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Thalidomide [α-(N-phthalimido)glutarimide] (1) is a sedative and antiemetic drug originally introduced into the clinic in the 1950s for the treatment of morning sickness. Although marketed as entirely safe, more than 10 000 babies were born with severe birth defects. Thalidomide was banned and subsequently approved for the treatment of multiple myeloma and complications associated with leprosy. Although known for more than 5 decades, the mechanism of teratogenicity remains to be conclusively understood. Various theories have been proposed in the literature including DNA damage and ROS and inhibition of angiogenesis and cereblon. All of the theories have their merits and limitations. Although the recently proposed cereblon theory has gained wide acceptance, it fails to explain the metabolism and low-dose requirement reported by a number of groups. Recently, we have provided convincing structural evidence in support of the presence of arene oxide and the quinone-reactive intermediates. However, the ability of these reactive intermediates to impart toxicity/teratogenicity needs investigation. Herein we report that the oxidative metabolite of thalidomide, dihydroxythalidomide, is responsible for generating ROS and causing DNA damage. We show, using cell lines, the formation of comet (DNA damage) and ROS. Using DNA-cleavage assays, we also show that catalase, radical scavengers, and desferal are capable of inhibiting DNA damage. A mechanism of teratogenicity is proposed that not only explains the DNA-damaging property but also the metabolism, low concentration, and species-specificity requirements of thalidomide.
Ewing sarcomas are rare mesenchymal-derived bone and soft tissue tumors in children. Afflicted children with distant metastases have poor survival despite aggressive therapeutics. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in epithelial carcinomas is associated with loss of E-cadherin and resistance to apoptosis. ML327 is a novel small molecule that we have previously shown to reverse epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition features in both epithelial and neural crest-derived cancers. Herein, we sought to evaluate the effects of ML327 on mesenchymal-derived Ewing sarcoma cells, hypothesizing that ML327 initiates growth arrest and sensitizes to TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand. ML327 induced protein expression changes, increased E-cadherin and decreased vimentin, consistent with partial induction of mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition in multiple Ewing Sarcoma cell lines (SK-N-MC, TC71, and ES-5838). Induction of epithelial features was associated with apoptosis, as demonstrated by PARP and Caspase 3 cleavage by immunoblotting. Cell cycle analysis validated these findings by marked induction of the subG cell population. In vitro combination treatment with TRAIL demonstrated additive induction of apoptotic markers. Taken together, these findings establish a rationale for further in vivo trials of ML327 in cells of mesenchymal origin both alone and in combination with TRAIL.
Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Despite the global impact of macrophage activation in vascular disease, the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. Here we show, with global proteomic analysis of macrophage cell lines treated with either IFNγ or IL-4, that PARP9 and PARP14 regulate macrophage activation. In primary macrophages, PARP9 and PARP14 have opposing roles in macrophage activation. PARP14 silencing induces pro-inflammatory genes and STAT1 phosphorylation in M(IFNγ) cells, whereas it suppresses anti-inflammatory gene expression and STAT6 phosphorylation in M(IL-4) cells. PARP9 silencing suppresses pro-inflammatory genes and STAT1 phosphorylation in M(IFNγ) cells. PARP14 induces ADP-ribosylation of STAT1, which is suppressed by PARP9. Mutations at these ADP-ribosylation sites lead to increased phosphorylation. Network analysis links PARP9-PARP14 with human coronary artery disease. PARP14 deficiency in haematopoietic cells accelerates the development and inflammatory burden of acute and chronic arterial lesions in mice. These findings suggest that PARP9 and PARP14 cross-regulate macrophage activation.
