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D-amino acid inhibits biofilm but not new bone formation in an ovine model.
Harmata AJ, Ma Y, Sanchez CJ, Zienkiewicz KJ, Elefteriou F, Wenke JC, Guelcher SA
(2015) Clin Orthop Relat Res 473: 3951-61
MeSH Terms: Amino Acids, Animals, Anti-Bacterial Agents, Biofilms, Biomarkers, Bone Transplantation, Cell Differentiation, Cell Proliferation, Cells, Cultured, Dose-Response Relationship, Drug, Female, Femur, Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Methionine, Mice, Models, Animal, Osseointegration, Osteoblasts, Osteoclasts, Osteogenesis, Phenylalanine, Proline, Sheep, Domestic, Time Factors, X-Ray Microtomography
Show Abstract · Added May 16, 2017
BACKGROUND - Infectious complications of musculoskeletal trauma are an important factor contributing to patient morbidity. Biofilm-dispersive bone grafts augmented with D-amino acids (D-AAs) prevent biofilm formation in vitro and in vivo, but the effects of D-AAs on osteocompatibility and new bone formation have not been investigated.
QUESTIONS/PURPOSES - We asked: (1) Do D-AAs hinder osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation in vitro? (2) Does local delivery of D-AAs from low-viscosity bone grafts inhibit new bone formation in a large-animal model?
METHODS - Methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S aureus clinical isolates, mouse bone marrow stromal cells, and osteoclast precursor cells were treated with an equal mass (1:1:1) mixture of D-Pro:D-Met:D-Phe. The effects of the D-AA dose on biofilm inhibition (n = 4), biofilm dispersion (n = 4), and bone marrow stromal cell proliferation (n = 3) were quantitatively measured by crystal violet staining. Osteoblast differentiation was quantitatively assessed by alkaline phosphatase staining, von Kossa staining, and quantitative reverse transcription for the osteogenic factors a1Col1 and Ocn (n = 3). Osteoclast differentiation was quantitatively measured by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining (n = 3). Bone grafts augmented with 0 or 200 mmol/L D-AAs were injected in ovine femoral condyle defects in four sheep. New bone formation was evaluated by μCT and histology 4 months later. An a priori power analysis indicated that a sample size of four would detect a 7.5% difference of bone volume/total volume between groups assuming a mean and SD of 30% and 5%, respectively, with a power of 80% and an alpha level of 0.05 using a two-tailed t-test between the means of two independent samples.
RESULTS - Bone marrow stromal cell proliferation, osteoblast differentiation, and osteoclast differentiation were inhibited at D-AAs concentrations of 27 mmol/L or greater in a dose-responsive manner in vitro (p < 0.05). In methicillin-sensitive and methicillin-resistant S aureus clinical isolates, D-AAs inhibited biofilm formation at concentrations of 13.5 mmol/L or greater in vitro (p < 0.05). Local delivery of D-AAs from low-viscosity grafts did not inhibit new bone formation in a large-animal model pilot study (0 mmol/L D-AAs: bone volume/total volume = 26.9% ± 4.1%; 200 mmol/L D-AAs: bone volume/total volume = 28.3% ± 15.4%; mean difference with 95% CI = -1.4; p = 0.13).
CONCLUSIONS - D-AAs inhibit biofilm formation, bone marrow stromal cell proliferation, osteoblast differentiation, and osteoclast differentiation in vitro in a dose-responsive manner. Local delivery of D-AAs from bone grafts did not inhibit new bone formation in vivo at clinically relevant doses.
CLINICAL RELEVANCE - Local delivery of D-AAs is an effective antibiofilm strategy that does not appear to inhibit bone repair. Longitudinal studies investigating bacterial burden, bone formation, and bone remodeling in contaminated defects as a function of D-AA dose are required to further support the use of D-AAs in the clinical management of infected open fractures.
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26 MeSH Terms
HIV-1 Resistance to the Capsid-Targeting Inhibitor PF74 Results in Altered Dependence on Host Factors Required for Virus Nuclear Entry.
