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OBJECTIVE - To assess drug reactions (ADRs) encountered by practicing urologists for contrast instilled into the urinary collecting system, and to describe current practice patterns regarding contrast administration into the urinary tract for patients with known contrast allergies.
METHODS - Endourological Society members were e-mailed a web-based survey about their prior experience with contrast-related ADRs and practices for contrast administration into the urinary tract among patients with known intravenous contrast allergies. Chi-squared analysis was used to compare management patterns between patients with established allergies and those without.
RESULTS - An estimated 2300-2500 e-mails were reached, resulting in an estimated response rate of 6.3%-8%. Over 75% of respondents were fellowship trained. Average time in practice was 16 years, and respondents performed a mean of 6.7 urologic contrast studies per week. Among respondents, 32.6%, 14.7%, and 4.0% had treated at least 1 patient with a mild, moderate, or severe reaction, respectively. Contrast-related ADRs were most commonly associated with retrograde pyelogram (50%). For patients with known contrast allergies, 5.4% pursue additional work-up before administering contrast in the urinary tract. Pretreatment with antihistamine or steroids is used by 24.8% and 23.4%, respectively. When performing retrograde pyelograms for such patients, urologists are more likely to use dilute contrast (P = .003), but otherwise do not significantly alter technique.
CONCLUSION - Contrast ADRs are encountered not infrequently among practicing urologists. There is notable practice variation in the management of patients with known contrast allergies, though the overall perceived risk of contrast use in these patients is low, provided good technique is used.
Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
BACKGROUND - The American Thyroid Association (ATA) recommends fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy of nodules measuring >1.5 cm with low-suspicion sonographic patterns or >1.0 cm with high/intermediate-suspicion features. Routine biopsy of nodules <1 cm is not recommended. However, despite these recommendations, subcentimeter nodules are often referred for FNA biopsy.
METHODS - This was a retrospective chart review of consecutive thyroid FNAs during an 18-month period (1157 patients, 1491 nodules, 2016-2017) to evaluate age, sex, medical history, diagnoses, and follow-up. Radiographic information was used to identify 61 subcentimeter nodules (4%) from 57 patients. Ultrasound studies were re-evaluated using criteria according to the American College of Radiology Thyroid Imaging, Reporting, and Data System (TI-RADS).
RESULTS - Reported reasons for biopsy included a larger companion nodule (44%), a personal or family history of cancer (26%), or a suspicious sonogram, including calcification and/or irregular contours (16%). FNA diagnoses included: 69% benign (42 of 61 nodules), 10% papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) (6 of 61 nodules), and 15% atypia of undetermined significance/follicular lesion of undetermined significance (AUS/FLUS) (9 of 61 nodules). Seven percent of nodules were unsatisfactory/nondiagnostic (4 of 61 nodules) compared with a 3% nondiagnostic rate for all sized nodules. Fifty-one nodules had an ultrasound available for re-review using the TI-RADS scoring system. A high TI-RADS score (4-5) was indicative of PTC in 29.4% of nodules. A low TI-RADS score (1-2) was indicative of PTC in 0% of nodules (P < .01). High and intermediate TI-RADS scores (3 and 4-5, respectively) were indicative of PTC/AUS/FLUS in 32% of nodules compared with 0% in those with low TI-RADS scores (P < .01).
CONCLUSIONS - The current results demonstrate successful use of the TI-RADS scoring system in evaluation of the risk of malignancy in subcentimeter nodules. Larger studies will be necessary to determine whether biopsy is warranted for TI-RADS high-subcentimeter nodules. Cancer Cytopathol 2018. © 2018 American Cancer Society.
© 2018 American Cancer Society.
