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Drug-induced cardiovascular complications are the most common adverse drug events and account for the withdrawal or severe restrictions on the use of multitudinous postmarketed drugs. In this study, we developed new in silico models for systematic identification of drug-induced cardiovascular complications in drug discovery and postmarketing surveillance. Specifically, we collected drug-induced cardiovascular complications covering the five most common types of cardiovascular outcomes (hypertension, heart block, arrhythmia, cardiac failure, and myocardial infarction) from four publicly available data resources: Comparative Toxicogenomics Database, SIDER, Offsides, and MetaADEDB. Using these databases, we developed a combined classifier framework through integration of five machine-learning algorithms: logistic regression, random forest, k-nearest neighbors, support vector machine, and neural network. The totality of models included 180 single classifiers with area under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC) ranging from 0.647 to 0.809 on 5-fold cross-validations. To develop the combined classifiers, we then utilized a neural network algorithm to integrate the best four single classifiers for each cardiovascular outcome. The combined classifiers had higher performance with an AUC range from 0.784 to 0.842 compared to single classifiers. Furthermore, we validated our predicted cardiovascular complications for 63 anticancer agents using experimental data from clinical studies, human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocyte assays, and literature. The success rate of our combined classifiers reached 87%. In conclusion, this study presents powerful in silico tools for systematic risk assessment of drug-induced cardiovascular complications. This tool is relevant not only in early stages of drug discovery but also throughout the life of a drug including clinical trials and postmarketing surveillance.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW - The goal of this review is to highlight the potential of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-based modeling as a tool for studying human cardiovascular diseases. We present some of the current cardiovascular disease models utilizing genome editing and patient-derived iPSCs.
RECENT FINDINGS - The incorporation of genome-editing and iPSC technologies provides an innovative research platform, providing novel insight into human cardiovascular disease at molecular, cellular, and functional level. In addition, genome editing in diseased iPSC lines holds potential for personalized regenerative therapies. The study of human cardiovascular disease has been revolutionized by cellular reprogramming and genome editing discoveries. These exceptional technologies provide an opportunity to generate human cell cardiovascular disease models and enable therapeutic strategy development in a dish. We anticipate these technologies to improve our understanding of cardiovascular disease pathophysiology leading to optimal treatment for heart diseases in the future.
Lung epithelial lineages have been difficult to maintain in pure form in vitro, and lineage-specific reporters have proven invaluable for monitoring their emergence from cultured pluripotent stem cells (PSCs). However, reporter constructs for tracking proximal airway lineages generated from PSCs have not been previously available, limiting the characterization of these cells. Here, we engineer mouse and human PSC lines carrying airway secretory lineage reporters that facilitate the tracking, purification, and profiling of this lung subtype. Through bulk and single-cell-based global transcriptomic profiling, we find PSC-derived airway secretory cells are susceptible to phenotypic plasticity exemplified by the tendency to co-express both a proximal airway secretory program as well as an alveolar type 2 cell program, which can be minimized by inhibiting endogenous Wnt signaling. Our results provide global profiles of engineered lung cell fates, a guide for improving their directed differentiation, and a human model of the developing airway.
Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) maintain a highly fragmented mitochondrial network, but the mechanisms regulating this phenotype remain unknown. Here, we describe a non-cell death function of the anti-apoptotic protein, MCL-1, in regulating mitochondrial dynamics and promoting pluripotency of stem cells. MCL-1 is induced upon reprogramming, and its inhibition or knockdown induces dramatic changes to the mitochondrial network as well as loss of the key pluripotency transcription factors, NANOG and OCT4. Aside from localizing at the outer mitochondrial membrane like other BCL-2 family members, MCL-1 is unique in that it also resides at the mitochondrial matrix in pluripotent stem cells. Mechanistically, we find MCL-1 to interact with DRP-1 and OPA1, two GTPases responsible for remodeling the mitochondrial network. Depletion of MCL-1 compromised the levels and activity of these key regulators of mitochondrial dynamics. Our findings uncover an unexpected, non-apoptotic function for MCL-1 in the maintenance of mitochondrial structure and stemness.
Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
OBJECTIVE - Homozygous loss-of-function mutations in the gene coding for the homeobox transcription factor (TF) PDX1 leads to pancreatic agenesis, whereas heterozygous mutations can cause Maturity-Onset Diabetes of the Young 4 (MODY4). Although the function of Pdx1 is well studied in pre-clinical models during insulin-producing β-cell development and homeostasis, it remains elusive how this TF controls human pancreas development by regulating a downstream transcriptional program. Also, comparative studies of PDX1 binding patterns in pancreatic progenitors and adult β-cells have not been conducted so far. Furthermore, many studies reported the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and T2DM, and it has been shown that islet enhancers are enriched in T2DM-associated SNPs. Whether regions, harboring T2DM-associated SNPs are PDX1 bound and active at the pancreatic progenitor stage has not been reported so far.
METHODS - In this study, we have generated a novel induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) line that efficiently differentiates into human pancreatic progenitors (PPs). Furthermore, PDX1 and H3K27ac chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) was used to identify PDX1 transcriptional targets and active enhancer and promoter regions. To address potential differences in the function of PDX1 during development and adulthood, we compared PDX1 binding profiles from PPs and adult islets. Moreover, combining ChIP-seq and GWAS meta-analysis data we identified T2DM-associated SNPs in PDX1 binding sites and active chromatin regions.
RESULTS - ChIP-seq for PDX1 revealed a total of 8088 PDX1-bound regions that map to 5664 genes in iPSC-derived PPs. The PDX1 target regions include important pancreatic TFs, such as PDX1 itself, RFX6, HNF1B, and MEIS1, which were activated during the differentiation process as revealed by the active chromatin mark H3K27ac and mRNA expression profiling, suggesting that auto-regulatory feedback regulation maintains PDX1 expression and initiates a pancreatic TF program. Remarkably, we identified several PDX1 target genes that have not been reported in the literature in human so far, including RFX3, required for ciliogenesis and endocrine differentiation in mouse, and the ligand of the Notch receptor DLL1, which is important for endocrine induction and tip-trunk patterning. The comparison of PDX1 profiles from PPs and adult human islets identified sets of stage-specific target genes, associated with early pancreas development and adult β-cell function, respectively. Furthermore, we found an enrichment of T2DM-associated SNPs in active chromatin regions from iPSC-derived PPs. Two of these SNPs fall into PDX1 occupied sites that are located in the intronic regions of TCF7L2 and HNF1B. Both of these genes are key transcriptional regulators of endocrine induction and mutations in cis-regulatory regions predispose to diabetes.
CONCLUSIONS - Our data provide stage-specific target genes of PDX1 during in vitro differentiation of stem cells into pancreatic progenitors that could be useful to identify pathways and molecular targets that predispose for diabetes. In addition, we show that T2DM-associated SNPs are enriched in active chromatin regions at the pancreatic progenitor stage, suggesting that the susceptibility to T2DM might originate from imperfect execution of a β-cell developmental program.
Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.
Establishment of apico-basal polarity is critical for the lumenal epiblast-like morphogenesis of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs). In this issue, Taniguchi et al. (2017. https://doi.org/10.1083.jcb201704085) describe a structure called the apicosome, generated in single hPSCs, that allows them to self-organize and form the lumenal epiblast-like stage.
© 2017 Romero-Morales et al.
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a pediatric disorder of dysregulated growth and differentiation caused by loss of function mutations in either the TSC1 or TSC2 genes, which regulate mTOR kinase activity. To study aberrations of early development in TSC, we generated induced pluripotent stem cells using dermal fibroblasts obtained from patients with TSC. During validation, we found that stem cells generated from TSC patients had a very high rate of integration of the reprogramming plasmid containing a shRNA against TP53. We also found that loss of one allele of TSC2 in human fibroblasts is sufficient to increase p53 levels and impair stem cell reprogramming. Increased p53 was also observed in TSC2 heterozygous and homozygous mutant human stem cells, suggesting that the interactions between TSC2 and p53 are consistent across cell types and gene dosage. These results support important contributions of TSC2 heterozygous and homozygous mutant cells to the pathogenesis of TSC and the important role of p53 during reprogramming.