Zhou J, Price AJ, Halambage UD, James LC, Aiken C
(2015) J Virol 89: 9068-79
MeSH Terms: Amino Acid Substitution, Anti-HIV Agents, Binding Sites, CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes, Capsid, Capsid Proteins, Cell Line, Drug Resistance, Viral, HIV Infections, HIV-1, Host-Pathogen Interactions, Humans, Indoles, Macrophages, Molecular Chaperones, Nuclear Pore Complex Proteins, Phenylalanine, Protein Binding, Protein Conformation, RNA Interference, RNA, Small Interfering, Virus Internalization, Virus Replication, beta Karyopherins, mRNA Cleavage and Polyadenylation Factors
Show Abstract · Added February 4, 2016
UNLABELLED - During HIV-1 infection of cells, the viral capsid plays critical roles in reverse transcription and nuclear entry of the virus. The capsid-targeting small molecule PF74 inhibits HIV-1 at early stages of infection. HIV-1 resistance to PF74 is complex, requiring multiple amino acid substitutions in the viral CA protein. Here we report the identification and analysis of a novel PF74-resistant mutant encoding amino acid changes in both domains of CA, three of which are near the pocket where PF74 binds. Interestingly, the mutant virus retained partial PF74 binding, and its replication was stimulated by the compound. The mutant capsid structure was not significantly perturbed by binding of PF74; rather, the mutations inhibited capsid interactions with CPSF6 and Nup153 and altered HIV-1 dependence on these host factors and on TNPO3. Moreover, the replication of the mutant virus was markedly impaired in activated primary CD4(+) T cells and macrophages. Our results suggest that HIV-1 escapes a capsid-targeting small molecule inhibitor by altering the virus's dependence on host factors normally required for entry into the nucleus. They further imply that clinical resistance to inhibitors targeting the PF74 binding pocket is likely to be strongly limited by functional constraints on HIV-1 evolution.
IMPORTANCE - The HIV-1 capsid plays critical roles in early steps of infection and is an attractive target for therapy. Here we show that selection for resistance to a capsid-targeting small molecule inhibitor can result in viral dependence on the compound. The mutant virus was debilitated in primary T cells and macrophages--cellular targets of infection in vivo. The mutations also altered the virus's dependence on cellular factors that are normally required for HIV-1 entry into the nucleus. This work provides new information regarding mechanisms of HIV-1 resistance that should be useful in efforts to develop clinically useful drugs targeting the HIV-1 capsid.
Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
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25 MeSH Terms
Compensatory substitutions in the HIV-1 capsid reduce the fitness cost associated with resistance to a capsid-targeting small-molecule inhibitor.
Shi J, Zhou J, Halambage UD, Shah VB, Burse MJ, Wu H, Blair WS, Butler SL, Aiken C
(2015) J Virol 89: 208-19
MeSH Terms: Amino Acid Substitution, Anti-HIV Agents, Cells, Cultured, Drug Resistance, Viral, HIV Core Protein p24, HIV-1, Humans, Indoles, Macrophages, Mutant Proteins, Mutation, Missense, Phenylalanine, Selection, Genetic, Suppression, Genetic, Virus Replication
Show Abstract · Added February 19, 2015
UNLABELLED - The HIV-1 capsid plays multiple roles in infection and is an emerging therapeutic target. The small-molecule HIV-1 inhibitor PF-3450074 (PF74) blocks HIV-1 at an early postentry stage by binding the viral capsid and interfering with its function. Selection for resistance resulted in accumulation of five amino acid changes in the viral CA protein, which collectively reduced binding of the compound to HIV-1 particles. In the present study, we dissected the individual and combinatorial contributions of each of the five substitutions Q67H, K70R, H87P, T107N, and L111I to PF74 resistance, PF74 binding, and HIV-1 infectivity. Q67H, K70R, and T107N each conferred low-level resistance to PF74 and collectively conferred strong resistance. The substitutions K70R and L111I impaired HIV-1 infectivity, which was partially restored by the other substitutions at positions 67 and 107. PF74 binding to HIV-1 particles was reduced by the Q67H, K70R, and T107N substitutions, consistent with the location of these positions in the inhibitor-binding pocket. Replication of the 5Mut virus was markedly impaired in cultured macrophages, reminiscent of the previously reported N74D CA mutant. 5Mut substitutions also reduced the binding of the host protein CPSF6 to assembled CA complexes in vitro and permitted infection of cells expressing the inhibitory protein CPSF6-358. Our results demonstrate that strong resistance to PF74 requires accumulation of multiple substitutions in CA to inhibit PF74 binding and compensate for fitness impairments associated with some of the sequence changes.