Although renal medullary carcinoma (RMC) is a rare subtype of kidney cancer, it is particularly devastating in that it is nearly uniformly lethal. No established guidelines exist for the diagnosis and management of RMC. In April 2016, a panel of experts developed clinical guidelines on the basis of a literature review and consensus statements. The goal was to propose recommendations for standardized diagnostic and management approaches and to establish an international clinical registry and biorepository for RMC. Published data are limited to case reports and small retrospective reviews. The RMC Working Group prepared recommendations to inform providers and patients faced with a low level of medical evidence. The diagnosis of RMC should be considered in all patients younger than 50 years with poorly differentiated carcinoma that arises from the renal medulla. These patients should be tested for sickle cell hemoglobinopathies, and if positive, SMARCB1/INI1 loss should be confirmed by immunohistochemistry. The majority of patients with RMC are diagnosed with metastatic disease. Upfront radical nephrectomy should be considered in patients with good performance status and low metastatic burden or after response to systemic therapy. Currently, cytotoxic, platinum-based chemotherapy provides the best, albeit brief, palliative clinical benefit. Vascular endothelial growth factor-directed therapies and mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors are ineffective in RMC as monotherapy. Therapeutic trials of novel agents are now available for RMC, and every effort should be made to enroll patients in clinical studies.
Importance - Modern prevention guidelines substantially increase the number of individuals who are eligible for treatment with statins. Efforts to refine statin eligibility via coronary calcification have been studied in white populations but not, to our knowledge, in large African American populations.
Objective - To compare the relative accuracy of US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) and American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) recommendations in identifying African American individuals with subclinical and clinical atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD).
Design, Setting, and Participants - In this prospective, community-based study, 2812 African American individuals aged 40 to 75 years without prevalent ASCVD underwent assessment of ASCVD risk. Of these, 1743 participants completed computed tomography.
Main Outcomes and Measures - Nonzero coronary artery calcium (CAC) score, abdominal aortic calcium score, and incident ASCVD (ie, myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, or fatal coronary heart disease).
Results - Of the 2812 included participants, the mean (SD) age at baseline was 55.4 (9.4) years, and 1837 (65.3%) were female. The USPSTF guidelines captured 404 of 732 African American individuals (55.2%) with a CAC score greater than 0; the ACC/AHA guidelines identified 507 individuals (69.3%) (risk difference, 14.1%; 95% CI, 11.2-17.0; P < .001). Statin recommendation under both guidelines was associated with a CAC score greater than 0 (odds ratio, 5.1; 95% CI, 4.1-6.3; P < .001). While individuals indicated for statins under both guidelines experienced 9.6 cardiovascular events per 1000 patient-years, those indicated under only ACC/AHA guidelines were at low to intermediate risk (4.1 events per 1000 patient-years). Among individuals who were statin eligible by ACC/AHA guidelines, the 10-year ASCVD incidence per 1000 person-years was 8.1 (95% CI, 5.9-11.1) in the presence of CAC and 3.1 (95% CI, 1.6-5.9) without CAC (P = .02). While statin-eligible individuals by USPSTF guidelines did not have a significantly higher 10-year ASCVD event rate in the presence of CAC, African American individuals not eligible for statins by USPSTF guidelines had a higher ASCVD event rate in the presence of CAC (2.8 per 1000 person-years; 95% CI, 1.5-5.4) relative to without CAC (0.8 per 1000 person-years; 95%, CI 0.3-1.7) (P = .03).
Conclusions and Relevance - The USPSTF guidelines focus treatment recommendations on 38% of high-risk African American individuals at the expense of not recommending treatment in nearly 25% of African American individuals eligible for statins by ACC/AHA guidelines with vascular calcification and at low to intermediate ASCVD risk.
BACKGROUND - Adjuvant chemotherapy for T3N0 colon cancer is controversial. National guidelines recommend its use in patients with stage II with high-risk features, including lymph node harvest of less than 12, yet this treatment is underused.
OBJECTIVE - The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that the use of adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with T3N0 adenocarcinoma with inadequate lymph node harvest is beneficial.
DESIGN - This was a retrospective population-based study of patients with resected T3N0 adenocarcinoma of the colon.
