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Nuclear PTEN enhances the maturation of a microRNA regulon to limit MyD88-dependent susceptibility to sepsis.
Sisti F, Wang S, Brandt SL, Glosson-Byers N, Mayo LD, Son YM, Sturgeon S, Filgueiras L, Jancar S, Wong H, Dela Cruz CS, Andrews N, Alves-Filho JC, Cunha FQ, Serezani CH
(2018) Sci Signal 11:
MeSH Terms: Animals, Cell Nucleus, Female, Gene Expression Profiling, Humans, Inflammation, Macrophages, Male, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Mice, Knockout, MicroRNAs, Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88, PTEN Phosphohydrolase, Peptides, RNA Interference, Regulon, Sepsis
Show Abstract · Added March 18, 2020
Sepsis-induced organ damage is caused by systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), which results in substantial comorbidities. Therefore, it is of medical importance to identify molecular brakes that can be exploited to dampen inflammation and prevent the development of SIRS. We investigated the role of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) in suppressing SIRS, increasing microbial clearance, and preventing lung damage. Septic patients and mice with sepsis exhibited increased expression in leukocytes. Myeloid-specific deletion in an animal model of sepsis increased bacterial loads and cytokine production, which depended on enhanced myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88) abundance and resulted in mortality. PTEN-mediated induction of the microRNAs (miRNAs) miR125b and miR203b reduced the abundance of MyD88. Loss- and gain-of-function assays demonstrated that PTEN induced miRNA production by associating with and facilitating the nuclear localization of Drosha-Dgcr8, part of the miRNA-processing complex. Reconstitution of PTEN-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts with a mutant form of PTEN that does not localize to the nucleus resulted in retention of Drosha-Dgcr8 in the cytoplasm and impaired production of mature miRNAs. Thus, we identified a regulatory pathway involving nuclear PTEN-mediated miRNA generation that limits the production of MyD88 and thereby limits sepsis-associated mortality.
Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.
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MeSH Terms
The Cancer Genome Atlas Comprehensive Molecular Characterization of Renal Cell Carcinoma.
Ricketts CJ, De Cubas AA, Fan H, Smith CC, Lang M, Reznik E, Bowlby R, Gibb EA, Akbani R, Beroukhim R, Bottaro DP, Choueiri TK, Gibbs RA, Godwin AK, Haake S, Hakimi AA, Henske EP, Hsieh JJ, Ho TH, Kanchi RS, Krishnan B, Kwiatkowski DJ, Lui W, Merino MJ, Mills GB, Myers J, Nickerson ML, Reuter VE, Schmidt LS, Shelley CS, Shen H, Shuch B, Signoretti S, Srinivasan R, Tamboli P, Thomas G, Vincent BG, Vocke CD, Wheeler DA, Yang L, Kim WY, Robertson AG, Cancer Genome Atlas Research Network, Spellman PT, Rathmell WK, Linehan WM
(2018) Cell Rep 23: 313-326.e5
MeSH Terms: Biomarkers, Tumor, Carcinoma, Renal Cell, Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16, DNA-Binding Proteins, Genome, Human, Humans, Kidney Neoplasms, Metabolic Networks and Pathways, Nuclear Proteins, PTEN Phosphohydrolase, Phenotype, Survival Analysis, Transcription Factors, Tumor Suppressor Proteins, Ubiquitin Thiolesterase
Show Abstract · Added October 30, 2019
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is not a single disease, but several histologically defined cancers with different genetic drivers, clinical courses, and therapeutic responses. The current study evaluated 843 RCC from the three major histologic subtypes, including 488 clear cell RCC, 274 papillary RCC, and 81 chromophobe RCC. Comprehensive genomic and phenotypic analysis of the RCC subtypes reveals distinctive features of each subtype that provide the foundation for the development of subtype-specific therapeutic and management strategies for patients affected with these cancers. Somatic alteration of BAP1, PBRM1, and PTEN and altered metabolic pathways correlated with subtype-specific decreased survival, while CDKN2A alteration, increased DNA hypermethylation, and increases in the immune-related Th2 gene expression signature correlated with decreased survival within all major histologic subtypes. CIMP-RCC demonstrated an increased immune signature, and a uniform and distinct metabolic expression pattern identified a subset of metabolically divergent (MD) ChRCC that associated with extremely poor survival.
