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BACKGROUND - Level one evidence has shown that minimally invasive surgery (MIS) for colon cancer improves short-term outcomes with equivalent long-term oncologic results when compared to open surgery. However, the adoption of MIS for patients with colon cancer has not been universal. The goal of this study is to identify barriers to the use of MIS surgery in colon cancer resection across the United States.
METHODS - The National Cancer Database was queried for all cases of colonic adenocarcinoma resection from 2010 to 2012. Patients undergoing an MIS approach were compared with those undergoing open surgery (OS). MIS was defined as either robotic or laparoscopic surgery. Patients with metastatic disease, surgery for palliation, or tumors >8 cm were excluded. Multivariable modeling was used to identify variables associated with the use of open surgery.
RESULTS - After applying exclusion criteria, 124,205 cases were identified. An MIS approach was used in only 54,621 (44%) patients. In a multivariable model adjusting for stage and tumor size, a number of important factors were associated with decreased odds of a MIS approach including black race (OR .91; p < .0001), lack of insurance (OR .51; p < .0001), lower education (OR .88; p < .0001), lower income (OR .83; p < .0001), treatment at a community program (OR .86; p < .0001), and treatment at a low-volume center (OR .79; p < .0001). Utilization of MIS increased over the study period (2010: 38.7%, 2011: 44.0%, 2012: 49.1%; p < .0001).
CONCLUSIONS - MIS approach is utilized in less than half of all colon resections in this national database, which accounts for over 70% of all diagnosed cancers in the US. Significant variability exists among age, race, insurance status, socioeconomic status, region, and facility type. In light of the recognized benefits of the MIS approach, local and national policy should focus on narrowing these disparities and continuing the upward trend of MIS utilization.
Approximately one-quarter of human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are acquired by adolescents, with a higher burden among racial/ethnic minorities. However, racial/ethnic minorities have been underrepresented in previous HPV vaccine trials. Ongoing and future HPV vaccine optimization trials would benefit from racially- and ethnically-diverse sample of adolescent trial participants. This study examined factors influencing parental willingness to consent to their adolescents' participation in HPV vaccine clinical trials and tested for possible racial differences. A convenience sample of parents of adolescents (N = 256) completed a cross-sectional survey. Chi square analyses were used to assess racial differences in parental HPV vaccine awareness and intentions and willingness to consent to their child participating in an HPV vaccine clinical trial. Ordinal logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with willingness. Approximately 47% of parents were willing to allow their adolescent to participate in HPV vaccine clinical trials (30.7% African American and 48.3% Caucasian, p = .081). African Americans had lower HPV vaccine awareness (p = .006) but not lower intentions to vaccinate (p = .086). Parental willingness was positively associated with the following variables: Child's age (p < .039), Perceived Advantages of HPV Vaccination for Adolescents (p = .002), Parental Trust in Medical Researchers (p < .001), and Level of Ease in Understanding Clinical Trial Information (p = .010). Educating parents about the advantages of HPV vaccines for younger adolescents using low-literacy educational materials and building trust between parents and researchers may increase parental willingness to consent to adolescent participation in HPV vaccine clinical trials.
Disruption of continuous retention in care (discontinuity) is associated with HIV disease progression. We examined sex, race, and HIV risk disparities in discontinuity after antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation among patients in North America. Adults (≥18 years of age) initiating ART from 2000 to 2010 were included. Discontinuity was defined as first disruption of continuous retention (≥2 visits separated by >90 days in the calendar year). Relative hazard ratio (HR) and times from ART initiation until discontinuity by race, sex, and HIV risk were assessed by modeling of the cumulative incidence function (CIF) in the presence of the competing risk of death. Models were adjusted for cohort site, baseline age, and CD4 cell count within 1 year before ART initiation; nadir CD4 cell count after ART, but before a study event, was assessed as a mediator. Among 17,171 adults initiating ART, median follow-up time was 3.97 years, and 49% were observed to have ≥1 discontinuity of care. In adjusted regression models, the hazard of discontinuity for patients was lower for females versus males [HR: 0.84; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.79-0.89] and higher for blacks versus nonblacks (HR: 1.17; 95% CI: 1.12-1.23) and persons with injection drug use (IDU) versus non-IDU risk (HR: 1.33; 95% CI: 1.25-1.41). Sex, racial, and HIV risk differences in clinical retention exist, even accounting for access to care and known competing risks for discontinuity. These results point to vulnerable populations at greatest risk for discontinuity in need of improved outreach to prevent disruptions of HIV care.
BACKGROUND - Although the incidence of cervical cancer has been decreasing in the United States over the last decade, Hispanic and African American women have substantially higher rates than Caucasian women. The human papillomavirus (HPV) is a necessary, although insufficient, cause of cervical cancer. In the United States in 2013, only 37.6% of girls 13 to 17 years of age received the recommended 3 doses of a vaccine that is almost 100% efficacious for preventing infection with viruses that are responsible for 70% of cervical cancers. Implementation research has been underutilized in interventions for increasing vaccine uptake. The Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR), an approach for designing effective implementation strategies, integrates 5 domains that may include barriers and facilitators of HPV vaccination. These include the innovative practice (Intervention), communities where youth and parents live (Outer Setting), agencies offering vaccination (Inner Setting), health care staff (Providers), and planned execution and evaluation of intervention delivery (Implementation Process).
