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In a screen for human kinases that regulate Xenopus laevis embryogenesis, we identified Nagk and other components of the UDP-GlcNAc glycosylation salvage pathway as regulators of anteroposterior patterning and Wnt signaling. We find that the salvage pathway does not affect other major embryonic signaling pathways (Fgf, TGFβ, Notch, or Shh), thereby demonstrating specificity for Wnt signaling. We show that the role of the salvage pathway in Wnt signaling is evolutionarily conserved in zebrafish and Drosophila. Finally, we show that GlcNAc is essential for the growth of intestinal enteroids, which are highly dependent on Wnt signaling for growth and maintenance. We propose that the Wnt pathway is sensitive to alterations in the glycosylation state of a cell and acts as a nutritional sensor in order to couple growth/proliferation with its metabolic status. We also propose that the clinical manifestations observed in congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) in humans may be due, in part, to their effects on Wnt signaling during development.
Copyright © 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Inositol polyphosphate multikinase (IPMK) is a member of the IPK-superfamily of kinases, catalyzing phosphorylation of several soluble inositols and the signaling phospholipid PI(4,5)P (PIP). IPMK also has critical non-catalytic roles in p53, mTOR/Raptor, TRAF6 and AMPK signaling mediated partly by two disordered domains. Although IPMK non-catalytic functions are well established, it is less clear if the disordered domains are important for IPMK kinase activity or ATP binding. Here, kinetic and structural analyses of an engineered human IPMK lacking all disordered domains (ΔIPMK) are presented. Although the K for PIP is identical between ΔIPMK and wild type, ΔIPMK has a 1.8-fold increase in k for PIP, indicating the native IPMK disordered domains decrease IPMK activity in vitro. The 2.5 Å crystal structure of ΔIPMK is reported, confirming the conserved ATP-grasp fold. A comparison with other IPK-superfamily structures revealed a putative "ATP-clamp" in the disordered N-terminus, we predicted would stabilize ATP binding. Consistent with this observation, removal of the ATP clamp sequence increases the K for ATP 4.9-fold, indicating the N-terminus enhances ATP binding to IPMK. Together, these structural and kinetic studies suggest in addition to mediating protein-protein interactions, the disordered domains of IPMK impart modulatory capacity to IPMK kinase activity through multiple kinetic mechanisms.
Necroptosis is an important form of lytic cell death triggered by injury and infection, but whether mixed lineage kinase domain-like (MLKL) is sufficient to execute this pathway is unknown. In a genetic selection for human cell mutants defective for MLKL-dependent necroptosis, we identified mutations in IPMK and ITPK1, which encode inositol phosphate (IP) kinases that regulate the IP code of soluble molecules. We show that IP kinases are essential for necroptosis triggered by death receptor activation, herpesvirus infection, or a pro-necrotic MLKL mutant. In IP kinase mutant cells, MLKL failed to oligomerize and localize to membranes despite proper receptor-interacting protein kinase-3 (RIPK3)-dependent phosphorylation. We demonstrate that necroptosis requires IP-specific kinase activity and that a highly phosphorylated product, but not a lowly phosphorylated precursor, potently displaces the MLKL auto-inhibitory brace region. These observations reveal control of MLKL-mediated necroptosis by a metabolite and identify a key molecular mechanism underlying regulated cell death.
Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Huntington's disease is characterized by a complex and heterogeneous pathogenic profile. Studies have shown that disturbance in lipid homeostasis may represent a critical determinant in the progression of several neurodegenerative disorders. The recognition of perturbed lipid metabolism is only recently becoming evident in HD. In order to provide more insight into the nature of such a perturbation and into the effect its modulation may have in HD pathology, we investigated the metabolism of Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), one of the most important bioactive lipids, in both animal models and patient samples. Here, we demonstrated that S1P metabolism is significantly disrupted in HD even at early stage of the disease and importantly, we revealed that such a dysfunction represents a common denominator among multiple disease models ranging from cells to humans through mouse models. Interestingly, the in vitro anti-apoptotic and the pro-survival actions seen after modulation of S1P-metabolizing enzymes allows this axis to emerge as a new druggable target and unfolds its promising therapeutic potential for the development of more effective and targeted interventions against this incurable condition.
Inositol polyphosphate multikinase (IPMK, ipk2, Arg(82), ArgRIII) is an inositide kinase with unusually flexible substrate specificity and the capacity to partake in many functional protein-protein interactions (PPIs). By merging these two activities, IPMK is able to execute gene regulatory functions that are very unique and only now beginning to be recognized. In this short review, we present a brief history of IPMK, describe the structural biology of the enzyme and highlight a few recent discoveries that have shed more light on the role IPMK plays in inositide metabolism, nuclear signalling and transcriptional regulation.
© 2016 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.
Inositol phosphate kinase 2 (Ipk2), also known as IP multikinase IPMK, is an evolutionarily conserved protein that initiates production of inositol phosphate intracellular messengers (IPs), which are critical for regulating nuclear and cytoplasmic processes. Here we report that Ipk2 kinase activity is required for the development of the adult fruit fly epidermis. Ipk2 mutants show impaired development of their imaginal discs, the primordial tissues that form the adult epidermis. Although disk tissue seems to specify normally during early embryogenesis, loss of Ipk2 activity results in increased apoptosis and impairment of proliferation during larval and pupal development. The proliferation defect is in part attributed to a reduction in JAK/STAT signaling, possibly by controlling production or secretion of the pathway's activating ligand, Unpaired. Constitutive activation of the JAK/STAT pathway downstream of Unpaired partially rescues the disk growth defects in Ipk2 mutants. Thus, IP production is essential for proliferation of the imaginal discs, in part, by regulating JAK/STAT signaling. Our work demonstrates an essential role for Ipk2 in producing inositide messengers required for imaginal disk tissue maturation and subsequent formation of adult body structures and provides molecular insights to signaling pathways involved in tissue growth and stability during development.