Published by Elsevier Inc.
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15 MeSH Terms
Use of deep whole-genome sequencing data to identify structure risk variants in breast cancer susceptibility genes.
Guo X, Shi J, Cai Q, Shu XO, He J, Wen W, Allen J, Pharoah P, Dunning A, Hunter DJ, Kraft P, Easton DF, Zheng W, Long J
(2018) Hum Mol Genet 27: 853-859
MeSH Terms: BRCA1 Protein, Breast Neoplasms, Fanconi Anemia Complementation Group N Protein, Female, Genetic Predisposition to Disease, Genome, Human, High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing, Humans, Membrane Proteins, PTEN Phosphohydrolase, Rad51 Recombinase, Sequence Deletion, Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
Show Abstract · Added April 3, 2018
Functional disruptions of susceptibility genes by large genomic structure variant (SV) deletions in germlines are known to be associated with cancer risk. However, few studies have been conducted to systematically search for SV deletions in breast cancer susceptibility genes. We analysed deep (> 30x) whole-genome sequencing (WGS) data generated in blood samples from 128 breast cancer patients of Asian and European descent with either a strong family history of breast cancer or early cancer onset disease. To identify SV deletions in known or suspected breast cancer susceptibility genes, we used multiple SV calling tools including Genome STRiP, Delly, Manta, BreakDancer and Pindel. SV deletions were detected by at least three of these bioinformatics tools in five genes. Specifically, we identified heterozygous deletions covering a fraction of the coding regions of BRCA1 (with approximately 80kb in two patients), and TP53 genes (with ∼1.6 kb in two patients), and of intronic regions (∼1 kb) of the PALB2 (one patient), PTEN (three patients) and RAD51C genes (one patient). We confirmed the presence of these deletions using real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). Our study identified novel SV deletions in breast cancer susceptibility genes and the identification of such SV deletions may improve clinical testing.
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13 MeSH Terms
Camptothecin resistance is determined by the regulation of topoisomerase I degradation mediated by ubiquitin proteasome pathway.
Ando K, Shah AK, Sachdev V, Kleinstiver BP, Taylor-Parker J, Welch MM, Hu Y, Salgia R, White FM, Parvin JD, Ozonoff A, Rameh LE, Joung JK, Bharti AK
(2017) Oncotarget 8: 43733-43751
MeSH Terms: BRCA1 Protein, Camptothecin, Cell Line, Tumor, DNA Topoisomerases, Type I, DNA-Binding Proteins, Drug Resistance, Neoplasm, Gene Editing, Humans, Ku Autoantigen, Multiprotein Complexes, PTEN Phosphohydrolase, Phosphorylation, Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex, Protein Binding, Protein Kinase C, Proteolysis, RNA Interference, Topoisomerase I Inhibitors, Ubiquitin
Show Abstract · Added November 26, 2018
Proteasomal degradation of topoisomerase I (topoI) is one of the most remarkable cellular phenomena observed in response to camptothecin (CPT). Importantly, the rate of topoI degradation is linked to CPT resistance. Formation of the topoI-DNA-CPT cleavable complex inhibits DNA re-ligation resulting in DNA-double strand break (DSB). The degradation of topoI marks the first step in the ubiquitin proteasome pathway (UPP) dependent DNA damage response (DDR). Here, we show that the Ku70/Ku80 heterodimer binds with topoI, and that the DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PKcs) phosphorylates topoI on serine 10 (topoI-pS10), which is subsequently ubiquitinated by BRCA1. A higher basal level of topoI-pS10 ensures rapid topoI degradation leading to CPT resistance. Importantly, PTEN regulates DNA-PKcs kinase activity in this pathway and PTEN deletion ensures DNA-PKcs dependent higher topoI-pS10, rapid topoI degradation and CPT resistance.
