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: The primary aim of this study is to assess and characterize correlates of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine series completion among young adult women evaluated by gynecological (GYN) providers at a single institution and to measure changes over 4-y period. : At a major academic center, the medical records of 845 women administered the HPV vaccine series by a GYN provider were retrospectively reviewed from 2006 to 2010 and 2014 to 2015. Patients were grouped based on the date of vaccine initiation into "earlier" (2006-2010) and "later" (2014-2015) cohorts. Patient demographics, dates of vaccine administration, and practice locations where vaccines were administered were collected. Patients who received all 3 vaccines within 6 months were deemed "complete". Patients seen by a provider but did not receive the vaccination were deemed "missed opportunities". The primary outcome was completion of HPV vaccination according to the ACIP guidelines. : The 845 patients were divided into earlier (n = 399) and later (n = 446) cohorts. There was no statistically significant difference in completion rates between the earlier-cohort compared to the later-cohort (). Age at initiation were similar (), with the complete cohort having a significantly lower body mass index (BMI) than the incomplete cohort (). There was a significant difference between the completion rates among race/ethnic groups ( = .036). African-American and Hispanic ( patient-populations had the lowest completion rates and higher missed opportunities. : Our study found an overall low completion rate in both earlier and later cohorts. Additionally, higher BMI and African-American and Hispanic race/ethnicity were associated with low vaccine completion.
INTRODUCTION - Evidence of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine impact on anogenital warts (AGWs) by race or urbanicity in the US is lacking. We evaluated HPV vaccine impact in Tennessee by assessing AGW trends among Tennessee Medicaid (TennCare) enrollees aged 15-39 years from 2006-2014.
METHODS - Persons with incident AGWs were identified using diagnosis/pharmacy codes from TennCare billing claims. We calculated sex-specific annual AGW incidence by age group, race, and urbanicity; estimated annual percent changes (APCs) using log-linear models; and performed pairwise comparisons by race and urbanicity.
RESULTS - AGW incidence decreased among females aged 15-19 (APC = -10.6; P < 0.01) and 20-24 years (APC = -3.9; P = 0.02). Overall trends were similar between Whites and Blacks, and between those living in metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) and non-MSAs. Rates among males aged 15-19 years began decreasing after 2010. Among enrollees aged 25-39 years, rates increased or were stable.
CONCLUSIONS - Following introduction of the HPV vaccine in 2006, AGWs decreased among age groups most likely to be vaccinated. The change in trend among young males after 2010 suggests early herd effects. Our findings indicate vaccine effects and support the importance of improving adherence to current vaccination recommendations for preventing AGWs and other HPV-related diseases.
Copyright © 2019. Published by Elsevier B.V.
OBJECTIVES - When examining vaccination coverage, researchers must make decisions about how to define outcome measures based on many factors, including the timing of doses. Different operationalizations of the same outcome can often lead to different findings and can affect the ability to make comparisons across studies. This methodological article aimed to illustrate the implications of two options for operationalizing human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination based on timing: initiation of the first dose at any age vs before the 13th birthday (on time).
STUDY DESIGN - Cross-sectional observational design.
METHODS - The 2014 National Immunization Survey for Teens (N = 16,439 adolescents aged 13-17 years) was analyzed using multivariate logistic regression for each outcome measure and effect modification by gender.
RESULTS - Age was positively associated with initiation at any age but negatively associated with on-time initiation. Gender modified the effect of race/ethnicity for both measures of initiation, but the pattern across groups was different for the two outcomes. Gender modified the effect of provider recommendation for initiation at any age, while gender modified the effects of age and region for on-time initiation.
CONCLUSION - Decisions of how to operationalize outcomes of HPV vaccine initiation among adolescents can lead to different conclusions about the role of age and gender differences for several predictive variables. To inform the development of public health efforts that promote on-time HPV vaccination among male and female adolescents, researchers should consider the importance of dose timing when operationalizing outcome measures. We recommend including on-time receipt of the HPV vaccine as an outcome measure.
