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Adverse alterations in the composition of the gut microbiota have been implicated in the development of obesity and a variety of chronic diseases. Re-engineering the gut microbiota to produce beneficial metabolites is a potential strategy for treating these chronic diseases. N-acyl-phosphatidylethanolamines (NAPEs) are a family of bioactive lipids with known anti-obesity properties. Previous studies showed that administration of Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) engineered with Arabidopsis thaliana NAPE synthase to produce NAPEs imparted resistance to obesity induced by a high-fat diet that persisted after ending their administration. In prior studies, mice were pre-treated with ampicillin prior to administering engineered EcN for 8 weeks in drinking water. If use of antibiotics and long-term administration are required for beneficial effects, implementation of this strategy in humans might be problematic. Studies were therefore undertaken to determine if less onerous protocols could still impart persistent resistance and sustained NAPE biosynthesis. Administration of engineered EcN for only 2 weeks without pre-treatment with antibiotics sufficed to establish persistent resistance. Sustained NAPE biosynthesis by EcN was required as antibiotic treatment after administration of the engineered EcN markedly attenuated its effects. Finally, heterologous expression of human phospholipase A/acyltransferase-2 (PLAAT2) in EcN provided similar resistance to obesity as heterologous expression of A. thaliana NAPE synthase, confirming that NAPEs are the bioactive mediator of this resistance.
Obesity increases the risk for cardiometabolic diseases. N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamines (NAPEs) are precursors of N-acylethanolamides, which are endogenous lipid satiety factors. Incorporating engineered bacteria expressing NAPEs into the gut microbiota retards development of diet induced obesity in wild-type mice. Because NAPEs can also exert anti-inflammatory effects, we hypothesized that administering NAPE-expressing bacteria to low-density lipoprotein receptor (Ldlr) mice fed a Western diet would improve various indices of cardiometabolic disease manifested by these mice. NAPE-expressing E. coli Nissle 1917 (pNAPE-EcN), control Nissle 1917 (pEcN), or vehicle (veh) were given via drinking water to Ldlr mice for 12 weeks. Compared to pEcN or veh treatment, pNAPE-EcN significantly reduced body weight and adiposity, hepatic triglycerides, fatty acid synthesis genes, and increased expression of fatty acid oxidation genes. pNAPE-EcN also significantly reduced markers for hepatic inflammation and early signs of fibrotic development. Serum cholesterol was reduced with pNAPE-EcN, but atherosclerotic lesion size showed only a non-significant trend for reduction. However, pNAPE-EcN treatment reduced lesion necrosis by 69% indicating an effect on preventing macrophage inflammatory death. Our results suggest that incorporation of NAPE expressing bacteria into the gut microbiota can potentially serve as an adjuvant therapy to retard development of cardiometabolic disease.
Cardiovascular disease risk depends on high-density lipoprotein (HDL) function, not HDL-cholesterol. Isolevuglandins (IsoLGs) are lipid dicarbonyls that react with lysine residues of proteins and phosphatidylethanolamine. IsoLG adducts are elevated in atherosclerosis. The consequences of IsoLG modification of HDL have not been studied. We hypothesized that IsoLG modification of apoA-I deleteriously alters HDL function. We determined the effect of IsoLG on HDL structure-function and whether pentylpyridoxamine (PPM), a dicarbonyl scavenger, can preserve HDL function. IsoLG adducts in HDL derived from patients with familial hypercholesterolemia ( = 10, 233.4 ± 158.3 ng/mg) were found to be significantly higher than in healthy controls ( = 7, 90.1 ± 33.4 pg/mg protein). Further, HDL exposed to myeloperoxidase had elevated IsoLG-lysine adducts (5.7 ng/mg protein) compared with unexposed HDL (0.5 ng/mg protein). Preincubation with PPM reduced IsoLG-lysine adducts by 67%, whereas its inactive analogue pentylpyridoxine did not. The addition of IsoLG produced apoA-I and apoA-II cross-links beginning at 0.3 molar eq of IsoLG/mol of apoA-I (0.3 eq), whereas succinylaldehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal required 10 and 30 eq. IsoLG increased HDL size, generating a subpopulation of 16-23 nm. 1 eq of IsoLG decreased HDL-mediated [H]cholesterol efflux from macrophages via ABCA1, which corresponded to a decrease in HDL-apoA-I exchange from 47.4% to only 24.8%. This suggests that IsoLG inhibits apoA-I from disassociating from HDL to interact with ABCA1. The addition of 0.3 eq of IsoLG ablated HDL's ability to inhibit LPS-stimulated cytokine expression by macrophages and increased IL-1β expression by 3.5-fold. The structural-functional effects were partially rescued with PPM scavenging.