© The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Lung alveoli, which are unique to air-breathing organisms, have been challenging to generate from pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) in part because there are limited model systems available to provide the necessary developmental roadmaps for in vitro differentiation. Here we report the generation of alveolar epithelial type 2 cells (AEC2s), the facultative progenitors of lung alveoli, from human PSCs. Using multicolored fluorescent reporter lines, we track and purify human SFTPC+ alveolar progenitors as they emerge from endodermal precursors in response to stimulation of Wnt and FGF signaling. Purified PSC-derived SFTPC+ cells form monolayered epithelial "alveolospheres" in 3D cultures without the need for mesenchymal support, exhibit self-renewal capacity, and display additional AEC2 functional capacities. Footprint-free CRISPR-based gene correction of PSCs derived from patients carrying a homozygous surfactant mutation (SFTPB) restores surfactant processing in AEC2s. Thus, PSC-derived AEC2s provide a platform for disease modeling and future functional regeneration of the distal lung.
Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the result of complex interactions between genetic and environmental factors. Two chemically distinct environmental stressors relevant to PD are the metal manganese and the pesticide rotenone. Both are thought to exert neurotoxicity at least in part via oxidative stress resulting from impaired mitochondrial activity. Identifying shared mechanism of action may reveal clues towards an understanding of the mechanisms underlying PD pathogenesis. Here we compare the effects of manganese and rotenone in human-induced pluripotent stem cells-derived postmitotic mesencephalic dopamine neurons by assessing several different oxidative stress endpoints. Manganese, but not rotenone caused a concentration and time-dependent increase in intracellular reactive oxygen/nitrogen species measured by quantifying the fluorescence of oxidized chloromethyl 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCF) assay. In contrast, rotenone but not manganese caused an increase in cellular isoprostane levels, an indicator of lipid peroxidation. Manganese and rotenone both caused an initial decrease in cellular reduced glutathione; however, glutathione levels remained low in neurons treated with rotenone for 24 h but recovered in manganese-exposed cells. Neurite length, a sensitive indicator of overall neuronal health was adversely affected by rotenone, but not manganese. Thus, our observations suggest that the cellular oxidative stress evoked by these 2 agents is distinct yielding unique oxidative stress signatures across outcome measures. The protective effect of rasagiline, a compound used in the clinic for PD, had negligible impact on any of oxidative stress outcome measures except a subtle significant decrease in manganese-dependent production of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species detected by the DCF assay.
© The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
A critical event during kidney organogenesis is the differentiation of podocytes, specialized epithelial cells that filter blood plasma to form urine. Podocytes derived from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC-podocytes) have recently been generated in nephron-like kidney organoids, but the developmental stage of these cells and their capacity to reveal disease mechanisms remains unclear. Here, we show that hPSC-podocytes phenocopy mammalian podocytes at the capillary loop stage (CLS), recapitulating key features of ultrastructure, gene expression, and mutant phenotype. hPSC-podocytes in vitro progressively establish junction-rich basal membranes (nephrin podocin ZO-1 ) and microvillus-rich apical membranes (podocalyxin ), similar to CLS podocytes in vivo. Ultrastructural, biophysical, and transcriptomic analysis of podocalyxin-knockout hPSCs and derived podocytes, generated using CRISPR/Cas9, reveals defects in the assembly of microvilli and lateral spaces between developing podocytes, resulting in failed junctional migration. These defects are phenocopied in CLS glomeruli of podocalyxin-deficient mice, which cannot produce urine, thereby demonstrating that podocalyxin has a conserved and essential role in mammalian podocyte maturation. Defining the maturity of hPSC-podocytes and their capacity to reveal and recapitulate pathophysiological mechanisms establishes a powerful framework for studying human kidney disease and regeneration. Stem Cells 2017;35:2366-2378.
© 2017 AlphaMed Press.