Phosphatidylinositol-5-phosphate 4-kinases (PIP4ks) are a family of lipid kinases that specifically use phosphatidylinositol 5-monophosphate (PI-5-P) as a substrate to synthesize phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2]. Suppression of PIP4k function in Drosophila results in smaller cells and reduced target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1) signaling. We showed that the γ isoform of PIP4k stimulated signaling through mammalian TORC1 (mTORC1). Knockdown of PIP4kγ reduced cell mass in cells in which mTORC1 is constitutively activated by Tsc2 deficiency. In Tsc2 null cells, mTORC1 activation was partially independent of amino acids or glucose and glutamine. PIP4kγ knockdown inhibited the nutrient-independent activation of mTORC1 in Tsc2 knockdown cells and reduced basal mTORC1 signaling in wild-type cells. PIP4kγ was phosphorylated by mTORC1 and associated with the complex. Phosphorylated PIP4kγ was enriched in light microsomal vesicles, whereas the unphosphorylated form was enriched in heavy microsomal vesicles associated with the Golgi. Furthermore, basal mTORC1 signaling was enhanced by overexpression of unphosphorylated wild-type PIP4kγ or a phosphorylation-defective mutant and decreased by overexpression of a phosphorylation-mimetic mutant. Together, these results demonstrate that PIP4kγ and mTORC1 interact in a self-regulated feedback loop to maintain low and tightly regulated mTORC1 activation during starvation.
Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Here, we show that a subset of breast cancers express high levels of the type 2 phosphatidylinositol-5-phosphate 4-kinases α and/or β (PI5P4Kα and β) and provide evidence that these kinases are essential for growth in the absence of p53. Knocking down PI5P4Kα and β in a breast cancer cell line bearing an amplification of the gene encoding PI5P4K β and deficient for p53 impaired growth on plastic and in xenografts. This growth phenotype was accompanied by enhanced levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to senescence. Mice with homozygous deletion of both TP53 and PIP4K2B were not viable, indicating a synthetic lethality for loss of these two genes. Importantly however, PIP4K2A(-/-), PIP4K2B(+/-), and TP53(-/-) mice were viable and had a dramatic reduction in tumor formation compared to TP53(-/-) littermates. These results indicate that inhibitors of PI5P4Ks could be effective in preventing or treating cancers with mutations in TP53.
Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP₂) is best known as a plasma membrane-bound regulatory lipid. Although PIP₂ and phosphoinositide-modifying enzymes coexist in the nucleus, their nuclear roles remain unclear. We showed that inositol polyphosphate multikinase (IPMK), which functions both as an inositol kinase and as a phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), interacts with the nuclear receptor steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) and phosphorylates its bound ligand, PIP₂. In vitro studies showed that PIP₂ was not phosphorylated by IPMK if PIP₂ was displaced or blocked from binding to the large hydrophobic pocket of SF-1 and that the ability to phosphorylate PIP₂ bound to SF-1 was specific to IPMK and did not occur with type 1 p110 PI3Ks. IPMK-generated SF-1-PIP₃ (phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate) was dephosphorylated by the lipid phosphatase PTEN. Consistent with the in vitro activities of IPMK and PTEN on SF-1-PIP(n), SF-1 transcriptional activity was reduced by silencing IPMK or overexpressing PTEN. This ability of lipid kinases and phosphatases to directly remodel and alter the activity of a non-membrane protein-lipid complex establishes a previously unappreciated pathway for promoting lipid-mediated signaling in the nucleus.
Renal ischemia-reperfusion injury is a major cause of acute kidney injury. We previously found that renal A(1) adenosine receptor (A(1)AR) activation attenuated multiple cell death pathways including necrosis, apoptosis, and inflammation. Here, we tested whether induction of cytoprotective sphingosine kinase (SK)-1 and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) synthesis might be the mechanism of protection. A selective A(1)AR agonist (CCPA) increased the synthesis of S1P and selectively induced SK1 in mouse kidney and HK-2 cells. This agonist failed to protect SK1-knockout but protected SK2-knockout mice against renal ischemia-reperfusion injury indicating a critical role of SK1 in A(1)AR-mediated renal protection. Inhibition of SK prevented A(1)AR-mediated defense against necrosis and apoptosis in HK-2 cells. A selective S1P(1)R antagonist (W146) and global in vivo gene knockdown of S1P(1)Rs with small interfering RNA completely abolished the renal protection provided by CCPA. Mice selectively deficient in renal proximal tubule S1P(1)Rs (S1P(1)R(f)(/)(f) PEPCK(Cre/-)) were not protected against renal ischemia-reperfusion injury by CCPA. Mechanistically, CCPA increased nuclear translocation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α in HK-2 cells and selective hypoxia-inducible factor-1α inhibition blocked A(1)AR-mediated induction of SK1. Thus, proximal tubule SK1 has a critical role in A(1)AR-mediated protection against renal ischemia-reperfusion injury.