© 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
Engineering the gut microbiota to produce specific beneficial metabolites represents an important new potential strategy for treating chronic diseases. Our previous studies with bacteria engineered to produce N-acyl-phosphatidylethanolamines (NAPEs), the immediate precursors of the lipid satiety factors N-acyl-ethanolamides (NAEs), found that colonization of these bacteria inhibited development of obesity in C57BL/6J mice fed a high fat diet. Individual NAE species differ in their bioactivities. Intriguingly, colonization by our engineered bacteria resulted in increased hepatic N-stearoyl-ethanolamide (C18:0NAE) levels despite the apparent inability of these bacteria to biosynthesize its precursor N-stearoyl-phosphatidylethanolamine (C18:0NAPE) in vitro. We therefore sought to identify the factors that allowed C18:0NAPE biosynthesis by the engineered bacteria after colonization of the intestinal tract. We found that the species of NAPE biosynthesized by engineered bacteria depends on the species of dietary fatty acids available in the intestine, suggesting a simple method to fine-tune the therapeutic effects of modified microbiota.
Food intake induces synthesis of -acylphosphatidylethanolamines (NAPEs) in the intestinal tract. While NAPEs exert leptin-like (leptogenic) effects, including reduced weight gain and food intake, the mechanisms by which NAPEs induce these leptogenic effects remain unclear. One key question is whether intestinal NAPEs act directly on cognate receptors or first require conversion to -acylethanolamides (NAEs) by NAPE-hydrolyzing phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD). Previous studies using mice were equivocal because intraperitoneal injection of NAPEs led to nonspecific aversive effects. To avoid the aversive effects of injection, we delivered NAPEs and NAEs intestinally using gut bacteria synthesizing these compounds. Unlike in wild-type mice, increasing intestinal levels of NAPE using NAPE-synthesizing bacteria in mice failed to reduce food intake and weight gain or alter gene expression. In contrast, increasing intestinal NAE levels in mice using NAE-synthesizing bacteria induced all of these effects. These NAE-synthesizing bacteria also markedly increased NAE levels and decreased inflammatory gene expression in omental adipose tissue. These results demonstrate that intestinal NAPEs require conversion to NAEs by the action of NAPE-PLD to exert their various leptogenic effects, so that the reduced intestinal NAPE-PLD activity found in obese subjects may directly contribute to excess food intake and obesity.
Copyright © 2017 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
Nutrients affect adult stem cells through complex mechanisms involving multiple organs. Adipocytes are highly sensitive to diet and have key metabolic roles, and obesity increases the risk for many cancers. How diet-regulated adipocyte metabolic pathways influence normal stem cell lineages, however, remains unclear. has highly conserved adipocyte metabolism and a well-characterized female germline stem cell (GSC) lineage response to diet. Here, we conducted an isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) proteomic analysis to identify diet-regulated adipocyte metabolic pathways that control the female GSC lineage. On a rich (relative to poor) diet, adipocyte Hexokinase-C and metabolic enzymes involved in pyruvate/acetyl-CoA production are upregulated, promoting a shift of glucose metabolism toward macromolecule biosynthesis. Adipocyte-specific knockdown shows that these enzymes support early GSC progeny survival. Further, enzymes catalyzing fatty acid oxidation and phosphatidylethanolamine synthesis in adipocytes promote GSC maintenance, whereas lipid and iron transport from adipocytes controls vitellogenesis and GSC number, respectively. These results show a functional relationship between specific metabolic pathways in adipocytes and distinct processes in the GSC lineage, suggesting the adipocyte metabolism-stem cell link as an important area of investigation in other stem cell systems.
Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.
Collision cross section (CCS) measurement of lipids using traveling wave ion mobility-mass spectrometry (TWIM-MS) is of high interest to the lipidomics field. However, currently available calibrants for CCS measurement using TWIM are predominantly peptides that display quite different physical properties and gas-phase conformations from lipids, which could lead to large CCS calibration errors for lipids. Here we report the direct CCS measurement of a series of phosphatidylcholines (PCs) and phosphatidylethanolamines (PEs) in nitrogen using a drift tube ion mobility (DTIM) instrument and an evaluation of the accuracy and reproducibility of PCs and PEs as CCS calibrants for phospholipids against different classes of calibrants, including polyalanine (PolyAla), tetraalkylammonium salts (TAA), and hexakis(fluoroalkoxy)phosphazines (HFAP), in both positive and negative modes in TWIM-MS analysis. We demonstrate that structurally mismatched calibrants lead to larger errors in calibrated CCS values while the structurally matched calibrants, PCs and PEs, gave highly accurate and reproducible CCS values at different traveling wave parameters. Using the lipid calibrants, the majority of the CCS values of several classes of phospholipids measured by TWIM are within 2% error of the CCS values measured by DTIM. The development of phospholipid CCS calibrants will enable high-accuracy structural studies of lipids and add an additional level of validation in the assignment of identifications in untargeted lipidomics experiments.
