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We have previously described diminished uterine progesterone response and increased uterine sensitivity to inflammation in adult female mice with a history of developmental exposure to TCDD (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin). Since parturition in mammals is an inflammatory process mediated in part by a decline in progesterone action, toxicant-mediated disruption of progesterone receptor (PR) expression at the maternal-fetal interface would likely impact the timing of birth. Therefore, in the current study, we examined pregnancy outcomes in adult female mice with a similar in utero exposure to TCDD. We also examined the impact of in utero TCDD exposure of male mice on pregnancy outcomes in unexposed females since the placenta, a largely paternally derived organ, plays a major role in the timing of normal parturition via inflammatory signaling. Our studies indicate that developmental exposure of either parent to TCDD is associated with preterm birth in a subsequent adult pregnancy due to altered PR expression and placental inflammation.
Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This study evaluates maternal age, race, cigarette smoking, prior spontaneous abortion, prior induced abortion, and prior preterm birth in relation to vaginal bleeding during the first two trimesters of pregnancy. Information on vaginal bleeding and predictors came from the Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition Study, which enrolled 2806 pregnant women at 24-29 weeks' gestation during 1995-2000 in central North Carolina, USA. Generalised estimating equations were applied to take into account repeated episodes of vaginal bleeding during pregnancy. Women with advanced maternal age and passive smoking exposure were more likely to experience more intense vaginal bleeding during pregnancy, as were women with prior preterm birth. More intense bleeding was also more likely to be reported among women with multiple prior spontaneous abortions or multiple prior induced abortions, but not among women with a single prior spontaneous or induced abortion. The combination of prior spontaneous and induced abortion showed a dose-response association with the occurrence of vaginal bleeding during pregnancy.