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Previously published studies have shown that cytochrome P450 (P450) enzyme systems can produce reactive oxygen species and suggest roles of P450s in oxidative stress. However, most of the studies have been done in vitro, and the potential link between P450 induction and in vivo oxidative damage has not been rigorously explored with validated biomarkers. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were pretreated with typical P450 inducers (beta-naphthoflavone, phenobarbital (PB), Aroclor 1254, isoniazid, pregnenolone 16alpha-carbonitrile, and clofibrate) or the general P450 inhibitor 1-aminobenztriazole; induction of P4501A, -2B, -2E, -3A, and -4A subfamily enzymes was confirmed by immunoblotting and the suppression of P450 by 1-aminobenztriazole using spectral analysis. PB and Aroclor 1254 significantly enhanced malondialdehyde and H2O2 generation and NADPH oxidation in vitro and significantly enhanced formation in vivo, in both liver and plasma. Some of the other treatments changed in vitro parameters but none did in vivo. The PB-mediated increases in liver and plasma F2-isoprostanes could be ablated by 1-aminobenztriazole, implicating the PB-induced P450(s) in the F2-isoprostane elevation. The markers of in vivo oxidative stress were influenced mainly by PB and Aroclor 1254, indicative of an oxidative damage response only to barbiturate-type induction and probably related to 2B subfamily enzymes. These studies define the contribution of P450s to oxidative stress in vivo, in that the phenomenon is relatively restricted and most P450s do not contribute substantially.
During development, activation of Cl(-)-permeable GABA(A) receptors (GABA(A)-R) excites neurons as a result of elevated intracellular Cl(-) levels and a depolarized Cl(-) equilibrium potential (E(Cl)). GABA becomes inhibitory as net outward neuronal transport of Cl(-) develops in a caudal-rostral progression. In line with this caudal-rostral developmental pattern, GABAergic anticonvulsant compounds inhibit motor manifestations of neonatal seizures but not cortical seizure activity. The Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter (NKCC1) facilitates the accumulation of Cl(-) in neurons. The NKCC1 blocker bumetanide shifted E(Cl) negative in immature neurons, suppressed epileptiform activity in hippocampal slices in vitro and attenuated electrographic seizures in neonatal rats in vivo. Bumetanide had no effect in the presence of the GABA(A)-R antagonist bicuculline, nor in brain slices from NKCC1-knockout mice. NKCC1 expression level versus expression of the Cl(-)-extruding transporter (KCC2) in human and rat cortex showed that Cl(-) transport in perinatal human cortex is as immature as in the rat. Our results provide evidence that NKCC1 facilitates seizures in the developing brain and indicate that bumetanide should be useful in the treatment of neonatal seizures.
Liver heme oxygenase (HO) activity is higher in selenium-deficient rats than in control animals under basal conditions and is further increased in them, but not in controls, by phenobarbital treatment. In the present study we characterized liver HO induction by selenium deficiency using molecular methods. Severe selenium deficiency in rats caused a doubling of liver HO activity without affecting spleen, kidney, brain, or testis HO activities. HO-1 protein and mRNA were increased to accompany the increased HO activity, but HO-2 protein and mRNA were not increased. Fractionation of the liver into hepatocyte and Kupffer cell/endothelial cell fractions revealed that the increased HO activity resides in the hepatocyte fraction. Immunohistochemical localization of HO-1 protein confirms the induction of HO-1 taking place solely in hepatocytes and throughout the liver lobule. Phenobarbital treatment sharply increased HO-1 mRNA and protein expression in selenium-deficient liver and HO activity in hepatocytes, but had no effect in control liver or in the Kupffer cell/endothelial cell fraction of selenium-deficient liver. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed increased AP-1 binding activity, suggesting an involvement of this redox-sensitive transcription factor in the induction by phenobarbital of HO-1 in selenium deficiency. We speculate that selenium deficiency affects hepatic antioxidant selenoproteins, resulting in an up-regulation of HO-1.
Pyridine (PY) effects on rat hepatic cytochromes P450 (CYP) 3A1 and 3A2 expression were examined at the levels of metabolic activity, protein, and mRNA and were compared with those of CYP2B1/2 and CYP2E1. CYP3A metabolic activity as well as CYP3A protein and mRNA levels increased following treatment of rats with PY. CYP3A1 and CYP3A2 were differentially affected by PY treatment in terms of induction levels, dose dependence, and stability of mRNA. CYP3A1 mRNA levels maximally increased ~42-fold after PY treatment, whereas CYP3A2 mRNA level increased ~4-fold. Moreover, CYP3A1 mRNA levels decreased more rapidly than those of CYP3A2 as determined following inhibition of transcription with actinomycin D or cordycepin. Treatment of rats with PY resulted in a dose-dependent increase in CYP3A1, CYP3A2, and CYP2B1/2B2 protein levels. In contrast to the effects of PY treatment on CYP3A1 and 2B, CYP2E1 protein levels increased in the absence of a concomitant increase in CYP2E1 mRNA levels. Treatment of rats with PY at 200 mg/kg/day for 3 days increased both protein and mRNA levels of CYP3A2, whereas treatment with higher than 200 mg/kg/day for 3 days increased CYP3A2 protein levels without an increase in CYP3A2 mRNA levels. These data demonstrated that PY regulates the various CYPs examined in this study at different levels of expression and that PY regulates CYP3A1 expression through transcriptional activation and CYP3A2 expression through transcriptional and post-transcriptional activation at a low- and high-dose PY treatment, respectively.
