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OBJECTIVE - To identify nonclinical factors affecting postoperative complication rates in patients with neurogenic bladder undergoing benign genitourinary (GU) reconstruction.
METHODS - Adult patients with neurogenic bladder undergoing benign GU reconstruction between October 2010 and November 2015 were included. Patients were excluded if a diversion was performed for malignancy, if patients had a history of radiation or if a new bowel segment was not utilized at the time of the operation. Clinical and nonclinical factors were abstracted from the patients' electronic medical records. Health literacy was assessed via the Brief Health Literacy Screen (BHLS), a validated 3-question assessment. Education, marital status, and distance from the medical center were also queried.
RESULTS - Forty-nine patients with a neurogenic bladder undergoing complex GU reconstruction met inclusion and exclusion criteria. On average, patients lived 111 miles (standard deviation 89) from the hospital. Overall, mean BHLS score was 10.4 (standard deviation 4.6) with 35% of patients scoring a BHLS of ≤9. Mean years of educational attainment was 9.7, and only 31% of patients completed high school education. In the first month after surgery, 37 patients (76%) experienced a complication, and 22% were readmitted; however, analysis of complication data did not identify an association between any nonclinical variables and complication rates.
CONCLUSION - Nonclinical factors including unmarried status, poor health literacy, and marked distance from quaternary care are prevalent in patients with neurogenic bladder undergoing complex GU reconstruction. To mitigate these potential risk factors, the authors recommend acknowledgment of these factors and multidisciplinary support perioperatively to counteract them.
Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.
PURPOSE - Nephrolithiasis is an increasingly common ailment in the United States. Ureteroscopic management has supplanted shockwave lithotripsy as the most common treatment of upper tract stone disease. Ureteral stricture is a rare but serious complication of stone disease and its management. The impact of new technologies and more widespread ureteroscopic management on stricture rates is unknown. We describe our experience in managing strictures incurred following ureteroscopy for upper tract stone disease.
MATERIALS AND METHODS - Records for patients managed at four tertiary care centers between December 2006 and October 2015 with the diagnosis of ureteral stricture following ureteroscopy for upper tract stone disease were retrospectively reviewed. Study outcomes included number and type (endoscopic, reconstructive, or nephrectomy) of procedures required to manage stricture.
RESULTS - Thirty-eight patients with 40 ureteral strictures following URS for upper tract stone disease were identified. Thirty-five percent of patients had hydronephrosis or known stone impaction at the time of initial URS, and 20% of cases had known ureteral perforation at the time of initial URS. After stricture diagnosis, the mean number of procedures requiring sedation or general anesthesia performed for stricture management was 3.3 ± 1.8 (range 1-10). Eleven strictures (27.5%) were successfully managed with endoscopic techniques alone, 37.5% underwent reconstruction, 10% had a chronic stent/nephrostomy, and 10 (25%) required nephrectomy.
CONCLUSIONS - The surgical morbidity of ureteral strictures incurred following ureteroscopy for stone disease can be severe, with a low success rate of endoscopic management and a high procedural burden that may lead to nephrectomy. Further studies that assess specific technical risk factors for ureteral stricture following URS are needed.
The majority of surviving infants with surgical necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) will have some degree of neurodevelopmental impairment. The impact of specific medial and surgical treatments for infants with severe NEC remains largely unknown but is being actively investigated. It is incumbent upon all providers caring for these infants to continue to focus on long term neurodevelopmental outcomes and to develop more widespread methods of neurodevelopmental assessment.
Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
BACKGROUND - Acute kidney injury (AKI) after cardiac surgery is associated with increased short- and long-term mortality. Inflammation, oxidative stress, and endothelial dysfunction and damage play important roles in the development of AKI. High-density lipoproteins (HDLs) have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties and improve endothelial function and repair. Statins enhance HDL's anti-inflammatory and antioxidant capacities. We hypothesized that a higher preoperative HDL cholesterol concentration is associated with decreased AKI after cardiac surgery and that perioperative statin exposure potentiates this association.
METHODS AND RESULTS - We tested our hypothesis in 391 subjects from a randomized clinical trial of perioperative atorvastatin to reduce AKI after cardiac surgery. A 2-component latent variable mixture model was used to assess the association between preoperative HDL cholesterol concentration and postoperative change in serum creatinine, adjusted for known AKI risk factors and suspected confounders. Interaction terms were used to examine the effects of preoperative statin use, preoperative statin dose, and perioperative atorvastatin treatment on the association between preoperative HDL and AKI. A higher preoperative HDL cholesterol concentration was independently associated with a decreased postoperative serum creatinine change (=0.02). The association between a high HDL concentration and an attenuated increase in serum creatinine was strongest in long-term statin-using patients (=0.008) and was further enhanced with perioperative atorvastatin treatment (=0.004) and increasing long-term statin dose (=0.003).