METHODS - Secondary qualitative analysis of transcripts of interviews with 30 community health care providers was conducted using the CFIR to code potential barriers and facilitators of HPV vaccination implementation.
RESULTS - All CFIR domains except Implementation Process were well represented in providers' statements about challenges and supports for HPV vaccination.
CONCLUSION - A comprehensive implementation framework for promoting HPV vaccination may increase vaccination rates in ethnically diverse communities. This study suggests that the CFIR can be used to guide clinicians in planning implementation of new approaches to increasing HPV vaccine uptake in their settings. Further research is needed to determine whether identifying implementation barriers and facilitators in all 5 CFIR domains as part of developing an intervention contributes to improved HPV vaccination rates.
BACKGROUND - Electronic health records (EHRs), computerized provider order entry (CPOE), and patient portals have experienced increased adoption by health care systems. The objective of this study was to review evidence regarding the impact of such health information technologies (HIT) on surgical practice.
MATERIALS AND METHODS - A search of Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library was performed to identify data-driven, nonsurvey studies about the effects of HIT on surgical care. Domain experts were queried for relevant articles. Two authors independently reviewed abstracts for inclusion criteria and analyzed full text of eligible articles.
RESULTS - A total of 2890 citations were identified. Of them, 32 observational studies and two randomized controlled trials met eligibility criteria. EHR or CPOE improved appropriate antibiotic administration for surgical procedures in 13 comparative observational studies. Five comparative observational studies indicated that electronically generated operative notes had increased accuracy, completeness, and availability in the medical record. The Internet as an information resource about surgical procedures was generally inadequate. Surgical patients and providers demonstrated rapid adoption of patient portals, with increasing proportions of online versus inperson outpatient surgical encounters.
CONCLUSIONS - The overall quality of evidence about the effects of HIT in surgical practice was low. Current data suggest an improvement in appropriate perioperative antibiotic administration and accuracy of operative reports from CPOE and EHR applications. Online consumer health educational resources and patient portals are popular among patients and families, but their impact has not been studied well in surgical populations. With increasing adoption of HIT, further research is needed to optimize the efficacy of such tools in surgical care.
Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
BACKGROUND - Specialty care remains a significant contributor to health care spending but largely unaddressed in novel payment models aimed at promoting value-based delivery. Bladder cancer, chiefly managed by subspecialists, is among the most costly. In 2005, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) dramatically increased physician payment for office-based interventions for bladder cancer to shift care from higher cost facilities, but the impact is unknown. This study evaluated the effect of financial incentives on patterns of fee-for-service (FFS) bladder cancer care.
METHODS - Data from a 5% sample of Medicare beneficiaries from 2001-2013 were evaluated using interrupted time-series analysis with segmented regression. Primary outcomes were the effects of CMS fee modifications on utilization and site of service for procedures associated with the diagnosis and treatment of bladder cancer. Rates of related bladder cancer procedures that were not affected by the fee change were concurrent controls. Finally, the effect of payment changes on both diagnostic yield and need for redundant procedures were studied. All statistical tests were two-sided.
RESULTS - Utilization of clinic-based procedures increased by 644% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 584% to 704%) after the fee change, but without reciprocal decline in facility-based procedures. Procedures unaffected by the fee incentive remained unchanged throughout the study period. Diagnostic yield decreased by 17.0% (95% CI = 12.7% to 21.3%), and use of redundant office-based procedures increased by 76.0% (95% CI = 59% to 93%).
CONCLUSIONS - Financial incentives in bladder cancer care have unintended and costly consequences in the current FFS environment. The observed price sensitivity is likely to remain a major issue in novel payment models failing to incorporate procedure-based specialty physicians.
© The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
UNLABELLED - Tanzania has the highest burden of cervical cancer in East Africa. This study aims to identify perceived barriers and facilitators that influence scale-up of regional and population-level cervical cancer screening and treatment programs in Tanzania. Convenience sampling was used to select participants for this qualitative study among 35 key informants. Twenty-eight stakeholders from public-sector health facilities, academia, government, and nongovernmental organizations completed in-depth interviews, and a seven-member municipal health management team participated in a focus group discussion. The investigation identified themes related to the infrastructure of health services for cervical cancer prevention, service delivery, political will, and sociocultural influences on screening and treatment. Decentralizing service delivery, improving access to screening and treatment, increasing the number of trained health workers, and garnering political will were perceived as key facilitators for enhancing and initiating screening and treatment services. In conclusion, participants perceived that system-level structural factors should be addressed to expand regional and population-level service delivery of screening and treatment.
IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE - Tanzanian women have a high burden of cervical cancer. Understanding the perceived structural factors that may influence screening coverage for cervical cancer and availability of treatment may be beneficial for program scale-up. This study showed that multiple factors contribute to the challenge of cervical cancer screening and treatment in Tanzania. In addition, it highlighted systematic developments aimed at expanding services. This study is important because the themes that emerged from the results may help inform programs that plan to improve screening and treatment in Tanzania and potentially in other areas with high burdens of cervical cancer.
BACKGROUND - Some patients referred for kidney transplant evaluation fail to attend the visit. Our goal was to compare demographic, socioeconomic, and psychologic factors between evaluation visit attendees and absentees.
METHODS - A convenience sample of patients referred and scheduled for kidney transplant evaluation at a single center from November 2012 to December 2013 participated in a phone survey reporting socioeconomic, demographic, and clinical characteristics; health literacy; and perceived knowledge and concerns about transplantation. Absentees were matched by race with attendees. Analyses of differences between groups were performed with chi-square test, Fisher exact test, and t tests. Multivariable logistic regression was adjusted for relevant demographic characteristics.
RESULTS - One hundred four adults participated (61% men, 46% white, 52 ± 12 years). Financial concerns were the most prevalent (67.3% affording medication, 64.1% affording operation). Previous evaluation at a different transplant center (P = 0.029) and being on dialysis (P = 0.008) were significantly associated with absence. Attendance was associated with concerns about finding a living donor (P = 0.038) and higher perceived general knowledge about transplantation (P ≤ 0.001). No differences were appreciated in demographic, socioeconomic, or health literacy factors between groups.
CONCLUSION - Both attendee and absentee patients were most concerned with the financial burden of kidney transplantation. Although concerns and perceived knowledge are important correlates of behavior, other considerations such as psychologic factors and prior medical experiences may influence patients' ability to complete the kidney transplant evaluation process. Although this pilot study was conducted in a small sample and has limited generalizability, our findings can guide future research.
OBJECTIVES - Healthcare utilization and participation in diabetes management programs have shown to be beneficial to overall health in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). To improve the effectiveness of healthcare activities on diabetes health outcomes, factors associated with healthcare activities such as physician seeking and participating in a diabetes management class need to be identified.
DESIGN AND METHODS - A retrospective multi-year cross-sectional analysis was conducted. Data were collected using data sets from the 2006 to 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Survey. A Poisson regression was conducted to capture the influence of predisposing, enabling, and need factors on the number of physician visits for diabetes. A logistic regression was conducted to capture the influence of the aforementioned factors on participation in a diabetes management class.
RESULTS - Results of the Poisson regression indicate patients who were taking insulin, more frequently check for sores, or have hemoglobin exams, had made more physician visits (incident rate ratios = 1.34, 1.04, and 1.05, respectively; all P < .01). Results of the logistic regression indicate patients who were taking insulin or more frequently check for sores (odds ratio [OR] = 1.48, 1.37, 1.43, 0.74, 1.30, 1.07, and 1.06, respectively; all P < .01), were more likely to participate in a diabetes management class. Results also indicated patients who were male or married were less likely to participate in a diabetes management class (OR = 0.69, P < .05; OR = 0.81, P < .01 respectively).
CONCLUSIONS - Evidence supports sociological factors as important facilitators promoting healthcare utilization in patients with increased T2DM severity levels. Interventions to improve healthcare utilization should acknowledge sociological factors, particularly self-care factors.
INTRODUCTION - Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is commonly used among women, but few national data exist regarding CAM use during pregnancy or the postnatal period.
METHODS - Data from the 2007 National Health Interview Survey were analyzed for women ages between the ages of 18 and 49 years who were pregnant or had children less than 1 year old. CAM use was identified based on standard definitions of CAM from the National Institutes of Health's National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. CAM use among women who were pregnant or with a child less than 1 year was compared with the other similarly aged female responders. CAM use was examined among these women stratified by sociodemographics, health conditions, and conventional medicine use through bivariable and multivariable logistic regression models.
RESULTS - Among pregnant and postpartum women from the ages of 19 to 49 years in the United States, 37% of pregnant women and 28% of postpartum women reported using CAM in the last 12 months compared with 40% of nonpregnant/non-postpartum women. Mind-body practices were the most common CAM modality reported, with one out of four women reporting use. Biological therapies, excluding vitamins and minerals, during the postpartum period were used by only 8% of women. Using multivariable regression modeling, we report no significant difference in CAM use among pregnant compared with non-pregnant women (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 0.88; [95% confidence interval 0.65-1.20]), but lower CAM use among postpartum women compared with non-pregnant women (AOR 0.67; [0.52-0.88]), while adjusting for sociodemographics.
CONCLUSION - CAM use among pregnancy similar to women who are not pregnant, while postpartum CAM use decreases. Further evaluation of CAM therapies among pregnant and postpartum women is necessary to determine the costs and benefits of integrative CAM therapies in conventional care.