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The Par3 polarity protein is an exocyst receptor essential for mammary cell survival.
Ahmed SM, Macara IG
(2017) Nat Commun 8: 14867
MeSH Terms: Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing, Animals, Apoptosis, Cadherins, Cell Adhesion Molecules, Cell Cycle Proteins, Cell Line, Cell Polarity, Cell Survival, Enzyme Activation, Epithelial Cells, Female, Gene Knockdown Techniques, Golgi Apparatus, Humans, Lysine, Mammary Glands, Animal, Models, Biological, PTEN Phosphohydrolase, Phosphatidylinositol Phosphates, Phosphorylation, Protein Domains, Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt, Vesicular Transport Proteins, rab GTP-Binding Proteins
Show Abstract · Added April 26, 2017
The exocyst is an essential component of the secretory pathway required for delivery of basolateral proteins to the plasma membranes of epithelial cells. Delivery occurs adjacent to tight junctions (TJ), suggesting that it recognizes a receptor at this location. However, no such receptor has been identified. The Par3 polarity protein associates with TJs but has no known function in membrane traffic. We now show that, unexpectedly, Par3 is essential for mammary cell survival. Par3 silencing causes apoptosis, triggered by phosphoinositide trisphosphate depletion and decreased Akt phosphorylation, resulting from failure of the exocyst to deliver basolateral proteins to the cortex. A small region of PAR3 binds directly to Exo70 and is sufficient for exocyst docking, membrane-protein delivery and cell survival. PAR3 lacking this domain can associate with the cortex but cannot support exocyst function. We conclude that Par3 is the long-sought exocyst receptor required for targeted membrane-protein delivery.
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25 MeSH Terms
Integrated genomic and molecular characterization of cervical cancer.
Cancer Genome Atlas Research Network, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Analytical Biological Services, Barretos Cancer Hospital, Baylor College of Medicine, Beckman Research Institute of City of Hope, Buck Institute for Research on Aging, Canada's Michael Smith Genome Sciences Centre, Harvard Medical School, Helen F. Graham Cancer Center &Research Institute at Christiana Care Health Services, HudsonAlpha Institute for Biotechnology, ILSbio, LLC, Indiana University School of Medicine, Institute of Human Virology, Institute for Systems Biology, International Genomics Consortium, Leidos Biomedical, Massachusetts General Hospital, McDonnell Genome Institute at Washington University, Medical College of Wisconsin, Medical University of South Carolina, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Montefiore Medical Center, NantOmics, National Cancer Institute, National Hospital, Abuja, Nigeria, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institute on Deafness &Other Communication Disorders, Ontario Tumour Bank, London Health Sciences Centre, Ontario Tumour Bank, Ontario Institute for Cancer Research, Ontario Tumour Bank, The Ottawa Hospital, Oregon Health &Science University, Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, SRA International, St Joseph's Candler Health System, Eli &Edythe L. Broad Institute of Massachusetts Institute of Technology &Harvard University, Research Institute at Nationwide Children's Hospital, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins University, University of Bergen, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, University of Alabama at Birmingham, University of California, Irvine, University of California Santa Cruz, University of Kansas Medical Center, University of Lausanne, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, University of Pittsburgh, University of São Paulo, Ribeir ão Preto Medical School, University of Southern California, University of Washington, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine &Public Health, Van Andel Research Institute, Washington University in St Louis
(2017) Nature 543: 378-384
