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Whether Golgi enzymes remain localized within the Golgi or constitutively cycle through the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is unclear, yet is important for understanding Golgi dependence on the ER. Here, we demonstrate that the previously reported inefficient ER trapping of Golgi enzymes in a rapamycin-based assay results from an artifact involving an endogenous ER-localized 13-kD FK506 binding protein (FKBP13) competing with the FKBP12-tagged Golgi enzyme for binding to an FKBP-rapamycin binding domain (FRB)-tagged ER trap. When we express an FKBP12-tagged ER trap and FRB-tagged Golgi enzymes, conditions precluding such competition, the Golgi enzymes completely redistribute to the ER upon rapamycin treatment. A photoactivatable FRB-Golgi enzyme, highlighted only in the Golgi, likewise redistributes to the ER. These data establish Golgi enzymes constitutively cycle through the ER. Using our trapping scheme, we identify roles of rab6a and calcium-independent phospholipase A2 (iPLA2) in Golgi enzyme recycling, and show that retrograde transport of Golgi membrane underlies Golgi dispersal during microtubule depolymerization and mitosis.
With a newer, more selective and efficacious cytosolic phospholipase A2α (cPLA2α) inhibitor available, we revisited the role of cPLA2α activity in platelet activation and discovered that a component of platelet signaling, even larger than previously appreciated, relies on this enzyme. In a whole blood shear-based flow chamber assay, giripladib, a cPLA2α inhibitor, reduced platelet adhesion and accumulation on collagen. Moreover, giripladib differentially affected P-selectin expression and GPIIbIIIa activation depending on the agonist employed. While protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1)-mediated platelet activation was unaffected by giripladib, the levels of PAR4- and GPVI-mediated platelet activation were significantly reduced. Meanwhile, the thromboxane A2 receptor antagonist SQ29548 had no effect on PAR-, GPVI-, or puriniergic receptor-mediated platelet activation, suggesting that another eicosanoid produced downstream of arachidonic acid liberation by cPLA2α was responsible for this large component of PAR4- and GPVI-mediated platelet activation. In parallel, we profiled PAR-mediated changes in glycerophospholipid (GPL) mass with and without giripladib to better understand cPLA2α-mediated lipid metabolism. Phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) demonstrated the largest consumption of mass during thrombin stimulation. Additionally, we confirm phosphatidylinositol as a major substrate of cPLA2α. A comparison of PAR1- and PAR4-induced metabolism revealed the consumption of more putative arachidonyl-PE species downstream of PAR1 activation. Instead of enhanced cPLA2α activity and therefore more arachidonic acid liberation downstream of PAR4, these results indicate the major role that cPLA2α activity plays in platelet function and suggest that a novel eicosanoid is produced in response to platelet activation that represents a large component of PAR4- and GPVI-mediated responses.
We have previously described that arachidonic acid (AA)-5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) metabolism inhibitors such as NDGA and MK886, inhibit cell death by apoptosis, but not by necrosis, induced by extracellular ATP (ATPe) binding to P2X7 receptors in macrophages. ATPe binding to P2X7 also induces large cationic and anionic organic molecules uptake in these cells, a process that involves at least two distinct transport mechanisms: one for cations and another for anions. Here we show that inhibitors of the AA-5-LO pathway do not inhibit P2X7 receptors, as judged by the maintenance of the ATPe-induced uptake of fluorescent anionic dyes. In addition, we describe two new transport phenomena induced by these inhibitors in macrophages: a cation-selective uptake of fluorescent dyes and the release of ATP. The cation uptake requires secreted ATPe, but, differently from the P2X7/ATPe-induced phenomena, it is also present in macrophages derived from mice deficient in the P2X7 gene. Inhibitors of phospholipase A2 and of the AA-cyclooxygenase pathway did not induce the cation uptake. The uptake of non-organic cations was investigated by measuring the free intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) by Fura-2 fluorescence. NDGA, but not MK886, induced an increase in [Ca(2+)]i. Chelating Ca(2+) ions in the extracellular medium suppressed the intracellular Ca(2+) signal without interfering in the uptake of cationic dyes. We conclude that inhibitors of the AA-5-LO pathway do not block P2X7 receptors, trigger the release of ATP, and induce an ATP-dependent uptake of organic cations by a Ca(2+)- and P2X7-independent transport mechanism in macrophages.
Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Activated fibroblasts, also known as myofibroblasts, are mediators of several major human pathologies including proliferative fibrotic disorders, invasive tumor growth, rheumatoid arthritis, and atherosclerosis. We previously identified Niemann-Pick type C2 (NPC2) protein as a negative regulator of fibroblast activation (Csepeggi, C., Jiang, M., Kojima, F., Crofford, L. J., and Frolov, A. (2011) J. Biol. Chem. 286, 2078-2087). Here we report that NPC2-deficiency leads to a dramatic up-regulation of the arachidonic acid (AA) metabolic pathway in human fibroblasts. The major enzymes in this pathway, cPLA2 type IVA, COX-2, and mPGES-1, were dramatically up-regulated at both the transcriptional and translational levels. The specific phenotypic changes resulted in a >10-fold increase in the production and secretion of a key modulator of inflammation and immunity, prostaglandin E2. More importantly, AA metabolome profiling by liquid chromatography/tandem mass-spectrometry revealed the very specific nature of prostaglandin E2 up-regulation as the other analyzed AA metabolites derived from the COX-2, cytochrome P450, 5/15-lipoxygenase, and non-enzymatic oxidative pathways were mostly down-regulated. Blocking activity of cPLA2 efficiently suppressed expression of inflammatory cytokines, IL-1β and IL-6, thereby identifying cPLA2 as an important regulator of the inflammatory program in NPC2-null cells. Altogether, these studies highlight NPC2 as a specific regulator of AA metabolism and inflammation that suggests potential for NPC2 protein or its related signaling in the treatment of inflammatory diseases characterized by the presence of activated fibroblasts.
A genetic variant in PNPLA3 (PNPLA3(I148M)), a triacylglycerol (TAG) hydrolase, is a major risk factor for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); however, the mechanism underlying this association is not known. To develop an animal model of PNPLA3-induced fatty liver disease, we generated transgenic mice that overexpress similar amounts of wild-type PNPLA3 (PNPLA3(WT)) or mutant PNPLA3 (PNPLA3(I148M)) either in liver or adipose tissue. Overexpression of the transgenes in adipose tissue did not affect liver fat content. Expression of PNPLA3(I148M), but not PNPLA3(WT), in liver recapitulated the fatty liver phenotype as well as other metabolic features associated with this allele in humans. Metabolic studies provided evidence for 3 distinct alterations in hepatic TAG metabolism in PNPLA3(I148M) transgenic mice: increased formation of fatty acids and TAG, impaired hydrolysis of TAG, and relative depletion of TAG long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. These findings suggest that PNPLA3 plays a role in remodeling TAG in lipid droplets, as they accumulate in response to food intake, and that the increase in hepatic TAG levels associated with the I148M substitution results from multiple changes in hepatic TAG metabolism. The development of an animal model that recapitulates the metabolic phenotype of the allele in humans provides a new platform in which to elucidate the role of PNLPA3(I148M) in NAFLD.
Microglia are immune effector cells in the central nervous system (CNS) and their activation, migration and proliferation play crucial roles in brain injuries and diseases. We examined the role of intracellular Ca(2+) -independent phospholipase A(2) (iPLA(2)) in the regulation of microglia chemotaxis toward ADP. Inhibition of iPLA(2) by 4-bromoenol lactone (BEL) or iPLA(2) knockdown exerted a significant inhibition on phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) activation and chemotaxis. Further examination revealed that iPLA(2) knockdown abrogated Src activation, which is required for PI3K activation and chemotaxis. Colocalization studies showed that cSrc-GFP was retained in the endosomal recycling compartment (ERC) in iPLA(2) knockdown cells, but the addition of arachidonic acid (AA) could restore cSrc trafficking to the plasma membrane by allowing the formation/release of recycling endosomes associated with cSrc-GFP. Using BODIPY-AA, we showed that AA is selectively enriched in recycling endosomes. These results suggest that AA is required for the cSrc trafficking to the plasma membrane by controlling the formation/release of recycling endosomes from the ERC.
© 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
In ovarian cancer, the molecular targeted chemotherapeutics could increase the efficiency of low-dose radiotherapy while decreasing injury to adjusted organs. In irradiated A2780 human ovarian carcinoma cells, cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA(2)) inhibitor AACOCF(3) prevented activation of pro-survival Akt signaling and enhanced cell death. The potential molecular mechanisms of this effect could involve signaling through lysophosphatidic acid receptors. In the heterotopic A2780 tumor model using nude mice, cPLA(2) inhibition significantly delayed tumor growth compared to treatment with radiation or vehicle alone. These results identify cPLA(2) as a molecular target to enhance the therapeutic ratio of radiation in ovarian cancer.
Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Group IVA cytosolic phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2)α) catalyzes the first step in the arachidonic acid cascade leading to the synthesis of important lipid mediators, the prostaglandins and leukotrienes. We previously described a patient deficient in cPLA(2)α activity, which was associated with mutations in both alleles encoding the enzyme. In this paper, we describe the biochemical characterization of each of these mutations. Using saturating concentrations of calcium, we showed that the R485H mutant was nearly devoid of any catalytic activity, that the S111P mutation did not affect the enzyme activity, and that the known K651R polymorphism was associated with activity slightly higher than that of the wild type. Using MDCK cells, we showed that translocation to the Golgi in response to serum activation was impaired for the S111P mutant but not for the other mutants. Using immortalized mouse lung fibroblasts lacking endogenous cPLA(2)α activity, we showed that both mutations S111P and R485H/K651R caused a profound defect in the enzyme catalytic activity in response to cell stimulation with serum. Taken together, our results show that the S111P mutation hampers calcium binding and membrane translocation without affecting the catalytic activity, and that the mutation R485H does not affect membrane translocation but blocks catalytic activity that leads to inactivation of the enzyme. Interestingly, our results show that the common K651R polymorphism confers slightly higher activity to the enzyme, suggesting a role of this residue in favoring a catalytically active conformation of cPLA(2)α. Our results define how the mutations negatively influence cPLA(2)α function and explain the inability of the proband to release arachidonic acid for eicosanoid production.
BACKGROUND - The onset of birth in humans, like other apes, differs from non-primate mammals in its endocrine physiology. We hypothesize that higher primate-specific gene evolution may lead to these differences and target genes involved in human preterm birth, an area of global health significance.
METHODS - We performed a comparative genomics screen of highly conserved noncoding elements and identified PLA2G4C, a phospholipase A isoform involved in prostaglandin biosynthesis as human accelerated. To examine whether this gene demonstrating primate-specific evolution was associated with birth timing, we genotyped and analyzed 8 common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in PLA2G4C in US Hispanic (n = 73 preterm, 292 control), US White (n = 147 preterm, 157 control) and US Black (n = 79 preterm, 166 control) mothers.
RESULTS - Detailed structural and phylogenic analysis of PLA2G4C suggested a short genomic element within the gene duplicated from a paralogous highly conserved element on chromosome 1 specifically in primates. SNPs rs8110925 and rs2307276 in US Hispanics and rs11564620 in US Whites were significant after correcting for multiple tests (p < 0.006). Additionally, rs11564620 (Thr360Pro) was associated with increased metabolite levels of the prostaglandin thromboxane in healthy individuals (p = 0.02), suggesting this variant may affect PLA2G4C activity.
CONCLUSIONS - Our findings suggest that variation in PLA2G4C may influence preterm birth risk by increasing levels of prostaglandins, which are known to regulate labor.
OBJECTIVE - The rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of thromboxane A(2) (TxA(2)) and 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HETE) by platelets is activation of cytosolic phospholipase A(2α) (cPLA(2α)), which releases arachidonic acid, which is the substrate for cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and 12-lipoxygenase. We evaluated signaling via the human platelet thrombin receptors, protease-activated receptor (PAR) 1 and PAR4, to the activation of cPLA(2α), which provides a substrate for the biosynthesis of TxA(2) and 12-HETE.
METHODS AND RESULTS - Stimulating washed human platelets resulted in delayed biosynthesis of 12-HETE, which continues after maximal formation of TxA(2) is completed, suggesting that 12-HETE is not formed by the same pool of arachidonic acid that provides a substrate to COX-1. PAR1-induced formation of TxA(2) was inhibited by the phosphatidylinositol kinase inhibitor LY294002, whereas this inhibitor did not block 12-HETE biosynthesis. Both 1-butanol and propranolol also blocked TxA(2) biosynthesis but did not inhibit 12-HETE formation.
CONCLUSIONS - The concerted evidence indicates that the platelet thrombin receptors signal activation of cPLA(2α) coupled to COX-1 by a pathway different from that signaling activation of the cPLA(2α) coupled to 12-lipoxygenase.