IMPORTANCE - The HIV-1 capsid is an emerging drug target, and several small-molecule compounds have been reported to inhibit HIV-1 infection by targeting the capsid. Here we show that resistance to the capsid-targeting inhibitor PF74 requires multiple amino acid substitutions in the binding pocket of the CA protein. Three changes in CA were necessary to inhibit binding of PF74 while maintaining viral infectivity. Replication of the PF74-resistant HIV-1 mutant was impaired in macrophages, likely owing to altered interactions with host cell factors. Our results suggest that HIV-1 resistance to capsid-targeting inhibitors will be limited by functional constraints on the viral capsid protein. Therefore, this work enhances the attractiveness of the HIV-1 capsid as a therapeutic target.
Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
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15 MeSH Terms
A conserved phenylalanine as a relay between the α5 helix and the GDP binding region of heterotrimeric Gi protein α subunit.
Kaya AI, Lokits AD, Gilbert JA, Iverson TM, Meiler J, Hamm HE
(2014) J Biol Chem 289: 24475-87
MeSH Terms: Crystallography, X-Ray, GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Guanosine Diphosphate, Models, Molecular, Phenylalanine, Protein Conformation
Show Abstract · Added January 20, 2015
G protein activation by G protein-coupled receptors is one of the critical steps for many cellular signal transduction pathways. Previously, we and other groups reported that the α5 helix in the G protein α subunit plays a major role during this activation process. However, the precise signaling pathway between the α5 helix and the guanosine diphosphate (GDP) binding pocket remains elusive. Here, using structural, biochemical, and computational techniques, we probed different residues around the α5 helix for their role in signaling. Our data showed that perturbing the Phe-336 residue disturbs hydrophobic interactions with the β2-β3 strands and α1 helix, leading to high basal nucleotide exchange. However, mutations in β strands β5 and β6 do not perturb G protein activation. We have highlighted critical residues that leverage Phe-336 as a relay. Conformational changes are transmitted starting from Phe-336 via β2-β3/α1 to Switch I and the phosphate binding loop, decreasing the stability of the GDP binding pocket and triggering nucleotide release. When the α1 and α5 helices were cross-linked, inhibiting the receptor-mediated displacement of the C-terminal α5 helix, mutation of Phe-336 still leads to high basal exchange rates. This suggests that unlike receptor-mediated activation, helix 5 rotation and translocation are not necessary for GDP release from the α subunit. Rather, destabilization of the backdoor region of the Gα subunit is sufficient for triggering the activation process.
© 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
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6 MeSH Terms
Role of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) in mediation of dopamine's effects in the kidney.