Copyright © 2018 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
BACKGROUND - Oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and related oropharyngeal cancer are uncommon in lower-income countries, particularly compared to HPV-associated cervical cancer. However, little is known about the natural history of oral HPV in less-developed settings and how it compares to the natural history of cervical HPV.
METHODS - Three hundred fifty women aged 22 to 33 years from the Costa Rica Vaccine Trial provided exfoliated cells from the cervical and oral regions at 2 visits 2 years apart. Samples from both visits were tested for 25 characterized α HPV types by the SPF10 PCR-DNA enzyme immunoassay-LiPA25 version 1 system. Risk factors for oral HPV persistence were calculated utilizing generalized estimating equations with a logistic link.
RESULTS - Among the 82 women with characterized α oral HPV DNA detected at baseline, 14 persisted and were detected 2 years later (17.6%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 10.9-28.5%) and was similar to the persistence of α cervical HPV (40/223; 17.7%; 95% CI, 13.1-23.9%; P = 0.86). Acquisition of new α oral HPV type was low; incident infection (1.7%; 95% CI, 0.6-3.7%).
CONCLUSIONS - Oral HPV DNA is uncommon in young women in Latin America, and often appears to clear within a few years at similar rates to cervical HPV.
OBJECTIVE - To estimate the prevalence and describe the patterns of concurrent human papillomavirus (HPV) and STIs and associated factors among HIV-negative young Western Cape, South African women participating in the Efficacy of HPV Vaccine to Reduce HIV Infection (EVRI) trial.
METHODS - HIV-negative women aged 16-24 years old were enrolled in the EVRI trial (NCT01489527) and randomised to receive the licensed four-valent HPV vaccine or placebo. At study entry, participants were clinically evaluated for five STIs: herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), chlamydia, gonorrhoea, syphilis and disease-causing HPV genotypes (6/11/16/18/31/33/35/39/45/51/52/56/58/59/68). Demographic and sexual history characteristics were compared among women with STI co-infections, single infection and no infection using Pearson χ and Mann-Whitney tests. ORs were calculated to evaluate factors associated with STI co-infection prevalence.
RESULTS - Among 388 young women, STI co-infection prevalence was high: 47% had ≥2 concurrent STIs, 36% had a single STI and 17% had none of the five evaluated STIs. HPV/HSV-2 (26%) was the most prevalent co-infection detected followed by HPV/HSV-2/ (CT) (17%) and HPV/CT (15%). Co-infection prevalence was independently associated with alcohol use (adjusted OR=2.01, 95% CI 1.00 to 4.06) and having a sexual partner with an STI (adjusted OR=6.96, 95% CI 1.53 to 30.08).
CONCLUSIONS - Among high-risk young women from underserved communities such as in Southern Africa, a multicomponent prevention strategy that integrates medical and behavioural interventions targeting both men and women is essential to prevent acquisition of concurrent STI infections and consequent disease.
TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER - NCT01489527; Post-results.
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Male genital human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence and incidence has been reported to vary by geographical location. Our objective was to assess the natural history of genital HPV by country among men with a median of 48 months of follow-up. Men ages 18-70 years were recruited from United States ( = 1,326), Mexico ( = 1,349), and Brazil ( = 1,410). Genital specimens were collected every 6 months and HPV genotyping identified 37 HPV genotypes. Prevalence of HPV was compared between the three countries using the Fisher exact test. Incidence rates and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. The median time to HPV clearance among men with an incident infection was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. The prevalence and incidence of the genital HPV types known to cause disease in males (HPV 16 and 6) was significantly higher among men from Brazil than men from Mexico. Prevalence and incidence of those genital HPV types in the United States varied between being comparable with those of Mexico or Brazil. Although genital HPV16 duration was significantly longer in Brazil ( = 0.04) compared with Mexico and the United States, HPV6 duration was shortest in Brazil ( = 0.03) compared with Mexico and the United States. Men in Brazil and Mexico often have similar, if not higher prevalence of HPV compared with men from the United States. Currently, there is no routine screening for genital HPV among males and while HPV is common in men, and most naturally clear the infection, a proportion of men do develop HPV-related diseases. Men may benefit from gender-neutral vaccine policies. .
©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.