MeSH Terms: APOBEC-1 Deaminase, Adenocarcinoma, B7-H1 Antigen, Carcinoma, Squamous Cell, Caspase 8, DNA-Binding Proteins, Female, Genomics, HLA-A Antigens, Human papillomavirus 16, Humans, Keratins, Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases, Molecular Targeted Therapy, Mutation, Nuclear Proteins, PTEN Phosphohydrolase, Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases, Programmed Cell Death 1 Ligand 2 Protein, Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases, Proteomics, Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras), RNA, Long Noncoding, Receptor, ErbB-3, Receptor, Transforming Growth Factor-beta Type II, Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta, Signal Transduction, Transcription Factors, Uterine Cervical Neoplasms, Virus Integration
Show Abstract · Added October 30, 2019
Cervical cancer remains one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Here we report the extensive molecular characterization of 228 primary cervical cancers, one of the largest comprehensive genomic studies of cervical cancer to date. We observed notable APOBEC mutagenesis patterns and identified SHKBP1, ERBB3, CASP8, HLA-A and TGFBR2 as novel significantly mutated genes in cervical cancer. We also discovered amplifications in immune targets CD274 (also known as PD-L1) and PDCD1LG2 (also known as PD-L2), and the BCAR4 long non-coding RNA, which has been associated with response to lapatinib. Integration of human papilloma virus (HPV) was observed in all HPV18-related samples and 76% of HPV16-related samples, and was associated with structural aberrations and increased target-gene expression. We identified a unique set of endometrial-like cervical cancers, comprised predominantly of HPV-negative tumours with relatively high frequencies of KRAS, ARID1A and PTEN mutations. Integrative clustering of 178 samples identified keratin-low squamous, keratin-high squamous and adenocarcinoma-rich subgroups. These molecular analyses reveal new potential therapeutic targets for cervical cancers.
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30 MeSH Terms
SKP2 loss destabilizes EZH2 by promoting TRAF6-mediated ubiquitination to suppress prostate cancer.
Lu W, Liu S, Li B, Xie Y, Izban MG, Ballard BR, Sathyanarayana SA, Adunyah SE, Matusik RJ, Chen Z
(2017) Oncogene 36: 1364-1373
MeSH Terms: Animals, Cell Line, Tumor, Disease Models, Animal, Enhancer of Zeste Homolog 2 Protein, Gene Knockout Techniques, Histones, Humans, Lysine, Male, Mice, PTEN Phosphohydrolase, Prostate, Prostatic Neoplasms, Protein Stability, S-Phase Kinase-Associated Proteins, TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 6, Tumor Suppressor Protein p53, Ubiquitination
Show Abstract · Added April 18, 2017
EZH2 is crucial for the progression of prostate cancer (PCa) and castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) through upregulation and activation of progenitor genes, as well as androgen receptor (AR)-target genes. However, the mechanisms by which EZH2 is regulated in PCa and CRPC remain elusive. Here we report that EZH2 is post-transcriptionally regulated by SKP2 in vitro in cultured cells and in vivo in mouse models. We observed aberrant upregulation of Skp2, Ezh2 and histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) in both Pten null mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and Pten null mouse prostate tissues. Loss of Skp2 resulted in a striking decrease of Ezh2 levels in Pten/Trp53 double-null MEFs and in prostate tumors of Pten/Trp53 double-null mutant mice. SKP2 knockdown decreased EZH2 levels in human PCa cells through upregulation of TRAF6-mediated and lysine(K) 63-linked ubiquitination of EZH2 for degradation. Ectopic expression of TRAF6 promoted the K63-linked ubiquitination of EZH2 to decrease EZH2 and H3K27me3 levels in PCa cells. In contrast, TRAF6 knockdown resulted in a reduced EZH2 ubiquitination with an increase of EZH2 and H3K27me3 levels in PCa cells. Furthermore, the catalytically dead mutant TRAF6 C70A abolished the TRAF6-mediated polyubiquitination of recombinant human EZH2 in vitro. Most importantly, a concurrent elevation of Skp2 and Ezh2 was found in CRPC tumors of Pten/Trp53 mutant mice, and expression levels of SKP2 and EZH2 were positively correlated in human PCa specimens. Taken together, our findings revealed a novel mechanism on EZH2 ubiquitination and an important signaling network of SKP2-TRAF6-EZH2/H3K27me3, and targeting SKP2-EZH2 pathway may be a promising therapeutic strategy for CRPC treatment.