CONCLUSIONS - A higher preoperative HDL cholesterol concentration was associated with decreased AKI after cardiac surgery. Preoperative and perioperative statin treatment enhanced this association, demonstrating that pharmacological potentiation is possible during the perioperative period.
CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION - URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique Identifier: NCT00791648.
© 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.
BACKGROUND - Surgical resection is the cornerstone of curative-intent therapy for patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma (HC). The role of vascular resection (VR) in the treatment of HC in western centres is not well defined.
METHODS - Utilizing data from the U.S. Extrahepatic Biliary Malignancy Consortium, patients were grouped into those who underwent resection for HC based on VR status: no VR, portal vein resection (PVR), or hepatic artery resection (HAR). Perioperative and long-term survival outcomes were analyzed.
RESULTS - Between 1998 and 2015, 201 patients underwent resection for HC, of which 31 (15%) underwent VR: 19 patients (9%) underwent PVR alone and 12 patients (6%) underwent HAR either with (n = 2) or without PVR (n = 10). Patients selected for VR tended to be younger with higher stage disease. Rates of postoperative complications and 30-day mortality were similar when stratified by vascular resection status. On multivariate analysis, receipt of PVR or HAR did not significantly affect OS or RFS.
CONCLUSION - In a modern, multi-institutional cohort of patients undergoing curative-intent resection for HC, VR appears to be a safe procedure in a highly selected subset, although long-term survival outcomes appear equivalent. VR should be considered only in select patients based on tumor and patient characteristics.
Copyright © 2017 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
BACKGROUND - The objective of this study is to evaluate use of the American College of Surgeons (ACS) National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) online risk calculator for estimating common outcomes after operations for gallbladder cancer and extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.
METHODS - Subjects from the United States Extrahepatic Biliary Malignancy Consortium (USE-BMC) who underwent operation between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2014 at 10 academic medical centers were included in this study. Calculator estimates of risk were compared to actual outcomes.
RESULTS - The majority of patients underwent partial or major hepatectomy, Whipple procedures or extrahepatic bile duct resection. For the entire cohort, c-statistics for surgical site infection (0.635), reoperation (0.680) and readmission (0.565) were less than 0.7. The c-statistic for death was 0.740. For all outcomes the actual proportion of patients experiencing an event was much higher than the median predicted risk of that event. Similarly, the group of patients who experienced an outcome did have higher median predicted risk than those who did not.
CONCLUSIONS - The ACS NSQIP risk calculator is easy to use but requires further modifications to more accurately estimate outcomes for some patient populations and operations for which validation studies show suboptimal performance.
Copyright © 2017 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
BACKGROUND - Initial reports of transbronchial cryobiopsy for diffuse parenchymal lung disease (DPLD) suggest the diagnostic yield approaches that of surgical lung biopsy (SLB) with an excellent safety profile. Centers performing cryobiopsy differ significantly in procedure technique; an optimal technique minimizing complications but still capable of diagnosing a wide range of DPLDs has not been established. We evaluated our practice of flexible bronchoscopic cryobiopsy in a primarily outpatient setting for patients who required a tissue diagnosis for DPLD of uncertain etiology.
METHODS - Consecutive patients with indeterminate DPLD who underwent bronchoscopic cryobiopsy at a large academic medical center from January 2012 to August 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. Rates of confident histopathologic diagnosis, confident multidisciplinary consensus diagnosis, management change, and complications were determined.
RESULTS - One hundred four cases were identified. Confident histopathologic diagnoses were established in 44% (46/104) and confident multidisciplinary consensus diagnoses in 68% (71/104). Usual interstitial pneumonia (19/104) and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (22/104) were the most common histopathologic and consensus diagnoses, respectively. Five subjects proceeded to SLB after cryobiopsy which was diagnostic in 3. Results of cryobiopsies changed management in 70% (73/104). Complications occurred in 8 cases with no death.
CONCLUSIONS - Cryobiopsy during outpatient flexible bronchoscopy facilitated confident multidisciplinary consensus diagnosis of DPLD in more than two thirds of cases, and appears sufficient to establish the histopathologic diagnosis of usual interstitial pneumonia, with a complication rate that compares favorably to that reported for SLB.