OBJECTIVES - Globally, anal cancer incidence is rare, but is increasing in some world regions. Our objective was to assess differences in anal HPV natural history in three countries.
METHODS - Men aged 18-70 years were recruited from the US (n = 634), Mexico (n = 665), and Brazil (n = 731). Anal specimens were collected every six-months. HPV genotyping was assessed by Linear Array. Anal HPV prevalence was compared using the Fisher's exact test. HPV infection incidence rates (IR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated.
RESULTS - Any anal HPV prevalence was highest among men from Brazil (24%) compared to Mexico (15%) and the US (15%). When stratified by sexual history, the prevalence of any HPV among MSM/MSMW was 43%, 37%, and 45% and 9%, 12%, and 10% for MSW from Brazil, Mexico, and US, respectively. Any HPV incidence was significantly higher among men from Brazil compared to US men (IRR = 2.4, 95% CI = 1.7-3.4) and comparable between men from Mexico and the US (IRR = 1.2, 95% CI = 0.8-1.8).
CONCLUSION - Men in Brazil and Mexico often have similar, if not higher incidence of anal HPV compared to men from the U.S., and may benefit from gender neutral HPV vaccine policies.
Copyright © 2017 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Approximately one-quarter of human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are acquired by adolescents, with a higher burden among racial/ethnic minorities. However, racial/ethnic minorities have been underrepresented in previous HPV vaccine trials. Ongoing and future HPV vaccine optimization trials would benefit from racially- and ethnically-diverse sample of adolescent trial participants. This study examined factors influencing parental willingness to consent to their adolescents' participation in HPV vaccine clinical trials and tested for possible racial differences. A convenience sample of parents of adolescents (N = 256) completed a cross-sectional survey. Chi square analyses were used to assess racial differences in parental HPV vaccine awareness and intentions and willingness to consent to their child participating in an HPV vaccine clinical trial. Ordinal logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with willingness. Approximately 47% of parents were willing to allow their adolescent to participate in HPV vaccine clinical trials (30.7% African American and 48.3% Caucasian, p = .081). African Americans had lower HPV vaccine awareness (p = .006) but not lower intentions to vaccinate (p = .086). Parental willingness was positively associated with the following variables: Child's age (p < .039), Perceived Advantages of HPV Vaccination for Adolescents (p = .002), Parental Trust in Medical Researchers (p < .001), and Level of Ease in Understanding Clinical Trial Information (p = .010). Educating parents about the advantages of HPV vaccines for younger adolescents using low-literacy educational materials and building trust between parents and researchers may increase parental willingness to consent to adolescent participation in HPV vaccine clinical trials.
BACKGROUND - Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection has been causally linked to six cancers, and many disproportionately affect minorties. This study reports on the development and effectiveness of an intervention aimed at increasing HPV vaccine uptake among African American and Hispanic pediatric patients in safety-net clinics.
METHODS - Formative research, community engagement, and theory guided development of the intervention. A clustered, non-randomized controlled pragmatic trial was conducted in four clinics providing healthcare for the underserved in Tennessee, U.S., with two intervention sites and two usual care sites. Patients aged 9-18 years (N = 408) and their mothers (N = 305) enrolled, with children clustered within families. The intervention consisted of two provider/staff training sessions and provision of patient education materials, consisting of a video/flyer promoting HPV vaccine. Medical records were reviewed before/after the initial visit and after 12 months.
RESULTS - At the initial visit, provision of patient education materials and provider recommendation were higher at intervention sites versus usual care sites, and receipt of HPV vaccine was higher at intervention sites (45.4% versus 32.9%) but not significantly after adjusting for patient's age and mother's education. Provider recommendation, but not education materials, increased the likelihood of vaccine receipt at the initial visit, although over one-third of intervention mothers cited the flyer/video as motivating vaccination. Completion of the 3-dose series at follow-up was lower in the intervention arm.
CONCLUSIONS - Future interventions should combine patient education, intensive provider/staff education, and patient reminders. Research should compare patient education focusing on HPV vaccine only versus all adolescent vaccines.
TRIAL REGISTRATION - Retrospectively registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02808832 , 9/12/16.