Zhang MZ, Wang Y, Yao B, Gewin L, Wei S, Capdevila JH, Harris RC
(2013) Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 305: F1680-6
MeSH Terms: Animals, Arachidonic Acid, Aromatic-L-Amino-Acid Decarboxylases, Catechol O-Methyltransferase, Cells, Cultured, Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System, Cytochrome P450 Family 2, Diet, Sodium-Restricted, Dihydroxyphenylalanine, Disease Models, Animal, Diuresis, Dopamine, Dopamine Agents, Hypertension, Kidney, Male, Mice, Mice, Knockout, Natriuresis, Sodium Chloride, Dietary
Show Abstract · Added February 26, 2014
We have recently demonstrated that intrarenal dopamine plays an important role in preventing the development of systemic hypertension. Similarly, renal cytochrome P-450 (CYP)-epoxygenase-derived arachidonic acid metabolites, epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), also are antihypertensive through inhibiting sodium reabsorption and vasodilation. The potential interaction between renal dopamine and epoxygenase systems was investigated. Catechol-O-methyl-transferase (COMT)(-/-) mice with increased intrarenal dopamine levels and proximal tubule deletion of aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (ptAADC(-/-)) mice with renal dopamine deficiency were treated with a low-salt diet or high-salt diet for 2 wk. Wild-type or Cyp2c44(-/-) mice were treated with gludopa, which selectively increased renal dopamine levels. In low salt-treated mice, urinary EET levels were related to renal dopamine levels, being highest in COMT(-/-) mice and lowest in ptAADC(-/-) mice. In high salt-treated mice, total EET and individual EET levels in both the kidney and urine were also highest in COMT(-/-) mice and lowest in ptAADC(-/-) mice. Selective increases in renal dopamine in response to gludopa administration led to marked increases in both total and all individual EET levels in the kidney without any changes in blood levels. qRT-PCR and immunoblotting indicated that gludopa increased renal Cyp2c44 mRNA and protein levels. Gludopa induced marked increases in urine volume and urinary sodium excretion in wild-type mice. In contrast, gludopa did not induce significant increases in urine volume or urinary sodium excretion in Cyp2c44(-/-) mice. These studies demonstrate that renal EET levels are maintained by intrarenal dopamine, and Cyp2c44-derived EETs play an important role in intrarenal dopamine-induced natriuresis and diuresis.
1 Communities
4 Members
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20 MeSH Terms
Investigating association of four gene regions (GABRB3, MAOB, PAH, and SLC6A4) with five symptoms in schizophrenia.
Sun J, Jayathilake K, Zhao Z, Meltzer HY
(2012) Psychiatry Res 198: 202-6
MeSH Terms: Delusions, Female, Genetic Association Studies, Genetic Predisposition to Disease, Hallucinations, Haplotypes, Humans, Male, Monoamine Oxidase, Phenylalanine Hydroxylase, Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide, Receptors, GABA-A, Schizophrenia, Serotonin Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins
Show Abstract · Added March 5, 2014
Recently, microsatellite polymorphisms have been reported to be associated with four genes, GABRB3, MAOB, PAH, and SLC6A4, and their relationships have been tested to five symptom factors: hallucinations, delusions, negative symptoms, mania, and depression. These factors were frequently present in schizophrenia spectrum disorders in the Irish Study of High Density Schizophrenia Families (ISHDSF) with a proband with the diagnosis of schizophrenia (Bergen et al., 2009). Of these, GABRB3 and PAH were reported to be significantly associated with hallucinations and delusions in a 90-family subset of the ISHDSF, respectively. In this study, we tested the association of genetic markers from these four gene regions with the approximate five clinical symptoms, based upon 256 schizophrenia patients, with genotypic data obtained by higher resolution single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping. We found one GABRB3 SNP (rs1426891, 70.8kb downstream of this gene) and haplotype constructed by three SNPs (rs1426891, rs2912602, and rs2912600) were significantly associated with hallucinations in Caucasians after Bonferroni correction for multiple testing (Bonferroni corrected P: 0.032 and 0.016, respectively). Additionally, we found one haplotype constructed by two SNPs, rs5905587-rs37615860, in MAOB/NDP gene region was significantly associated with delusions in all samples tested (Bonferroni corrected P: 0.048). These results provide additional evidence that GABRB3 and MAOB/NDP gene regions might constitute risk factors for hallucinations and delusions in schizophrenia.
Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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14 MeSH Terms
A critical phenylalanine residue in the respiratory syncytial virus fusion protein cytoplasmic tail mediates assembly of internal viral proteins into viral filaments and particles.
