rs662463 is a cis-eQTL for CDKN2B, with the risk allele associated with lower expression, and suggests that rs662463 influences BCP-ALL risk by regulating CDKN2B expression through CEBPB signalling. Functional analysis of rs3731217 suggests it is associated with BCP-ALL by acting within a splicing regulatory element determining CDKN2A exon 3 usage (P=0.01). These findings provide new insights into the critical role of the CDKN2 locus in BCP-ALL aetiology.
Despite activity as single agent cancer therapies, Rapamycin (rapa) and its rapalogs may have their greatest effects when combined with other therapeutic modalities. In addition to direct antitumor activity, rapalogs reverse multiple tumor-intrinsic immune evasion mechanisms. These should facilitate tumor-specific T cell activity, but since rapa directly inhibits effector T cells, this potential immune enhancement is lost. We hypothesized that if T cells were rendered resistant to rapa they could capitalize on its downregulation of tumor immune evasion. We therefore modified T cells with a rapa-resistant mutant of mTor, mTorRR, and directed them to B lymphomas by coexpressing a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) for CD19 (CAR.CD19-28ζ). T cells expressing transgenic mTorRR from a piggyBac transposon maintain mTor signaling, proliferate in the presence of rapa and retain their cytotoxic function and ability to secrete interferon-γ (IFNγ) after stimulation, effector functions that were inhibited by rapa in control T cells. In combination, rapa and rapa-resistant-CAR.CD19-28ζ-expressing T cells produced greater antitumor activity against Burkitt's lymphoma and pre-B ALL cell lines in vitro than CAR.CD19-28ζ T cells or rapa alone. In conclusion, the combination of rapa and rapa-resistant, CAR.CD19-28ζ-expressing T cells may provide a novel therapy for the treatment of B cell malignancies and other cancers.
PURPOSE - We conducted a historic cohort study to test the hypothesis that, after adjustment for biologic factors, African-American (AA) children and Spanish surname (SS) children with newly diagnosed B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia had lower survival than did comparable white children.
PATIENTS AND METHODS - From 1981 to 1994, 4,061 white, 518 AA, and 507 SS children aged 1 to 20 years were treated on three successive Pediatric Oncology Group multicenter randomized clinical trials.
RESULTS - AA and SS patients were more likely to have adverse prognostic features at diagnosis and lower survival than were white patients. The 5-year cumulative survival rates were (probability +/- SE) 81.9% +/- 0.6%, 68.6% +/- 2.1%, and 74.9% +/- 2.0% for white, AA, and SS children, respectively. Adjusting for age, leukocyte count, sex, era of treatment, and leukemia blast cell ploidy, we found that AA children had a 42% excess mortality rate compared with white children (proportional hazards ratio [PHR] = 1.42; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12 to 1. 80), and SS children had a 33% excess mortality rate compared with white children (PHR = 1.33; 95% CI, 1.19 to 1.49).
CONCLUSION - Clinical presentation, tumor biology, and deviations from prescribed therapy did not explain the differences in survival and event-free survival that we observed, although differences seem to be diminishing over time with improvements in therapy. The disparity in outcome for AA and SS children is most likely related to variations in chemotherapeutic response to therapy and not to compliance. Further improvements in outcome may require individualized dosing based on specific pharmacogenetic profiles, especially for AA and SS children.
Oncogenic forms of the Abl and Src tyrosine kinases trigger the destruction of the Abi proteins, a family of Abl-interacting proteins that antagonize the oncogenic potential of Abl after overexpression in fibroblasts. The destruction of the Abi proteins requires tyrosine kinase activity and is dependent on the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. We show that degradation of the Abi proteins occurs through a Ras-independent pathway. Significantly, expression of the Abi proteins is lost in cell lines and bone marrow cells isolated from patients with aggressive Bcr-Abl-positive leukemias. These findings suggest that loss of Abi proteins may be a component in the progression of Bcr-Abl-positive leukemias and identify a novel pathway linking activated nonreceptor protein tyrosine kinases to the destruction of specific target proteins through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway.