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Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a frequent, complex, and difficult to treat clinical syndrome among preterm infants in the neonatal intensive care unit. In addition to known clinical risk factors, there are emerging data about genetic predisposition to PDA in both animal and human models. Clinical response and toxicity from drugs used to treat PDA are highly variable. Developmental and genetic aspects of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics influence exposure and response to pharmacologic therapies. Given the variable efficacy and toxicity of known drug therapies, novel therapeutic targets for PDA treatment offer the promise of precision medicine. This review addresses the known genetic contributions to prolonged ductal patency, variability in response to drug therapy for PDA, and potential novel drug targets for future PDA treatment discovery.
Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Response to a drug often differs widely among individual patients. This variability is frequently observed not only with respect to effective responses but also with adverse drug reactions. Matching patients to the drugs that are most likely to be effective and least likely to cause harm is the goal of effective therapeutics. Pharmacogenomics (PGx) holds the promise of precision medicine through elucidating the genetic determinants responsible for pharmacological outcomes and using them to guide drug selection and dosing. Here we survey the US landscape of research programs in PGx implementation, review current advances and clinical applications of PGx, summarize the obstacles that have hindered PGx implementation, and identify the critical knowledge gaps and possible studies needed to help to address them.
© 2018 American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.
The development of new knowledge around the genetic determinants of variable drug action has naturally raised the question of how this new knowledge can be used to improve the outcome of drug therapy. Two broad approaches have been taken: a point-of-care approach in which genotyping for specific variant(s) is undertaken at the time of drug prescription, and a preemptive approach in which multiple genetic variants are typed in an individual patient and the information archived for later use when a drug with a "pharmacogenetic story" is prescribed. This review addresses the current state of implementation, the rationale for these approaches, and barriers that must be overcome. Benefits to pharmacogenetic testing are only now being defined and will be discussed.
© 2018 American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.
Drug development continues to be costly and slow, with medications failing due to lack of efficacy or presence of toxicity. The promise of pharmacogenomic discovery includes tailoring therapeutics based on an individual's genetic makeup, rational drug development, and repurposing medications. Rapid growth of large research cohorts, linked to electronic health record (EHR) data, fuels discovery of new genetic variants predicting drug action, supports Mendelian randomization experiments to show drug efficacy, and suggests new indications for existing medications. New biomedical informatics and machine-learning approaches advance the ability to interpret clinical information, enabling identification of complex phenotypes and subpopulations of patients. We review the recent history of use of "big data" from EHR-based cohorts and biobanks supporting these activities. Future studies using EHR data, other information sources, and new methods will promote a foundation for discovery to more rapidly advance precision medicine.
© 2017 American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.
OBJECTIVES - This multicenter pragmatic investigation assessed outcomes following clinical implementation of CYP2C19 genotype-guided antiplatelet therapy after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).
BACKGROUND - CYP2C19 loss-of-function alleles impair clopidogrel effectiveness after PCI.
METHODS - After clinical genotyping, each institution recommended alternative antiplatelet therapy (prasugrel, ticagrelor) in PCI patients with a loss-of-function allele. Major adverse cardiovascular events (defined as myocardial infarction, stroke, or death) within 12 months of PCI were compared between patients with a loss-of-function allele prescribed clopidogrel versus alternative therapy. Risk was also compared between patients without a loss-of-function allele and loss-of-function allele carriers prescribed alternative therapy. Cox regression was performed, adjusting for group differences with inverse probability of treatment weights.
RESULTS - Among 1,815 patients, 572 (31.5%) had a loss-of-function allele. The risk for major adverse cardiovascular events was significantly higher in patients with a loss-of-function allele prescribed clopidogrel versus alternative therapy (23.4 vs. 8.7 per 100 patient-years; adjusted hazard ratio: 2.26; 95% confidence interval: 1.18 to 4.32; p = 0.013). Similar results were observed among 1,210 patients with acute coronary syndromes at the time of PCI (adjusted hazard ratio: 2.87; 95% confidence interval: 1.35 to 6.09; p = 0.013). There was no difference in major adverse cardiovascular events between patients without a loss-of-function allele and loss-of-function allele carriers prescribed alternative therapy (adjusted hazard ratio: 1.14; 95% confidence interval: 0.69 to 1.88; p = 0.60).
CONCLUSIONS - These data from real-world observations demonstrate a higher risk for cardiovascular events in patients with a CYP2C19 loss-of-function allele if clopidogrel versus alternative therapy is prescribed. A future randomized study of genotype-guided antiplatelet therapy may be of value.