Shaikh FY, Cox RG, Lifland AW, Hotard AL, Williams JV, Moore ML, Santangelo PJ, Crowe JE
(2012) MBio 3:
MeSH Terms: Amino Acid Sequence, Cell Line, Cell Membrane, Cytoplasm, Cytoskeleton, Humans, Molecular Sequence Data, Mutagenesis, Site-Directed, Phenylalanine, Point Mutation, RNA, Viral, Recombinant Proteins, Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections, Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human, Sequence Alignment, Viral Fusion Proteins, Virus Assembly
Show Abstract · Added August 6, 2012
UNLABELLED - Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a single-stranded RNA virus in the Paramyxoviridae family that assembles into filamentous structures at the apical surface of polarized epithelial cells. These filaments contain viral genomic RNA and structural proteins, including the fusion (F) protein, matrix (M) protein, nucleoprotein (N), and phosphoprotein (P), while excluding F-actin. It is known that the F protein cytoplasmic tail (FCT) is necessary for filament formation, but the mechanism by which the FCT mediates assembly into filaments is not clear. We hypothesized that the FCT is necessary for interactions with other viral proteins in order to form filaments. In order to test this idea, we expressed the F protein with cytoplasmic tail (CT) truncations or specific point mutations and determined the abilities of these variant F proteins to form filaments independent of viral infection when coexpressed with M, N, and P. Deletion of the terminal three FCT residues (amino acids Phe-Ser-Asn) or mutation of the Phe residue resulted in a loss of filament formation but did not affect F-protein expression or trafficking to the cell surface. Filament formation could be restored by addition of residues Phe-Ser-Asn to an FCT deletion mutant and was unaffected by mutations to Ser or Asn residues. Second, deletion of residues Phe-Ser-Asn or mutation of the Phe residue resulted in a loss of M, N, and P incorporation into virus-like particles. These data suggest that a C-terminal Phe residue in the FCT mediates assembly through incorporation of internal virion proteins into virus filaments at the cell surface.
IMPORTANCE - Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading cause of bronchiolitis and pneumonia in infants and the elderly worldwide. There is no licensed RSV vaccine and only limited therapeutics for use in infected patients. Many aspects of the RSV life cycle have been studied, but the mechanisms that drive RSV assembly at the cell surface are not well understood. This study provides evidence that a specific residue in the RSV fusion protein cytoplasmic tail coordinates assembly into viral filaments by mediating the incorporation of internal virion proteins. Understanding the mechanisms that drive RSV assembly could lead to targeted development of novel antiviral drugs. Moreover, since RSV exits infected cells in an ESCRT (endosomal sorting complexes required for transport)-independent manner, these studies may contribute new knowledge about a general strategy by which ESCRT-independent viruses mediate outward bud formation using viral protein-mediated mechanisms during assembly and budding.
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17 MeSH Terms
Activated factor XI inhibits chemotaxis of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.
Itakura A, Verbout NG, Phillips KG, Insall RH, Gailani D, Tucker EI, Gruber A, McCarty OJ
(2011) J Leukoc Biol 90: 923-7
MeSH Terms: Blood Coagulation, Cell Movement, Cells, Cultured, Chemotaxis, Leukocyte, Factor XIa, Humans, Inflammation, Interleukin-8, N-Formylmethionine Leucyl-Phenylalanine, Neutrophils, Peritonitis, Protein Binding
Show Abstract · Added May 19, 2014
PMN leukocytes are the most abundant leukocytes in the circulation and play an important role in host defense. PMN leukocyte recruitment and inflammatory responses at sites of infection are critical components in innate immunity. Although inflammation and coagulation are known to have bidirectional relationships, little is known about the interaction between PMN leukocytes and coagulation factors. Coagulation FXI participates in the intrinsic coagulation pathway upon its activation, contributing to hemostasis and thrombosis. We have shown previously that FXI-deficient mice have an increased survival and less leukocyte accumulation into the peritoneum in severe polymicrobial peritonitis. This result suggests a role for FXI in leukocyte trafficking and/or function. In this study, we characterized the functional consequences of FXIa binding to PMN leukocytes. FXIa reduced PMN leukocyte chemotaxis triggered by the chemokine, IL-8, or the bacterial-derived peptide, fMLP, perhaps as a result of the loss of directed migration. In summary, our data suggest that FXIa modulates the inflammatory response of PMN leukocytes by altering migration. These studies highlight the interplay between inflammation and coagulation and suggest that FXIa may play a role in innate immunity.
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12 MeSH Terms
Small-molecule inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection by virus capsid destabilization.
