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Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have now been approved in numerous and diverse cancer types and combination regimens. Effective recognition and treatment of ICI toxicities, which might occur acutely, affect any organ system, and produce many distinct clinical syndromes, have emerged as essential goals of ICI management. Thus, developing robust diagnostic and management approaches for ICI toxicity across the health-care system is an urgent and unmet clinical need. In this Personal View, we describe barriers to high-quality care that have constrained the most effective management of patients with cancer receiving ICI treatment. We review education initiatives to enhance patient and physician awareness, which is necessary given the broad spectrum of ICI toxicities often experienced by patients, and assess various systems-based approaches that maximise the chances of appropriate management. In addition, we describe research pipelines that broaden evidence-based approaches and the pathobiology of these novel events. Developing effective, systematic approaches for the recognition and treatment of ICI toxicities will continue to grow in importance as these agents proliferate in cancer care.
Copyright © 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
PURPOSE - We aimed to determine trends in postoperative opiate management among urological patients, identify associations with opiate keeping and foster appropriate opiate disposal after surgery via introduction of an educational handout.
MATERIALS AND METHODS - We retrospectively analyzed opiate practices in 68 patients who had undergone urological surgery. In a separate consecutive cohort of 59 patients we distributed a handout detailing FDA (Food and Drug Administration) approved disposal methods. Patient opiate obtainment, use and disposal were assessed via telephone interviews with prescription filling data verified using the Tennessee CSMD (Controlled Substances Monitoring Database). Opiate keeping was defined as possessing any opiates more than 3 weeks after surgery or more than 4 times the duration of the postoperative prescription, whichever was longer.
RESULTS - Opiate keeping was observed in 41 patients (72%) in our initial cohort. Of these patients 68% left the medication unsecured at home. Major barriers to opiate disposal included concern for return of disease specific pain in 44% of patients and unrelated pain in 29%. As assessed on a short test, opiate keepers were less knowledgeable about safe disposal practices compared to nonkeepers (72% vs 85%, p = 0.005). Among opiate keepers there was an improvement in knowledge scores after the intervention (66% to 77%, p = 0.03). When comparing pre-education to post-education, there was no detectable improvement in the rate of opiate keeping (72% vs 68%, p = 0.66) or proper disposal (9% vs 8%, p = 1.0).
CONCLUSIONS - Opiate keeping is common following urological surgery and a major barrier to disposal is concern for the return of disease specific pain. Future interventions aimed at limiting opiate keeping should combine evidence-based prescription practices and targeted patient education.
BACKGROUND - Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection has been causally linked to six cancers, and many disproportionately affect minorties. This study reports on the development and effectiveness of an intervention aimed at increasing HPV vaccine uptake among African American and Hispanic pediatric patients in safety-net clinics.
METHODS - Formative research, community engagement, and theory guided development of the intervention. A clustered, non-randomized controlled pragmatic trial was conducted in four clinics providing healthcare for the underserved in Tennessee, U.S., with two intervention sites and two usual care sites. Patients aged 9-18 years (N = 408) and their mothers (N = 305) enrolled, with children clustered within families. The intervention consisted of two provider/staff training sessions and provision of patient education materials, consisting of a video/flyer promoting HPV vaccine. Medical records were reviewed before/after the initial visit and after 12 months.
RESULTS - At the initial visit, provision of patient education materials and provider recommendation were higher at intervention sites versus usual care sites, and receipt of HPV vaccine was higher at intervention sites (45.4% versus 32.9%) but not significantly after adjusting for patient's age and mother's education. Provider recommendation, but not education materials, increased the likelihood of vaccine receipt at the initial visit, although over one-third of intervention mothers cited the flyer/video as motivating vaccination. Completion of the 3-dose series at follow-up was lower in the intervention arm.
CONCLUSIONS - Future interventions should combine patient education, intensive provider/staff education, and patient reminders. Research should compare patient education focusing on HPV vaccine only versus all adolescent vaccines.
TRIAL REGISTRATION - Retrospectively registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02808832 , 9/12/16.
As the role of genomics in health care grows, patients increasingly require adequate genetic literacy to fully engage in their care. This study investigated a model for delivering consumer-friendly genetic information to improve understanding of precision medicine using health literacy and learning style principles. My Cancer Genome (MCG), a freely available cancer decision support tool, was used as a testbed. MCG content on a melanoma tumor mutation, BRAF V600E, was translated to a 6th-grade reading level, incorporating multiple learning modalities. A total of 90 patients and caregivers were recruited from a melanoma clinic at an academic medical center and randomized to 3 groups. Group A (control) received an exact copy of text from MCG. Group B was given the same content with hyperlinks to videos explaining key genetic concepts, identified and labeled by the team as knowledge pearls. Group C received the translated content with the knowledge pearls embedded. Changes in knowledge were measured through pre and post questionnaires. Group C showed the greatest improvement in knowledge. The study results demonstrate that providing information based on health literacy and learning style principles can improve patients' understanding of genetic concepts, thus increasing their likelihood of taking an active role in any decision making concerning their health.
BACKGROUND - Olfactory loss is a challenging clinical problem with few proven therapeutic options. Early experimental results with olfactory training suggest that this novel therapy may be an effective intervention for olfactory dysfunction of multiple etiologies. The aim of this study was to systematically review currently available studies that assess the efficacy and outcomes of olfactory training in patients with olfactory loss.
METHODS - A comprehensive systematic literature review was performed with the assistance of a reference librarian using the PubMed, PsycInfo, Google Scholar, EMBASE, and Proquest databases. Eligible studies were extracted based on defined inclusion criteria and the effect of olfactory training on objective olfactory function was evaluated qualitatively and by meta-analysis.