Copyright © 2018 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Essentials Genetic variants controlling gene regulation have not been explored in pharmacogenomics. We tested liver expression quantitative trait loci for association with warfarin dose response. A novel predictor for increased warfarin dose response in African Americans was identified. Precision medicine must take into account population-specific variation in gene regulation.
SUMMARY - Background Warfarin is commonly used to control and prevent thromboembolic disorders. However, because of warfarin's complex dose-requirement relationship, safe and effective use is challenging. Pharmacogenomics-guided warfarin dosing algorithms that include the well-established VKORC1 and CYP2C9 polymorphisms explain only a small proportion of inter-individual variability in African Americans (AAs). Objectives We aimed to assess whether transcriptomic analyses could be used to identify regulatory variants associated with warfarin dose response in AAs. Patients/Methods We identified a total of 56 expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) for CYP2C9, VKORC1 and CALU derived from human livers and evaluated their association with warfarin dose response in two independent AA warfarin patient cohorts. Results We found that rs4889606, a strong cis-eQTL for VKORC1 (log Bayes Factor = 12.02), is significantly associated with increased warfarin daily dose requirement (β = 1.1; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.46 to 1.8) in the discovery cohort (n = 305) and in the replication cohort (β = 1.04; 95% CI 0.33 -1.7; n = 141) after conditioning on relevant covariates and the VKORC1 -1639G>A (rs9923231) variant. Inclusion of rs4889606 genotypes, along with CYP2C9 alleles, rs9923231 genotypes and clinical variables, explained 31% of the inter-patient variability in warfarin dose requirement. We demonstrate different linkage disequilibrium patterns in the region encompassing rs4889606 and rs9923231 between AAs and European Americans, which may explain the increased dose requirement found in AAs. Conclusion Our approach of interrogating eQTLs identified in liver has revealed a novel predictor of warfarin dose response in AAs. Our work highlights the utility of leveraging information from regulatory variants mapped in the liver to uncover novel variants associated with drug response and the importance of population-specific research.
© 2017 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of irreversible visual loss and is primarily treated with nutritional supplementation as well as with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agents for certain patients with neovascular disease. AMD is a complex disease with both genetic and environmental risk factors. In addition, treatment outcomes from nutritional supplementation and anti-VEGF agents vary considerably. Therefore, it is reasonable to suspect that there may be pharmacogenetic influences on these treatments. Many series have reported individual associations with variants in complement factor H (CFH), age-related maculopathy susceptibility 2 (ARMS2), and other loci. However, at this time there are no validated associations. With respect to AMD, pharmacogenetics remains an intriguing area of research but is not helpful for routine clinical management.
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We conducted a discovery genome-wide association study with expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) annotation of new-onset diabetes (NOD) among European Americans, who were exposed to a calcium channel blocker-based strategy (CCB strategy) or a β-blocker-based strategy (β-blocker strategy) in the INternational VErapamil SR Trandolapril STudy. Replication of the top signal from the SNP*treatment interaction analysis was attempted in Hispanic and African Americans, and a joint meta-analysis was performed (total 334 NOD cases and 806 matched controls). PLEKHH2 rs11124945 at 2p21 interacted with antihypertensive exposure for NOD (meta-analysis P=5.3 × 10). rs11124945 G allele carriers had lower odds for NOD when exposed to the β-blocker strategy compared with the CCB strategy (Odds ratio OR=0.38(0.24-0.60), P=4.0 × 10), whereas A/A homozygotes exposed to the β-blocker strategy had increased odds for NOD compared with the CCB strategy (OR=2.02(1.39-2.92), P=2.0 × 10). eQTL annotation of the 2p21 locus provides functional support for regulating gene expression.
AIM - We sought to identify potential pleiotropy involving pharmacogenes.
METHODS - We tested 184 functional variants in 34 pharmacogenes for associations using a custom grouping of International Classification and Disease, Ninth Revision billing codes extracted from deidentified electronic health records of 6892 patients.
RESULTS - We replicated several associations including ABCG2 (rs2231142) and gout (p = 1.73 × 10(-7); odds ratio [OR]: 1.73; 95% CI: 1.40-2.12); and SLCO1B1 (rs4149056) and jaundice (p = 2.50 × 10(-4); OR: 1.67; 95% CI: 1.27-2.20).
CONCLUSION - In this systematic screen for phenotypic associations with functional variants, several novel genotype-phenotype combinations also achieved phenome-wide significance, including SLC15A2 rs1143672 and renal osteodystrophy (p = 2.67 × 10(-) (6); OR: 0.61; 95% CI: 0.49-0.75).