The capacity to achieve sufficient concentrations of Ag-specific Ab of the appropriate isotypes is a critical component of immunity that requires efficient differentiation and interactions of Ag-specific B and Th cells along with dendritic cells. Numerous bacterial toxins catalyze mono(ADP-ribosyl)ation of mammalian proteins to influence cell physiology and adaptive immunity. However, little is known about biological functions of intracellular mammalian mono(ADP-ribosyl)transferases, such as any ability to regulate Ab responses. poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase 14 (PARP14), an intracellular protein highly expressed in lymphoid cells, binds to STAT6 and encodes a catalytic domain with mammalian mono(ADP-ribosyl)transferase activity. In this article, we show that recall IgA as well as the STAT6-dependent IgE Ab responses are impaired in PARP14-deficient mice. Whereas PARP14 regulation of IgE involved a B cell-intrinsic process, the predominant impact on IgA was B cell extrinsic. Of note, PARP14 deficiency reduced the levels of Th17 cells and CD103⁺ DCs, which are implicated in IgA regulation. PARP14 enhanced the expression of RORα, Runx1, and Smad3 after T cell activation, and, importantly, its catalytic activity of PARP14 promoted Th17 differentiation. Collectively, the findings show that PARP14 influences the class distribution, affinity repertoire, and recall capacity of Ab responses in mice, as well as provide direct evidence of the requirement for protein mono-ADP-ribosylation in Th cell differentiation.
Berberine, an isoquinoline alkaloid derived from plants, is a traditional medicine for treating bacterial diarrhea and intestinal parasite infections. Although berberine has recently been shown to suppress growth of several tumor cell lines, information regarding the effect of berberine on colon tumor growth is limited. Here, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the effects of berberine on regulating the fate of colon tumor cells, specifically the mouse immorto-Min colonic epithelial (IMCE) cells carrying the Apc(min) mutation, and of normal colon epithelial cells, namely young adult mouse colonic epithelium (YAMC) cells. Berberine decreased colon tumor colony formation in agar, and induced cell death and LDH release in a time- and concentration-dependent manner in IMCE cells. In contrast, YAMC cells were not sensitive to berberine-induced cell death. Berberine did not stimulate caspase activation, and PARP cleavage and berberine-induced cell death were not affected by a caspase inhibitor in IMCE cells. Rather, berberine stimulated a caspase-independent cell death mediator, apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) release from mitochondria and nuclear translocation in a ROS production-dependent manner. Amelioration of berberine-stimulated ROS production or suppression of AIF expression blocked berberine-induced cell death and LDH release in IMCE cells. Furthermore, two targets of ROS production in cells, cathepsin B release from lysosomes and PARP activation were induced by berberine. Blockage of either of these pathways decreased berberine-induced AIF activation and cell death in IMCE cells. Thus, berberine-stimulated ROS production leads to cathepsin B release and PARP activation-dependent AIF activation, resulting in caspase-independent cell death in colon tumor cells. Notably, normal colon epithelial cells are less susceptible to berberine-induced cell death, which suggests the specific inhibitory effects of berberine on colon tumor cell growth.
Poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP)14--a member of the B aggressive lymphoma (BAL) family of macrodomain-containing PARPs--is an ADP ribosyltransferase that interacts with Stat6, enhances induction of certain genes by IL-4, and is expressed in B lymphocytes. We now show that IL-4 enhancement of glycolysis in B cells requires PARP14 and that this process is central to a role of PARP14 in IL-4-induced survival. Thus, enhancements of AMP-activated protein kinase activity restored both IL-4-induced glycolytic activity in Parp14(-/-) B cells and prosurvival signaling by this cytokine. Suppression of apoptosis is central to B-lymphoid oncogenesis, and elevated macro-PARP expression has been correlated with lymphoma aggressiveness. Strikingly, PARP14 deficiency delayed B lymphomagenesis and reversed the block to B-cell maturation driven by the Myc oncogene. Collectively, these findings reveal links between a mammalian ADP ribosyltransferase, cytokine-regulated metabolic activity, and apoptosis; show that PARP14 influences Myc-induced oncogenesis; and suggest that the PARP14-dependent capacity to increase cellular metabolic rates may be an important determinant of lymphoma pathobiology.
