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Cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1)-induced suppression of transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) activation provides a therapeutic option to reduce inflammation and pain in different animal disease models through mechanisms involving dampening of TRPV1 activation and signaling events. As we found in both mouse corneal epithelium and human corneal epithelial cells (HCEC) that there is CB1 and TRPV1 expression colocalization based on overlap of coimmunostaining, we determined in mouse corneal wound healing models and in human corneal epithelial cells (HCEC) if they interact with one another to reduce TRPV1-induced inflammatory and scarring responses. Corneal epithelial debridement elicited in vivo a more rapid wound healing response in wildtype (WT) than in CB1(-/-) mice suggesting functional interaction between CB1 and TRPV1. CB1 activation by injury is tenable based on the identification in mouse corneas of 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG) with tandem LC-MS/MS, a selective endocannabinoid CB1 ligand. Suppression of corneal TRPV1 activation by CB1 is indicated since following alkali burning, CB1 activation with WIN55,212-2 (WIN) reduced immune cell stromal infiltration and scarring. Western blot analysis of coimmunoprecipitates identified protein-protein interaction between CB1 and TRPV1. Other immunocomplexes were also identified containing transforming growth factor kinase 1 (TAK1), TRPV1 and CB1. CB1 siRNA gene silencing prevented suppression by WIN of TRPV1-induced TAK1-JNK1 signaling. WIN reduced TRPV1-induced Ca(2+) transients in fura2-loaded HCEC whereas pertussis toxin (PTX) preincubation obviated suppression by WIN of such rises caused by capsaicin (CAP). Whole cell patch clamp analysis of HCEC showed that WIN blocked subsequent CAP-induced increases in nonselective outward currents. Taken together, CB1 activation by injury-induced release of endocannabinoids such as 2-AG downregulates TRPV1 mediated inflammation and corneal opacification. Such suppression occurs through protein-protein interaction between TRPV1 and CB1 leading to declines in TRPV1 phosphorylation status. CB1 activation of the GTP binding protein, G(i/o) contributes to CB1 mediated TRPV1 dephosphorylation leading to TRPV1 desensitization, declines in TRPV1-induced increases in currents and pro-inflammatory signaling events.
Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) modulates brain circuits involved in attention, reward, and motor activity. Synaptic DA homeostasis is primarily controlled via two presynaptic regulatory mechanisms, DA D(2) receptor (D(2)R)-mediated inhibition of DA synthesis and release, and DA transporter (DAT)-mediated DA clearance. D(2)Rs can physically associate with DAT and regulate DAT function, linking DA release and reuptake to a common mechanism. We have established that the attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder-associated human DAT coding variant Ala559Val (hDAT A559V) results in anomalous DA efflux (ADE) similar to that caused by amphetamine-like psychostimulants. Here, we show that tonic activation of D(2)R provides support for hDAT A559V-mediated ADE. We determine in hDAT A559V a pertussis toxin-sensitive, CaMKII-dependent phosphorylation mechanism that supports D(2)R-driven DA efflux. These studies identify a signaling network downstream of D(2)R activation, normally constraining DA action at synapses, that may be altered by DAT mutation to impact risk for DA-related disorders.
The group III metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) represent a family of presynaptically expressed G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) with enormous therapeutic potential; however, robust cellular assays to study their function have been difficult to develop. We present here a new assay, compatible with traditional high-throughput screening platforms, to detect activity of pharmacological ligands interacting with G(i/o)-coupled GPCRs, including the group III mGluRs 4, 7, and 8. The assay takes advantage of the ability of the Gbetagamma subunits of G(i) and G(o) heterotrimers to interact with G-protein regulated inwardly rectifying potassium channels (GIRKs), and we show here that we are able to detect the activity of multiple types of pharmacophores including agonists, antagonists, and allosteric modulators of several distinct GPCRs. Using GIRK-mediated thallium flux, we perform a side-by-side comparison of the activity of a number of commercially available compounds, some of which have not been extensively evaluated because of the previous lack of robust assays at each of the three major group III mGluRs. It is noteworthy that several compounds previously considered to be general group III mGluR antagonists have very weak activity using this assay, suggesting the possibility that these compounds may not effectively inhibit these receptors in native systems. We anticipate that the GIRK-mediated thallium flux strategy will provide a novel tool to advance the study of G(i/o)-coupled GPCR biology and promote ligand discovery and characterization.