SETTINGS - The National Cancer Database was queried from 2003 to 2012.
PATIENTS - A total of 134,567 patients with T3N0 colon cancer were included in this analysis.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES - The use of chemotherapy, short-term outcomes, and overall survival was evaluated. Clinicopathologic factors associated with omission of chemotherapy were also analyzed.
RESULTS - Inadequate lymph node harvest was observed in 23.3% of patients, and this rate decreased over the study period from 46.8% in 2003 to 12.5% in 2012 (p < 0.0001). Overall 5-year survival for patients with T3N0 cancer was 66.8%. Inadequate lymph node harvest among these patients was associated with lower overall 5-year survival (58.7% vs 69.8%; p < 0.001). The use of adjuvant chemotherapy among patients with T3N0 cancer after inadequate lymph node harvest was only 16.7%. In a multivariable analysis, factors associated with failure to receive chemotherapy included advanced age (OR = 0.44 (95% CI, 0.43-0.45)), increased comorbidities (OR = 0.7 (95% CI, 0.66-0.76)), and postoperative readmission (OR = 0.78 (95% CI, 0.67-0.91)). Patients with inadequate lymph node harvest who received adjuvant chemotherapy had improved 5-year survival (chemotherapy, 78.4% vs no chemotherapy, 54.7%; p < 0.001). Even when controlling for all of the significant variables, the administration of chemotherapy remained a predictor of decreased mortality (HR = 0.57 (95% CI, 0.54-0.60); p < 0.001).
LIMITATIONS - This study was limited by its retrospective, population-based design.
CONCLUSIONS - Patients with T3N0 colon cancer with inadequate lymph node harvest who receive adjuvant chemotherapy have increased overall survival. Despite this survival benefit, a fraction of these patients receive adjuvant chemotherapy. Barriers to chemotherapy are multifactorial.
OBJECTIVE - To determine the incremental cost-effectiveness of a clinical practice guideline (CPG) compared with "usual care" for treatment of perforated appendicitis in children. Secondary objective was to compare cost analyses using hospital accounting system data versus data in the Pediatric Health Information System (PHIS).
BACKGROUND - Value-based surgical care (outcomes relative to costs) is frequently touted, but outcomes and costs are rarely measured together.
METHODS - During an 18-month period, 122 children with perforated appendicitis at a tertiary referral children's hospital were treated using an evidence-based CPG. Clinical outcomes and costs for the CPG cohort were compared with patients in the 30-month period before CPG implementation (n = 191 children).
RESULTS - With CPG-directed care, intra-abdominal abscess rate decreased from 0.24 to 0.10 (adjusted risk ratio 0.44, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.26-0.75). The rate of any adverse event decreased from 0.30 to 0.23 (adjusted risk ratio 0.82, 95% CI 0.58-1.17). Mean total hospital costs per patient (hospital accounting system) decreased from $16,466 to $10,528 (adjusted absolute difference-$5451, 95% CI -$7755 to -$3147), leading to estimated adjusted total savings of $665,022 during the study period. Costs obtained from the PHIS database also showed reduction with CPG-directed care (-$6669, 95% CI -$8949 to -$4389 per patient). In Bayesian cost-effectiveness analyses, likelihood that CPG was the dominant strategy was 91%.
CONCLUSIONS - An evidence-based CPG increased the value of surgical care for children with perforated appendicitis by improving outcomes and lowering costs. Hospital cost accounting data and pre-existing cost data within the PHIS database provided similar results.
BACKGROUND - To describe common type 2 diabetes treatment intensification regimens, patients' characteristics and changes in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and body mass index (BMI).
METHODS - We constructed a national retrospective cohort of veterans initially treated for diabetes with either metformin or sulfonylurea from 2001 through 2008, using Veterans Health Administration (VHA) and Medicare data. Patients were followed through September, 2011 to identify common diabetes treatment intensification regimens. We evaluated changes in HbA1c and BMI post-intensification for metformin-based regimens.