We provide evidence for the first time, that two natural compounds ginsenoside Rh2 (G-Rh2) and betulinic acid (Bet A) synergistically induce apoptosis in human cervical adenocarcinoma (HeLa), human lung cancer A549, and human hepatoma HepG2 cells. G-Rh2 and Bet A cooperated to induce Bax traslocation to mitochondria and cytochrome c release. Co-treatment of G-Rh2 and Bet A resulted in enhanced cleavage of caspase-8 and Bid. Moreover, specific inhibition of caspase-8 by siRNA technology effectively reduced caspase-9 processing, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage, caspase-3 activation, and apoptosis in co-treated cells, which indicated that the caspase-8 feedback amplification pathway may have been involved in the apoptosis process. A previous study has shown that G-Rh2 induces cancer cell apoptosis via a Bcl-2 and/or Bcl-xL-independent mechanism, and Bet A induces apoptosis mainly through a mitochondrial pathway with tumor specificity. Since the antiapoptotic Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL are frequently overexpressed in human cancer cells, combined treatment with G-Rh2 and Bet A may be a novel strategy to enhance efficacy of anticancer therapy. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
High grade epithelial ovarian cancers are relatively sensitive to DNA damaging platinum-based chemotherapy, suggesting that the dependencies of ovarian tumors on DNA damage response pathways can be harnessed for therapeutic purposes. Our goal was to determine if the DNA damage mark gamma-H2AX phosphorylation (pH2AX) could be used to identify suitable cytotoxic histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) for ovarian cancer treatment. Nineteen chemically diverse HDACi compounds were tested in 7 ovarian cancer cell lines. Fluorescent, biochemical and cell-based assays were performed to assess DNA damage by induction of pH2AX and to measure cell viability and apoptosis. The relationships between pH2AX and the cellular effects of cell viability and apoptosis were calculated. Selected HDACi were tested in combination with cisplatin and other DNA damaging agents to determine if the HDACi improved upon the effects of the DNA damaging agents. The HDACi compounds induced differing levels of pH2AX expression. High levels of pH2AX in HDACi-treated ovarian cancer cells were tightly associated with decreased cell viability and increased apoptosis. Consequently, a ketone-based HDACi was chosen and found to enhance the effects of cisplatin, even in ovarian cancer cells with extreme resistance to DNA damaging drugs. In conclusion, a fluorescent-based assay for pH2AX can be used to determine cellular responses to HDACi in vitro and may be a useful tool to identify potentially more effective HDACi for the treatment of ovarian cancer. In addition, these results lend support to the inclusion of ketone-derived HDACi compounds for future development.
Adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP)-ribosylation is a protein posttranslational modification that is catalyzed by ADP-ribosyltransferases (ARTs), using nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) as a substrate. Mono-ribosylation can be extended into polymers of ADP-ribose (PAR). Poly(ADP-ribosyl)polymerase (PARP) 1, the best-characterized cellular enzyme catalyzing this process, is the prototypical member of a family of mono- and poly(ADP-ribosyl)transferases. The physiological consequences of ADP-ribosylation are inadequately understood. PARP2010, the 18th International Conference on ADP-Ribosylation, attracted scientists from all over the world to Zurich, Switzerland. Highlights from this meeting include promising clinical trials with PARP inhibitors and new insights into cell, structural, and developmental biology of ARTs and the (glyco)hydrolase proteins that catalyze de-ADP-ribosylation of mono- or poly-ADP-ribosylated proteins. Moreover, potential links to the NAD-dependent sirtuin family were explored on the basis of a shared dependence on cellular NAD(+) concentrations and the relationship of ADP-ribosylation with intermediary metabolism and cellular energetics.
Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative bacterium that colonizes the human stomach and contributes to the development of peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. The secreted pore-forming toxin VacA is one of the major virulence factors of H. pylori. In the current study, we show that AZ-521 human gastric epithelial cells are highly susceptible to VacA-induced cell death. Wild-type VacA causes death of these cells, whereas mutant VacA proteins defective in membrane channel formation do not. Incubation of AZ-521 cells with wild-type VacA results in cell swelling, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) activation, decreased intracellular ATP concentration, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. VacA-induced death of these cells is a caspase-independent process that results in cellular release of histone-binding protein high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a proinflammatory protein. These features are consistent with the occurrence of cell death through a programmed necrosis pathway and suggest that VacA can be included among the growing number of bacterial pore-forming toxins that induce cell death through programmed necrosis. We propose that VacA augments H. pylori-induced mucosal inflammation in the human stomach by causing programmed necrosis of gastric epithelial cells and subsequent release of proinflammatory proteins and may thereby contribute to the pathogenesis of gastric cancer and peptic ulceration.