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Whether Golgi enzymes remain localized within the Golgi or constitutively cycle through the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is unclear, yet is important for understanding Golgi dependence on the ER. Here, we demonstrate that the previously reported inefficient ER trapping of Golgi enzymes in a rapamycin-based assay results from an artifact involving an endogenous ER-localized 13-kD FK506 binding protein (FKBP13) competing with the FKBP12-tagged Golgi enzyme for binding to an FKBP-rapamycin binding domain (FRB)-tagged ER trap. When we express an FKBP12-tagged ER trap and FRB-tagged Golgi enzymes, conditions precluding such competition, the Golgi enzymes completely redistribute to the ER upon rapamycin treatment. A photoactivatable FRB-Golgi enzyme, highlighted only in the Golgi, likewise redistributes to the ER. These data establish Golgi enzymes constitutively cycle through the ER. Using our trapping scheme, we identify roles of rab6a and calcium-independent phospholipase A2 (iPLA2) in Golgi enzyme recycling, and show that retrograde transport of Golgi membrane underlies Golgi dispersal during microtubule depolymerization and mitosis.
A genetic variant in PNPLA3 (PNPLA3(I148M)), a triacylglycerol (TAG) hydrolase, is a major risk factor for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); however, the mechanism underlying this association is not known. To develop an animal model of PNPLA3-induced fatty liver disease, we generated transgenic mice that overexpress similar amounts of wild-type PNPLA3 (PNPLA3(WT)) or mutant PNPLA3 (PNPLA3(I148M)) either in liver or adipose tissue. Overexpression of the transgenes in adipose tissue did not affect liver fat content. Expression of PNPLA3(I148M), but not PNPLA3(WT), in liver recapitulated the fatty liver phenotype as well as other metabolic features associated with this allele in humans. Metabolic studies provided evidence for 3 distinct alterations in hepatic TAG metabolism in PNPLA3(I148M) transgenic mice: increased formation of fatty acids and TAG, impaired hydrolysis of TAG, and relative depletion of TAG long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. These findings suggest that PNPLA3 plays a role in remodeling TAG in lipid droplets, as they accumulate in response to food intake, and that the increase in hepatic TAG levels associated with the I148M substitution results from multiple changes in hepatic TAG metabolism. The development of an animal model that recapitulates the metabolic phenotype of the allele in humans provides a new platform in which to elucidate the role of PNLPA3(I148M) in NAFLD.
Microglia are immune effector cells in the central nervous system (CNS) and their activation, migration and proliferation play crucial roles in brain injuries and diseases. We examined the role of intracellular Ca(2+) -independent phospholipase A(2) (iPLA(2)) in the regulation of microglia chemotaxis toward ADP. Inhibition of iPLA(2) by 4-bromoenol lactone (BEL) or iPLA(2) knockdown exerted a significant inhibition on phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) activation and chemotaxis. Further examination revealed that iPLA(2) knockdown abrogated Src activation, which is required for PI3K activation and chemotaxis. Colocalization studies showed that cSrc-GFP was retained in the endosomal recycling compartment (ERC) in iPLA(2) knockdown cells, but the addition of arachidonic acid (AA) could restore cSrc trafficking to the plasma membrane by allowing the formation/release of recycling endosomes associated with cSrc-GFP. Using BODIPY-AA, we showed that AA is selectively enriched in recycling endosomes. These results suggest that AA is required for the cSrc trafficking to the plasma membrane by controlling the formation/release of recycling endosomes from the ERC.
© 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Macrophages express P2X(7) and other nucleotide (P2) receptors, and display the phenomena of extracellular ATP (ATP(e))-induced P2X(7)-dependent membrane permeabilization and cell death by apoptosis and necrosis. P2X(7) receptors also cooperate with toll-like receptors (TLRs) to induce inflammasome activation and IL-1beta secretion. We investigated signaling pathways involved in the induction of cell death by ATP(e) in intraperitoneal murine macrophages. Apoptosis (hypodiploid nuclei) and necrosis (LDH release) were detected 6h after an induction period of 20 min in the presence of ATP. Apoptosis was blocked by caspase 3 and caspase 9 inhibitors and by cyclosporin A. The MAPK inhibitors PD-98059, SB-203580 and SB-202190 provoked no significant effect on apoptosis, but SB-203580 blocked LDH release. Neither apoptosis nor necrosis was inhibited when both intra- and extracellular Ca(2+) were chelated during the induction period. Mepacrine, a generic PLA(2) inhibitor and BEL, an inhibitor of Ca(2+)-independent PLA(2) (iPLA(2)) blocked apoptosis, while pBPB and AACOOPF(3), inhibitors of secretory and Ca(2+)-dependent PLA(2) respectively, had no significant effect. Cycloxygenase inhibitors had no effect on apoptosis, while the inhibitors of lipoxygenase (LOX) and leukotriene biosynthesis nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), zileuton, AA-861, and MK-886 significantly decreased apoptosis. Neither NDGA nor MK-886 blocked apoptosis of 5-LOX(-/-) macrophages. CP-105696 and MK-571, antagonists of leukotriene receptors, had no significant effect on apoptosis. None of the inhibitors of PLA(2) and LOX/leukotriene pathway had a significant inhibitory effect on LDH release. Our results indicate that a Ca(2+)-independent step involving an iPLA(2) and 5-LOX are involved in the triggering of apoptosis but not necrosis by P2X(7) in macrophages.