RESULTS - We identified 323,857 veterans who initiated diabetes treatment. Of these, 55 % initiated metformin, 43 % sulfonylurea and 2 % other regimens. Fifty percent (N = 89,057) of metformin initiators remained on metformin monotherapy over a median follow-up 58 months (interquartile range [IQR] 35, 74). Among 80,725 patients who intensified metformin monotherapy, the four most common regimens were addition of sulfonylurea (79 %), thiazolidinedione [TZD] (6 %), or insulin (8 %), and switch to insulin monotherapy (2 %). Across these regimens, median HbA1c values declined from a range of 7.0-7.8 % (53-62 mmol/mol) at intensification to 6.6-7.0 % (49-53 mmol/mol) at 1 year, and remained stable up to 3 years afterwards. Median BMI ranged between 30.5 and 32 kg/m(2) at intensification and increased very modestly in those who intensified with oral regimens, but 1-2 kg/m(2) over 3 years among those who intensified with insulin-based regimens.
CONCLUSIONS - By 1 year post-intensification of metformin monotherapy, HbA1c declined in all four common intensification regimens, and remained close to 7 % in subsequent follow-up. BMI increased substantially for those on insulin-based regimens.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW - This review is written from the perspective of the pediatric clinician involved in the care of premature infants at risk for pulmonary hypertension. The main objective is to better inform the clinician in the diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary hypertension in premature infants by reviewing the available relevant literature and focusing on the areas for which there is the greatest need for continued research.
RECENT FINDINGS - Continued knowledge regarding the epidemiology of pulmonary hypertension in the premature infant population has aided better diagnostic screening algorithms. Included in this knowledge, is the association of pulmonary hypertension in infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). However, it is also known that beyond BPD, low birth weight and other conditions that result in increased systemic inflammation are associated with pulmonary hypertension. This information has led to the recent recommendation that all infants with BPD should have an echocardiogram to evaluate for evidence of pulmonary hypertension prior to discharge from the neonatal ICU.
SUMMARY - Pulmonary hypertension can be a significant comorbidity for premature infants. This review aims to focus the clinician on the available literature to improve recognition of the condition to allow for more timely interventions.
BACKGROUND - Cardiovascular disease burden and treatment patterns among patients with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) in the United States remain poorly described. In 2013, the FH Foundation launched the Cascade Screening for Awareness and Detection (CASCADE) of FH Registry to address this knowledge gap.
METHODS AND RESULTS - We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 1295 adults with heterozygous FH enrolled in the CASCADE-FH Registry from 11 US lipid clinics. Median age at initiation of lipid-lowering therapy was 39 years, and median age at FH diagnosis was 47 years. Prevalent coronary heart disease was reported in 36% of patients, and 61% exhibited 1 or more modifiable risk factors. Median untreated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) was 239 mg/dL. At enrollment, median LDL-C was 141 mg/dL; 42% of patients were taking high-intensity statin therapy and 45% received >1 LDL-lowering medication. Among FH patients receiving LDL-lowering medication(s), 25% achieved an LDL-C <100 mg/dL and 41% achieved a ≥50% LDL-C reduction. Factors associated with prevalent coronary heart disease included diabetes mellitus (adjusted odds ratio 1.74; 95% confidence interval 1.08-2.82) and hypertension (2.48; 1.92-3.21). Factors associated with a ≥50% LDL-C reduction from untreated levels included high-intensity statin use (7.33; 1.86-28.86) and use of >1 LDL-lowering medication (1.80; 1.34-2.41).
CONCLUSIONS - FH patients in the CASCADE-FH Registry are diagnosed late in life and often do not achieve adequate LDL-C lowering, despite a high prevalence of coronary heart disease and risk factors. These findings highlight the need for earlier diagnosis of FH and initiation of lipid-lowering therapy, more consistent use of guideline-recommended LDL-lowering therapy, and comprehensive management of traditional coronary heart disease risk factors.
© 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.