Shi J, Zhou J, Shah VB, Aiken C, Whitby K
(2011) J Virol 85: 542-9
MeSH Terms: Animals, Anti-HIV Agents, Capsid, Capsid Proteins, Cell Line, Cyclophilin A, HIV-1, HeLa Cells, Humans, Indoles, Phenylalanine, Reverse Transcription, Virion, Virus Assembly
Show Abstract · Added February 19, 2015
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection is dependent on the proper disassembly of the viral capsid, or "uncoating," in target cells. The HIV-1 capsid consists of a conical multimeric complex of the viral capsid protein (CA) arranged in a hexagonal lattice. Mutations in CA that destabilize the viral capsid result in impaired infection owing to defects in reverse transcription in target cells. We describe here the mechanism of action of a small molecule HIV-1 inhibitor, PF-3450074 (PF74), which targets CA. PF74 acts at an early stage of HIV-1 infection and inhibits reverse transcription in target cells. We show that PF74 binds specifically to HIV-1 particles, and substitutions in CA that confer resistance to the compound prevent binding. A single point mutation in CA that stabilizes the HIV-1 core also conferred strong resistance to the virus without inhibiting compound binding. Treatment of HIV-1 particles or purified cores with PF74 destabilized the viral capsid in vitro. Furthermore, the compound induced the rapid dissolution of the HIV-1 capsid in target cells. PF74 antiviral activity was promoted by binding of the host protein cyclophilin A to the HIV-1 capsid, and PF74 and cyclosporine exhibited mutual antagonism. Our data suggest that PF74 triggers premature HIV-1 uncoating in target cells, thereby mimicking the activity of the retrovirus restriction factor TRIM5α. This study highlights uncoating as a step in the HIV-1 life cycle that is susceptible to small molecule intervention.
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14 MeSH Terms
Identification of residue-to-residue contact between a peptide ligand and its G protein-coupled receptor using periodate-mediated dihydroxyphenylalanine cross-linking and mass spectrometry.
Umanah GK, Huang L, Ding FX, Arshava B, Farley AR, Link AJ, Naider F, Becker JM
(2010) J Biol Chem 285: 39425-36
MeSH Terms: Binding, Competitive, Cross-Linking Reagents, Dihydroxyphenylalanine, Kinetics, Ligands, Mass Spectrometry, Mitogens, Mutagenesis, Site-Directed, Peptides, Periodic Acid, Protein Binding, Protein Conformation, Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Signal Transduction, Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization
Show Abstract · Added February 20, 2015
Fundamental knowledge about how G protein-coupled receptors and their ligands interact is important for understanding receptor-ligand binding and the development of new drug discovery strategies. We have used cross-linking and tandem mass spectrometry analyses to investigate the interaction of the N terminus of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae tridecapeptide pheromone, α-factor (WHWLQLKPGQPMY), and Ste2p, its cognate G protein-coupled receptor. The Trp(1) residue of α-factor was replaced by 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) for periodate-mediated chemical cross-linking, and biotin was conjugated to Lys(7) for detection purposes to create the peptide [DOPA(1),Lys(7)(BioACA),Nle(12)]α-factor, called Bio-DOPA(1)-α-factor. This ligand analog was a potent agonist and bound to Ste2p with ∼65 nanomolar affinity. Immunoblot analysis of purified Ste2p samples that were treated with Bio-DOPA(1)-α-factor showed that the peptide analog cross-linked efficiently to Ste2p. The cross-linking was inhibited by the presence of either native α-factor or an α-factor antagonist. MALDI-TOF and immunoblot analyses revealed that Bio-DOPA(1)-α-factor cross-linked to a fragment of Ste2p encompassing residues Ser(251)-Met(294). Fragmentation of the cross-linked fragment and Ste2p using tandem mass spectrometry pinpointed the cross-link point of the DOPA(1) of the α-factor analog to the Ste2p Lys(269) side chain near the extracellular surface of the TM6-TM7 bundle. This conclusion was confirmed by a greatly diminished cross-linking of Bio-DOPA(1)-α-factor into a Ste2p(K269A) mutant. Based on these and previously obtained binding contact data, a mechanism of α-factor binding to Ste2p is proposed. The model for bound α-factor shows how ligand binding leads to conformational changes resulting in receptor activation of the signal transduction pathway.
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16 MeSH Terms