Eukaryotic organisms typically express multiple type IV P-type ATPases (P4-ATPases), which establish plasma membrane asymmetry by flipping specific phospholipids from the exofacial to the cytosolic leaflet. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, for example, expresses five P4-ATPases, including Neo1, Drs2, Dnf1, Dnf2, and Dnf3. Neo1 is thought to be a phospholipid flippase, although there is currently no experimental evidence that Neo1 catalyzes this activity or helps establish membrane asymmetry. Here, we use temperature-conditional alleles (neo1(ts)) to test whether Neo1 deficiency leads to loss of plasma membrane asymmetry. Wild-type (WT) yeast normally restrict most of the phosphatidylserine (PS) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) to the inner cytosolic leaflet of the plasma membrane. However, the neo1-1(ts) and neo1-2(ts) mutants display a loss of PS and PE asymmetry at permissive growth temperatures as measured by hypersensitivity to pore-forming toxins that target PS (papuamide A) or PE (duramycin) exposed in the extracellular leaflet. When shifted to a semi-permissive growth temperature, the neo1-1(ts) mutant became extremely hypersensitive to duramycin, although the sensitivity to papuamide A was unchanged, indicating preferential exposure of PE. This loss of asymmetry occurs despite the presence of other flippases that flip PS and/or PE. Even when overexpressed, Drs2 and Dnf1 were unable to correct the loss of asymmetry caused by neo1(ts) However, modest overexpression of Neo1 weakly suppressed loss of membrane asymmetry caused by drs2Δ with a more significant correction of PE asymmetry than PS. These results indicate that Neo1 plays an important role in establishing PS and PE plasma membrane asymmetry in budding yeast.
© 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
The integration of membrane proteins into "lipid raft" membrane domains influences many biochemical processes. The intrinsic structural properties of membrane proteins are thought to mediate their partitioning between membrane domains. However, whether membrane topology influences the targeting of proteins to rafts remains unclear. To address this question, we examined the domain preference of three putative raft-associated membrane proteins with widely different topologies: human caveolin-3, C99 (the 99 residue C-terminal domain of the amyloid precursor protein), and peripheral myelin protein 22. We find that each of these proteins are excluded from the ordered domains of giant unilamellar vesicles containing coexisting liquid-ordered and liquid-disordered phases. Thus, the intrinsic structural properties of these three topologically distinct disease-linked proteins are insufficient to confer affinity for synthetic raft-like domains.
AIMS - Increased lipid peroxidation occurs in many conditions associated with inflammation. Because lipid peroxidation produces lipid aldehydes that can induce inflammatory responses through unknown mechanisms, elucidating these mechanisms may lead to development of better treatments for inflammatory diseases. We recently demonstrated that exposure of cultured cells to lipid aldehydes such as isolevuglandins (IsoLG) results in the modification of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). We therefore sought to determine (i) whether PE modification by isolevuglandins (IsoLG-PE) occurred in vivo, (ii) whether IsoLG-PE stimulated the inflammatory responses of macrophages, and (iii) the identity of receptors mediating the inflammatory effects of IsoLG-PE.
RESULTS - IsoLG-PE levels were elevated in plasma of patients with familial hypercholesterolemia and in the livers of mice fed a high-fat diet to induce obesity and hepatosteatosis. IsoLG-PE potently stimulated nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) activation and expression of inflammatory cytokines in macrophages. The effects of IsoLG-PE were blocked by the soluble form of the receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (sRAGE) and by RAGE antagonists. Furthermore, macrophages derived from the bone marrow of Ager null mice failed to express inflammatory cytokines in response to IsoLG-PE to the same extent as macrophages from wild-type mice.
INNOVATION - These studies are the first to identify IsoLG-PE as a mediator of macrophage activation and a specific receptor, RAGE, which mediates its biological effects.
CONCLUSION - PE modification by IsoLG forms RAGE ligands that activate macrophages, so that the increased IsoLG-PE generated by high circulating cholesterol levels or high-fat diet may play a role in the inflammation associated with these conditions.