PGF(2alpha) is the most abundant prostaglandin detected in urine; however, its renal effects are poorly characterized. The present study cloned a PGF-prostanoid receptor (FP) from the rabbit kidney and determined the functional consequences of its activation. Nuclease protection assay showed that FP mRNA expression predominates in rabbit ovary and kidney. In situ hybridization revealed that renal FP expression predominates in the cortical collecting duct (CCD). Although FP receptor activation failed to increase intracellular Ca(2+), it potently inhibited vasopressin-stimulated osmotic water permeability (L(p), 10(-7) cm/(atm.s)) in in vitro microperfused rabbit CCDs. Inhibition of L(p) by the FP selective agonist latanoprost was additive to inhibition of vasopressin action by the EP selective agonist sulprostone. Inhibition of L(p) by latanoprost was completely blocked by pertussis toxin, consistent with a G(i)-coupled mechanism. Heterologous transfection of the rabbit FPr into HEK293 cells also showed that latanoprost inhibited cAMP generation via a pertussis toxin-sensitive mechanism but did not increase cell Ca(2+). These studies demonstrate a functional FP receptor on the basolateral membrane of rabbit CCDs. In contrast to the Ca(2+) signal transduced by other FP receptors, this renal FP receptor signals via a PT-sensitive mechanism that is not coupled to cell Ca(2+).
Thrombin activates protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) by cleavage of the amino terminus to unmask a tethered ligand. Although peptide analogs can activate PAR-1, we show that the functional responses mediated via PAR-1 differ between the agonists. Thrombin caused endothelial monolayer permeability and mobilized intracellular calcium with EC(50) values of 0.1 and 1.7 nm, respectively. The opposite order of activation was observed for agonist peptide (SFLLRN-CONH(2) or TFLLRNKPDK) activation. The addition of inactivated thrombin did not affect agonist peptide signaling, suggesting that the differences in activation mechanisms are intramolecular in origin. Although activation of PAR-1 or PAR-2 by agonist peptides induced calcium mobilization, only PAR-1 activation affected barrier function. Induced barrier permeability is likely to be Galpha(12/13)-mediated as chelation of Galpha(q)-mediated intracellular calcium with BAPTA-AM, pertussis toxin inhibition of Galpha(i/o), or GM6001 inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase had no effect, whereas Y-27632 inhibition of the Galpha(12/13)-mediated Rho kinase abrogated the response. Similarly, calcium mobilization is Galpha(q)-mediated and independent of Galpha(i/o) and Galpha(12/13) because pertussis toxin Y-27632 and had no effect, whereas U-73122 inhibition of phospholipase C-beta blocked the response. It is therefore likely that changes in permeability reflect Galpha(12/13) activation, and changes in calcium reflect Galpha(q) activation, implying that the pharmacological differences between agonists are likely caused by the ability of the receptor to activate Galpha(12/13) or Galpha(q). This functional selectivity was characterized quantitatively by a mathematical model describing each step leading to Rho activation and/or calcium mobilization. This model provides an estimate that peptide activation alters receptor/G protein binding to favor Galpha(q) activation over Galpha(12/13) by approximately 800-fold.
Thrombospondin-1 (THBS1) is a large extracellular matrix glycoprotein that affects vasculature systems such as platelet activation, angiogenesis, and wound healing. Increases in THBS1 expression have been liked to disease states including tumor progression, atherosclerosis, and arthritis. The present study focuses on the effects of thrombin activation of the G-protein-coupled, protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) on THBS1 gene expression in the microvascular endothelium. Thrombin-induced changes in gene expression were characterized by microarray analysis of approximately 11,000 different human genes in human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1). Thrombin induced the expression of a set of at least 65 genes including THBS1. Changes in THBS1 mRNA correlated with an increase in the extracellular THBS1 protein concentration. The PAR-1-specific agonist peptide (TFLLRNK-PDK) mimicked thrombin stimulation of THBS1 expression, suggesting that thrombin signaling is through PAR-1. Further studies showed THBS1 expression was sensitive to pertussis toxin and protein kinase C inhibition indicating G(i/o)- and G(q)-mediated pathways. THBS1 up-regulation was also confirmed in human umbilical vein endothelial cells stimulated with thrombin. Analysis of the promoter region of THBS1 and other genes of similar expression profile identified from the microarray predicted an EBOX/EGRF transcription model. Expression of members of each family, MYC and EGR1, respectively, correlated with THBS1 expression. These results suggest thrombin formed at sites of vascular injury increases THBS1 expression into the extracellular matrix via activation of a PAR-1, G(i/o), G(q), EBOX/EGRF-signaling cascade, elucidating regulatory points that may play a role in increased THBS1 expression in disease states.
The beta1 integrin-stimulating antibody TS2/16 induces cAMP-dependent migration of MCF-10A breast cells on the extracellular matrix protein laminin-5. TS2/16 stimulates a rise in intracellular cAMP within 20 min after plating. Pertussis toxin, which inhibits both antibody-induced migration and cAMP accumulation, targets the Galphai3 subunit of heterotrimeric G proteins in these cells, suggesting that Galphai3 may link integrin activation and migration via a cAMP signaling pathway.
Copyright 2000 Academic Press.