Many enzymes catalyze N-dealkylations of alkylamines, including cytochrome P450 (P450) and peroxidase enzymes. Peroxidases, exemplified by horseradish peroxidase (HRP), are generally accepted to catalyze N-dealkylations via 1-electron transfer processes. Several lines of evidence also support a 1-electron mechanism for many P450 reactions, although this view has been questioned in light of reported trends for kinetic hydrogen isotope effects for N-demethylation with a series of 4-substituted N,N-dimethylanilines. No continuous trend for an increase of isotope effects with the electronic parameters of para-substitution was seen for the P450 2B1-catalyzed reactions in this study. The larger value seen with the 4-nitro derivative is consistent with a shift in mechanism due to either a reversible electron transfer step preceding deprotonation or to a hydrogen atom abstraction mechanism. With HRP, the trend is to lower isotope effects with para electron-withdrawing substituents, due to an apparent shift in rate-limiting steps. Biomimetic model high-valent porphyrins showed reduction rates with variously 4-substituted N,N-dialkylanilines that were consistent with a positively charged intermediate; such relationships were not seen for anisole O-demethylation with P450 2B1. In contrast to the case with the NADPH-supported P450 reactions, high deuterium isotope effects ( approximately 7) were seen in the N-dealkylations supported by the oxygen surrogate iodosylbenzene. With iodosylbenzene, colored aminium radicals were observed in the oxidations of aminopyrine, N,N-dimethyl-4-aminothioanisole, and 4-methoxy-N,N-dimethylaniline. With the latter compound, a substantial intermolecular deuterium isotope effect was observed for N-demethylation. In the N-dealkylation of N-ethyl,N-methylaniline by P450 2B1 (NADPH-supported), the ratio of N-demethylation to N-deethylation was 16. Although it is probably possible for P450s to catalyze amine N-dealkylations via hydrogen atom abstraction when such a course is electronically or sterically favored, we interpret the evidence to favor a 1-electron pathway with N,N-dialkylamines with P450 2B1 as well as HRP and several biomimetic models.
BACKGROUND - Halothane can be reductively metabolized to free radical intermediates that may initiate lipid peroxidation. Hypoxia and phenobarbital pretreatment in Sprague-Dawley rats increases reductive metabolism of halothane. F(2)-isoprostanes, a novel measure of lipid peroxidation in vivo, were used to quantify halothane-induced lipid peroxidation in rats.
METHODS - Rats were exposed to 1% halothane or 14% O(2) for 2 h. Pretreatments included phenobarbital, isoniazid, or vehicle. Rats also were exposed to halothane, enflurane, and desflurane at 21% O(2). Lipid peroxidation was assessed by mass spectrometric quantification of F(2)-isoprostanes.
RESULTS - Exposure of phenobarbital-pretreated rats to 1% halothane at 21% O(2) for 2 h caused liver and plasma F(2)-isoprostane concentrations to increase fivefold compared to nonhalothane control rats. This halothane-induced increase was enhanced by 14% O(2), but hypoxia alone had no significant effect. Alanine aminotransferase activity at 24 h was significantly increased only in the 1% halothane/14% O(2) group. The effect of cytochrome P450 enzyme induction on halothane-induced F(2)-isoprostane production and liver injury was determined by comparing the effects of isoniazid and phenobarbital pretreatment with no pretreatment under hypoxic conditions. Halothane caused 4- and 11-fold increases in plasma and liver F(2)-isoprostanes, respectively, in non-pretreated rats, whereas isoniazid pretreatment had no effect. Phenobarbital pretreatment potentiated halothane-induced lipid peroxidation with 9- and 20-fold increases in plasma and liver F(2)-isoprostanes, respectively. Alanine aminotransferase activity was increased only in this group. At ambient oxygen concentrations, halothane but not enflurane or desflurane, caused F(2)-isoprostanes to increase.
CONCLUSIONS - Specific halothane-induced lipid peroxidation was demonstrated in Sprague-Dawley rats using quantification of F(2)-isoprostanes and was increased by hypoxia and phenobarbital pretreatment, but not isoniazid pretreatment.
Oxygen inhibition of CCl4 metabolism by different isoenzymes of cytochrome P-450 was assessed by studying liver microsomes isolated from control rats and rats treated with phenobarbital or isoniazid. Rates of CCl4 metabolism were similar for all microsomes under a nitrogen atmosphere. An air atmosphere inhibited metabolism by microsomes from control rats to 12% of the value under nitrogen and metabolism by microsomes from rats treated with phenobarbital to 5%. It inhibited metabolism by microsomes from rats treated with isoniazid only to 32%. Rats treated with phenobarbital, which increases hepatic cytochrome P-450 content, or isoniazid, which does not increase hepatic cytochrome P-450 content, both metabolized more CCl4 than control rats as indicated by exhalation of greater quantities of CCl4 metabolites and by an increase in CCl4 toxicity. These results indicate that some isoenzymes of cytochrome P-450 are more effective than others in metabolizing CCl4 when oxygen is present.