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18 MeSH Terms
The Gene Expression Status of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR Pathway in Gastric Cancer Tissues and Cell Lines.
Riquelme I, Tapia O, Espinoza JA, Leal P, Buchegger K, Sandoval A, Bizama C, Araya JC, Peek RM, Roa JC
(2016) Pathol Oncol Res 22: 797-805
MeSH Terms: Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing, Cell Cycle Proteins, Cell Line, Tumor, Class I Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases, Gene Expression, Humans, PTEN Phosphohydrolase, Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases, Phosphoproteins, Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt, Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases, 70-kDa, Signal Transduction, Stomach Neoplasms, TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases
Show Abstract · Added April 6, 2017
The PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway plays a crucial role in the regulation of multiple cellular functions including cell growth, proliferation, metabolism and angiogenesis. Emerging evidence has shown that deregulation of this pathway has a role promoting gastric cancer (GC). The aim was to assess the expression of genes involved in this pathway by qPCR in 23 tumor and 23 non-tumor gastric mucosa samples from advanced GC patients, and in AGS, MKN28 and MKN45 gastric cancer cell lines. Results showed a slight overexpression of PIK3CA, PIK3CB, AKT1, MTOR, RPS6KB1, EIF4EBP1 and EIF4E genes, and a slightly decreased PTEN and TSC1 expression. In AGS, MKN28 and MKN45 cells a significant gene overexpression of PIK3CA, PIK3CB, AKT1, MTOR, RPS6KB1 and EIF4E, and a significant repression of PTEN gene expression were observed. Immunoblotting showed that PI3K-β, AKT, p-AKT, PTEN, mTOR, p-mTOR, P70S6K1, p-P70S6K1, 4E-BP1, p-4E-BP1, eIF4E and p-eIF4E proteins were present in cell lines at different levels, confirming activation of this pathway in vitro. This is the first time this extensive panel of 9 genes within PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway has been studied in GC to clarify the biological role of this pathway in GC and develop new strategies for this malignancy.
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14 MeSH Terms
Jnk1 Deficiency in Hematopoietic Cells Suppresses Macrophage Apoptosis and Increases Atherosclerosis in Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor Null Mice.
Babaev VR, Yeung M, Erbay E, Ding L, Zhang Y, May JM, Fazio S, Hotamisligil GS, Linton MF
(2016) Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 36: 1122-31
MeSH Terms: Animals, Aorta, Aortic Diseases, Apoptosis, Atherosclerosis, Bone Marrow Cells, Bone Marrow Transplantation, Cell Survival, Cells, Cultured, Diet, High-Fat, Disease Models, Animal, Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress, Genetic Predisposition to Disease, Hypercholesterolemia, Macrophages, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Mice, Knockout, Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 8, Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 9, PTEN Phosphohydrolase, Phenotype, Plaque, Atherosclerotic, Protein Kinase Inhibitors, Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt, Receptors, LDL, Signal Transduction, bcl-Associated Death Protein
Show Abstract · Added April 10, 2018
OBJECTIVE - The c-Jun NH2-terminal kinases (JNK) are regulated by a wide variety of cellular stresses and have been implicated in apoptotic signaling. Macrophages express 2 JNK isoforms, JNK1 and JNK2, which may have different effects on cell survival and atherosclerosis.
APPROACH AND RESULTS - To dissect the effect of macrophage JNK1 and JNK2 on early atherosclerosis, Ldlr(-/-) mice were reconstituted with wild-type, Jnk1(-/-), and Jnk2(-/-) hematopoietic cells and fed a high cholesterol diet. Jnk1(-/-)→Ldlr(-/-) mice have larger atherosclerotic lesions with more macrophages and fewer apoptotic cells than mice transplanted with wild-type or Jnk2(-/-) cells. Moreover, genetic ablation of JNK to a single allele (Jnk1(+/-)/Jnk2(-/-) or Jnk1(-/-)/Jnk2(+/-)) in marrow of Ldlr(-/-) recipients further increased atherosclerosis compared with Jnk1(-/-)→Ldlr(-/-) and wild-type→Ldlr(-/-) mice. In mouse macrophages, anisomycin-mediated JNK signaling antagonized Akt activity, and loss of Jnk1 gene obliterated this effect. Similarly, pharmacological inhibition of JNK1, but not JNK2, markedly reduced the antagonizing effect of JNK on Akt activity. Prolonged JNK signaling in the setting of endoplasmic reticulum stress gradually extinguished Akt and Bad activity in wild-type cells with markedly less effects in Jnk1(-/-) macrophages, which were also more resistant to apoptosis. Consequently, anisomycin increased and JNK1 inhibitors suppressed endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis in macrophages. We also found that genetic and pharmacological inhibition of phosphatase and tensin homolog abolished the JNK-mediated effects on Akt activity, indicating that phosphatase and tensin homolog mediates crosstalk between these pathways.
CONCLUSIONS - Loss of Jnk1, but not Jnk2, in macrophages protects them from apoptosis, increasing cell survival, and this accelerates early atherosclerosis.
© 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.
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MAGI-2 in prostate cancer: an immunohistochemical study.
Goldstein J, Borowsky AD, Goyal R, Roland JT, Arnold SA, Gellert LL, Clark PE, Hameed O, Giannico GA
(2016) Hum Pathol 52: 83-91
MeSH Terms: Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing, Adenocarcinoma, Adult, Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Area Under Curve, Biomarkers, Tumor, Biopsy, Carrier Proteins, Guanylate Kinases, Humans, Immunohistochemistry, In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence, Male, Middle Aged, Neoplasm Grading, PTEN Phosphohydrolase, Predictive Value of Tests, Prostatic Hyperplasia, Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia, Prostatic Neoplasms, ROC Curve, Tissue Array Analysis, Transcription Factors, Tumor Suppressor Proteins, Up-Regulation
Show Abstract · Added April 18, 2017
Membrane-associated guanylate kinase, WW and PDZ domain-containing protein 2 (MAGI-2) is a scaffolding protein that links cell adhesion molecules, receptors, and signaling molecules to the cytoskeleton and maintains the architecture of cell junctions. MAGI-2 gene rearrangements have recently been described in prostate cancer. We studied the immunohistochemical expression of MAGI-2 protein in prostate tissue. Seventy-eight radical prostatectomies were used to construct 3 tissue microarrays consisting of 512 cores, including benign tissue, benign prostatic hyperplasia, high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN), and adenocarcinoma, Gleason patterns 3 to 5. Immunohistochemistry for phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) and double-stain MAGI-2/p63 was performed and analyzed by visual and image analysis, the latter as percent of analyzed area (%AREA), and mean optical density multiplied by %AREA (STAIN). By visual and image analysis, MAGI-2 was significantly higher in adenocarcinoma and HGPIN compared with benign (benign versus HGPIN P < .001; benign versus adenocarcinoma, P < .001). HGPIN and adenocarcinoma did not significantly differ by either modality. Using visual intensity to distinguish benign tissue and adenocarcinoma, a receiver operating curve yielded an area under the curve of 0.902. A STAIN threshold of 1470 yielded a sensitivity of 0.66 and specificity of 0.96. There was a significant correlation between PTEN and MAGI-2 staining for normal and benign prostatic hyperplasia, but this was lost in HGPIN and cancer. We conclude that MAGI-2 immunoreactivity is elevated in prostate cancer and HGPIN compared with normal tissue, and suggest that MAGI-2 may contribute to prostate carcinogenesis. This is the first report of MAGI-2 staining by immunohistochemistry in prostate cancer.
Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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26 MeSH Terms