We have previously shown that members of the ELR(+) CXC chemokine family, including IL-8; growth-related oncogenes alpha, beta, and gamma; granulocyte chemotactic protein 2; and epithelial neutrophil-activating protein-78, can mediate angiogenesis in the absence of preceding inflammation. To date, the receptor on endothelial cells responsible for chemotaxis and neovascularization mediated by these ELR(+) CXC chemokines has not been determined. Because all ELR(+) CXC chemokines bind to CXC chemokine receptor 2 (CXCR2), we hypothesized that CXCR2 is the putative receptor for ELR(+) CXC chemokine-mediated angiogenesis. To test this postulate, we first determined whether cultured human microvascular endothelial cells expressed CXCR2. CXCR2 was detected in human microvascular endothelial cells at the protein level by both Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry using polyclonal Abs specific for human CXCR2. To determine whether CXCR2 played a functional role in angiogenesis, we determined whether this receptor was involved in endothelial cell chemotaxis. We found that microvascular endothelial cell chemotaxis in response to ELR(+) CXC chemokines was inhibited by anti-CXCR2 Abs. In addition, endothelial cell chemotaxis in response to ELR(+) CXC chemokines was sensitive to pertussis toxin, suggesting a role for G protein-linked receptor mechanisms in this biological response. The importance of CXCR2 in mediating ELR(+) CXC chemokine-induced angiogenesis in vivo was also demonstrated by the lack of angiogenic activity induced by ELR(+) CXC chemokines in the presence of neutralizing Abs to CXCR2 in the rat corneal micropocket assay, or in the corneas of CXCR2(-/-) mice. We thus conclude that CXCR2 is the receptor responsible for ELR(+) CXC chemokine-mediated angiogenesis.
Histamine is a known secretagogue in adrenal chromaffin cells. Activation of G-protein linked H(1) receptors stimulates phospholipase C, which generates inositol trisphosphate leading to release of intracellular calcium stores and stimulation of calcium influx through store operated and other channels. This calcium leads to the release of catecholamines. In chromaffin cells, the main physiological trigger for catecholamine release is calcium influx through voltage-gated calcium channels (I(Ca)). Therefore, these channels are important targets for the regulation of secretion. In particular N- and P/Q-type I(Ca) are subject to inhibition by transmitter/hormone receptor activation of heterotrimeric G-proteins. However, the direct effect of histamine on I(Ca) in chromaffin cells is unknown. This paper reports that histamine inhibited I(Ca) in cultured bovine adrenal chromaffin cells and this response was blocked by the H(1) antagonist mepyramine. With high levels of calcium buffering in the patch pipette solution (10 mM EGTA), histamine slowed the activation kinetics and inhibited the amplitude of I(Ca). A conditioning prepulse to +100 mV reversed the kinetic slowing and partially relieved the inhibition. These features are characteristic of a membrane delimited, voltage-dependent pathway which is thought to involve direct binding of G-protein betagamma subunits to the Ca channels. However, unlike virtually every other example of this type of inhibition, the response to histamine was not blocked by pretreating the cells with pertussis toxin (PTX). The voltage-dependent, PTX insensitive inhibition produced by histamine was modest compared with the PTX sensitive inhibition produced by ATP (28% vs. 53%). When histamine and ATP were applied concomitantly there was no additivity of the inhibition beyond that produced by ATP alone (even though the agonists appear to activate distinct G-proteins) suggesting that the inhibition produced by ATP is maximal. When experiments were carried out under conditions of low levels of calcium buffering in the patch pipette solution (0.1 mM EGTA), histamine inhibited I(Ca) in some cells using an entirely voltage insensitive pathway. We demonstrate that activation of PTX insensitive G-proteins (most likely Gq) by H(1) receptors inhibits I(Ca). This may represent a mechanism by which histamine exerts inhibitory (in addition to previously identified stimulatory) effects on catecholamine release.
The adrenal gland contains resident macrophages, some of which lie adjacent to the catecholamine producing chromaffin cells. Because macrophages release a variety of secretory products, it is possible that paracrine signaling between these two cell types exists. Of particular interest is the potential paracrine modulation of voltage-gated calcium channels (I(Ca)), which are the main calcium influx pathway triggering catecholamine release from chromaffin cells. We report that prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), one of the main signals produced by macrophages, inhibited I(Ca) in cultured bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. The inhibition is rapid, robust, and voltage dependent; the activation kinetics are slowed and inhibition is largely reversed by a large depolarizing prepulse, suggesting that the inhibition is mediated by a direct G-protein betagamma subunit interaction with the calcium channels. About half of the response to PGE(2) was sensitive to pertussis toxin (PTX) incubation, suggesting both PTX-sensitive and -insensitive G proteins were involved. We show that activation of macrophages by endotoxin rapidly (within minutes) releases a signal that inhibits I(Ca) in chromaffin cells. The inhibition is voltage dependent and partially PTX sensitive. PGE(2) is not responsible for this inhibition as blocking cyclooxygenase with ibuprofen did not prevent the production of the inhibitory signal by the macrophages. Nor did blocking the lipoxygenase pathway with nordihydroguaiaretic acid alter production of the inhibitory signal. Our results suggest that macrophages may modulate I(Ca) and catecholamine secretion by releasing PGE(2) and other chemical signal(s).