RESULTS - A total of 10 studies with 639 patients were identified and systematically reviewed. Sufficient data for meta-analysis was available for 3 studies. Patients receiving olfactory training experienced a statistically significant improvement in the Threshold, Discrimination, Identification (TDI) score compared to control patients (mean difference [MD] 3.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.28 to 5.26). Improvement in olfactory function was observed in discrimination (MD 1.92; 95% CI, 1.13 to 2.71) and identification (MD 1.61; 95% CI, 0.55 to 2.68), but not in olfactory thresholds (MD -0.01; 95% CI, -0.42 to 0.39).
CONCLUSION - Olfactory training is a promising modality for the treatment of olfactory dysfunction. Results of this systematic review and meta-analysis suggest that it may be an effective treatment for olfactory dysfunction due to multiple etiologies. Additional high-quality studies are needed to define indications, outcomes, and duration of therapy for this novel therapy.
© 2015 ARS-AAOA, LLC.
A clinic-based intervention study was conducted among high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV)-infected Latinas aged 18-64 years between April 2006 and May 2008 on the Texas-Mexico border. Women were randomly assigned to receive a printed material intervention (n=186) or usual care (n=187) and were followed at three months, six months, and 12 months through telephone surveys and review of medical records. The HPV knowledge of nearly all women had increased greatly, but only two-thirds of women reported they had received follow-up care within one year of diagnosis regardless of additional health education messaging. Our findings suggest that, regardless of type of health education messaging, Latinas living on the Texas-Mexico border are aware that follow-up care is recommended, but they may not receive this care. Individual, familial and medical care barriers to receipt of follow-up care may partially account for the higher rates of cervical cancer mortality in this region.
OBJECTIVE - Patients with end-stage renal disease on maintenance hemodialysis are much more sedentary than healthy individuals. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility and safety of a 12-week intradialysis yoga intervention versus a kidney education intervention on the promotion of physical activity.
DESIGN AND METHODS - We randomized participants by dialysis shift to either 12-week intradialysis yoga or an educational intervention. Intradialysis yoga was provided by yoga teachers to participants while receiving hemodialysis. Participants receiving the 12-week educational intervention received a modification of a previously developed comprehensive educational program for patients with kidney disease (Kidney School). The primary outcome for this study was feasibility based on recruitment and adherence to the interventions and safety of intradialysis yoga. Secondary outcomes were to determine the feasibility of administering questionnaires at baseline and 12 weeks including the Kidney Disease-Related Quality of Life-36.
RESULTS - Among 56 eligible patients who approached for the study, 31 (55%) were interested and consented to participation, with 18 assigned to intradialysis yoga and 13 to the educational program. A total of 5 participants withdrew from the pilot study, all from the intradialysis yoga group. Two of these participants reported no further interest in participation. Three withdrawn participants switched dialysis times and therefore could no longer receive intradialysis yoga. As a result, 13 of 18 (72%) and 13 of 13 (100%) participants completed 12-week intradialysis yoga and educational programs, respectively. There were no adverse events related to intradialysis yoga. Intervention participants practiced yoga for a median of 21 sessions (70% participation frequency), with 60% of participants practicing at least 2 times a week. Participants in the educational program completed a median of 30 sessions (83% participation frequency). Of participants who completed the study (n = 26), baseline and 12-week questionnaires were obtained from 85%.
CONCLUSIONS - Our pilot study of 12-week intradialysis yoga and 12-week educational intervention reached recruitment goals but with less than targeted completion and adherence to intervention rates. This study provided valuable feasibility data to increase follow-up and adherence for future clinical trials to compare efficacy.
Copyright © 2015 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Educational attainment is an important but often overlooked contributor to health outcomes in patients with kidney disease. Those with lower levels of education have an increased risk of ESRD, complications of peritoneal dialysis, worse transplant outcomes, and mortality. Mediators of these associations are poorly understood but involve a complex interplay between health knowledge, behaviors, and socioeconomic and psychosocial factors. Interventions targeting these aspects of care have the potential to reduce disparities related to educational attainment; however, few programs have been described that specifically address this issue. Future research efforts should not only systematically assess level of educational attainment but also report the differential impact of interventions across educational strata. In addition, routine measurement of health literacy may be useful to identify high-risk patients independent of years of schooling. A better understanding of the influence of educational attainment on kidney health provides an opportunity to improve the care and outcomes of vulnerable patients with kidney disease.
Copyright © 2015 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
AIMS - African American women carry a disproportionate diabetes burden, yet there is limited information on strategies to identify outcomes women perceive as important intervention outcomes (patient-centered outcomes). This study presents a brief strategy to solicit these outcomes and to describe outcomes identified using the highlighted strategy.
METHODS - Thirty-four African-American women with type 2 diabetes were enrolled in group-based, diabetes/weight management interventions. A diabetes educator asked participants to write down their intervention expectations followed by verbal sharing of responses. Expectation-related themes were identified using an iterative, qualitative, team analytic approach based on audio-recorded responses.
RESULTS - The majority of the expectation-related themes (6 of 10) were reflective of self-care education/management and weight loss-related patient-centered outcomes. The remaining themes were associated with desires to help others prevent or manage diabetes, reduce negative diabetes-related emotions, get rid of diabetes, and stop taking diabetes medications.
CONCLUSION - This study adds to a limited body of knowledge regarding patient-centered outcomes among a group that experiences a disproportionate diabetes burden. Future work could include integrating outcomes that are less commonly addressed in diabetes-related lifestyle interventions (e.g., diabetes-related negative emotions), along with more commonly addressed outcomes (e.g., weight loss), to increase the patient-centeredness of the interventions.
Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.