Anterior resection with primary anastomosis is the procedure of choice for patients with rectosigmoid cancers with good sphincter function. Surgeons may perform an associated diverting loop ileostomy (DLI) to minimize the likelihood and/or the severity of an anastomotic leak. To examine the morbidity of DLIs, we performed a review of a prospectively maintained database. Participants included all patients at the Massachusetts General Hospital who underwent anterior resection from January 2013 to July 2015 for rectosigmoid cancers and who subsequently underwent adjuvant chemotherapy. The primary outcome was time to start of adjuvant chemotherapy. Secondary outcomes included length of hospitalization, perioperative complications, and 60-day postoperative complications. Inclusion criteria were met in 57 patients and DLI was performed in 21 (37%). The DLI group had higher estimated blood loss (431.7 vs 192.1 mL, P = 0.03) and a longer operation time (3.7 vs 2.3 hours, P = 0.0007). The DLI group took over a week longer to start adjuvant chemotherapy than the non-DLI group (median time to chemo: 43 vs 34 days, P = 0.002). Postoperatively, DLI was associated with a longer hospitalization (6.7 vs 3.1 days, P = 0.0003), more perioperative complications (57.1% vs 13.9%, P = 0.0006), and more 60-day readmissions or emergency department visits (38.1% vs 5.6%, P = 0.002). Ostomies are associated with appreciable morbidity. In turn, they do not eliminate postoperative complications. Surgeons should closely consider ostomy morbidity in rectosigmoid resection and institute a proactive approach toward identification and prevention of complications.
BACKGROUND - Jaundice as a presenting symptom of gallbladder cancer has traditionally been considered to be a sign of advanced disease, inoperability, and poor outcome. However, recent studies have demonstrated that a small subset of these patients can undergo resection with curative intent.
METHODS - Patients with gallbladder cancer managed surgically from 2000 to 2014 in 10 US academic institutions were stratified based on the presence of jaundice at presentation (defined as bilirubin ≥4 mg/ml or requiring preoperative biliary drainage). Perioperative morbidity, mortality, and overall survival were compared between jaundiced and non-jaundiced patients.
RESULTS - Of 400 gallbladder cancer patients with available preoperative data, 108 (27%) presented with jaundice while 292 (73%) did not. The fraction of patients who eventually underwent curative-intent resection was much lower in the presence of jaundice (n = 33, 30%) than not (n = 218, 75%; P < 0.001). Jaundiced patients experienced higher perioperative morbidity (69 vs. 38%; P = 0.002), including a much higher need for reoperation (12 vs. 1%; P = 0.003). However, 90-day mortality (6.5 vs. 3.6%; P = 0.35) was not significantly higher. Overall survival after resection was worse in jaundiced patients (median 14 vs. 32 months; P < 0.001). Further subgroup analysis within the jaundiced patients revealed a more favorable survival after resection in the presence of low CA19-9 < 50 (median 40 vs. 12 months; P = 0.003) and in the absence of lymphovascular invasion (40 vs. 14 months; P = 0.014).
CONCLUSION - Jaundice is a powerful preoperative clinical sign of inoperability and poor outcome among gallbladder cancer patients. However, some of these patients may still achieve long-term survival after resection, especially when preoperative CA19-9 levels are low and no lymphovascular invasion is noted pathologically.
BACKGROUND - Risk factors for pre- and postoperative seizures in supratentorial meningiomas are understudied compared to other brain tumors.
OBJECTIVE - To report seizure frequency and identify factors associated with pre- and postoperative seizures in a large single-center population study of patients undergoing resection of supratentorial meningioma.
METHODS - Retrospective chart review of 1033 subjects undergoing resection of supratentorial meningioma at the author's institution (1991-2014). Multivariate regression was used to identify variables significantly associated with pre- and postoperative seizures.
RESULTS - Preoperative seizures occurred in 234 (22.7%) subjects. At 5 years postoperative, probability of seizure freedom was 89.9% among subjects without preoperative seizures and 62.2% with preoperative seizures. Multivariate analysis identified the following predictors of preoperative seizures: presence of ≥1 cm peritumoral edema (odds ratio [OR]: 4.45, 2.55-8.50), nonskull base tumor location (OR: 2.13, 1.26-3.67), greater age (OR per unit increase: 1.03, 1.01-1.05), while presenting symptom of headache (OR: 0.50, 0.29-0.84) or cranial nerve deficit (OR: 0.36, 0.17-0.71) decreased odds of preoperative seizures. Postoperative seizures after discharge were associated with preoperative seizures (OR: 5.70, 2.57-13.13), in-hospital seizure (OR: 4.31, 1.28-13.67), and among patients without preoperative seizure, occurrence of medical or surgical complications (OR 3.39, 1.09-9.48). Perioperative anti-epileptic drug use was not associated with decreased incidence of postoperative seizures.
CONCLUSIONS - Nonskull base supratentorial meningiomas with surrounding edema have the highest risk for preoperative seizure. Long-term follow-up showing persistent seizures in meningioma patients with preoperative seizures raises the possibility that these patients may benefit from electrocorticographic mapping of adjacent cortex and resection of noneloquent, epileptically active cortex.
Copyright © 2017 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons