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OBJECTIVE - Nevirapine is metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2B6 and CYP3A4. We characterized relationships between clinical parameters, human genetics, pharmacokinetics, and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) drug resistance mutations in pregnant women following single-dose intrapartum nevirapine.
METHODS - In AIDS Clinical Trials Group study A5207, women received nevirapine at onset of labor and were randomly assigned to receive lamivudine/zidovudine, emtricitabine/tenofovir, or lopinavir/ritonavir for 7 or 21 days. Plasma nevirapine level was quantified on postpartum day 1 and on weeks 1, 3, and 5. We assayed 214 polymorphisms in CYP2B6 and other genes and evaluated associations with pharmacokinetic parameters, including elimination constant, time to protein-adjusted 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50), and week 5 nevirapine level below the quantification limit.
RESULTS - Among 301 women with evaluable pharmacokinetic and genotype data, lower body mass index and random assignment to receive lopinavir/ritonavir were associated with more rapid nevirapine elimination. Among those of African ancestry, longer time to IC50 was associated with CYP2B6 983T → C (P = .004) but not with CYP2B6 516G → T (P = .8). Among Indians, slower nevirapine elimination was associated with CYP2B6 516G → T (P = .04). Emergent resistance was infrequent and not associated with pharmacokinetics or CYP2B6 genotype.
CONCLUSIONS - The effects on plasma drug exposure following single-dose nevirapine may be greater for CYP2B6 983T → C than for 516G → T and are less pronounced than at steady state.
Nevirapine is one of the most extensively prescribed antiretrovirals worldwide. The present analyses used data and specimens from two prior studies to characterize and compare plasma nevirapine phase I metabolite profiles following a single 200-mg oral dose of nevirapine in 10 HIV-negative African Americans and a steady-state 200-mg twice-daily dose in 10 HIV-infected Cambodians. Nevirapine was assayed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The 2-, 3-, 8- and 12-hydroxy and 4-carboxy metabolites of nevirapine were assayed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by noncompartmental analysis. The metabolic index for each metabolite was defined as the ratio of the metabolite area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) to the nevirapine AUC. Every metabolite concentration was much less than the corresponding nevirapine concentration. The predominant metabolite after single dose and at steady state was 12-hydroxynevirapine. From single dose to steady state, the metabolic index increased for 3-hydroxynevirapine (P < 0.01) but decreased for 2-hydroxynevirapine (P < 0.001). The 3-hydroxynevirapine metabolic index was correlated with nevirapine apparent clearance (P < 0.001). These findings are consistent with induction of CYP2B6 (3-hydroxy metabolite) and a possible inhibition of CYP3A (2-hydroxy metabolite), although these are preliminary data. There were no such changes in metabolic indexes for 12-hydroxynevirapine or 4-carboxynevirapine. Two subjects with the CYP2B6 *6*6 genetic polymorphism had metabolic indexes in the same range as other subjects. These results suggest that nevirapine metabolite profiles change over time under the influence of enzyme induction, enzyme inhibition, and host genetics. Further work is warranted to elucidate nevirapine biotransformation pathways and implications for drug efficacy and toxicity.
OBJECTIVES - Prior candidate gene studies have associated CYP2B6 516G→T [rs3745274] and 983T→C [rs28399499] with increased plasma efavirenz exposure. We sought to identify novel variants associated with efavirenz pharmacokinetics.
MATERIALS AND METHODS - Antiretroviral therapy-naive AIDS Clinical Trials Group studies A5202, A5095, and ACTG 384 included plasma sampling for efavirenz pharmacokinetics. Log-transformed trough efavirenz concentrations (Cmin) were previously estimated by population pharmacokinetic modeling. Stored DNA was genotyped with Illumina HumanHap 650Y or 1MDuo platforms, complemented by additional targeted genotyping of CYP2B6 and CYP2A6 with MassARRAY iPLEX Gold. Associations were identified by linear regression, which included principal component vectors to adjust for genetic ancestry.
RESULTS - Among 856 individuals, CYP2B6 516G→T was associated with efavirenz estimated Cmin (P=8.5×10). After adjusting for CYP2B6 516G→T, CYP2B6 983T→C was associated (P=9.9×10). After adjusting for both CYP2B6 516G→T and 983T→C, a CYP2B6 variant (rs4803419) in intron 3 was associated (P=4.4×10). After adjusting for all the three variants, non-CYP2B6 polymorphisms were associated at P-value less than 5×10. In a separate cohort of 240 individuals, only the three CYP2B6 polymorphisms replicated. These three polymorphisms explained 34% of interindividual variability in efavirenz estimated Cmin. The extensive metabolizer phenotype was best defined by the absence of all three polymorphisms.
CONCLUSION - Three CYP2B6 polymorphisms were independently associated with efavirenz estimated Cmin at genome-wide significance, and explained one-third of interindividual variability. These data will inform continued efforts to translate pharmacogenomic knowledge into optimal efavirenz utilization.
AIMS - To determine pharmacokinetic and pharmacogenomic correlates of efavirenz central nervous system (CNS) side effects following a single dose.
METHODS - Thirty-four healthy HIV-negative African Americans were administered a 600 mg dose of efavirenz. Blood samples for pharmacokinetics were drawn serially from 0 to 12 h post-dose. Neuropsychometric testing with drowsiness visual analogue scale, grooved pegboard and letter digit substitution tests was done the day prior to dosing and at 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6 h post-dose. Subjective CNS symptoms were assessed at 6 h post-dose. Composite CYP2B6 516/983 genotype was determined.
RESULTS - Pharmacokinetic indices reflecting increased plasma efavirenz exposure were associated with slower non-dominant hand grooved pegboard task completion (Cmax , P1 h = 0.01, P2 h = 0.05, P3 h = 0.03, P4 h = 0.01; AUC, P1 h = 0.04; clearance P1 h = 0.05, P2 h = 0.02, P6 h = 0.01). In a repeated measures model analysis that adjusted timing of neuropsychometric testing for timing of peak drug concentration, clearance (P < 0.001), AUC(0.312 h) (P = 0.001) and Cmax (P = 0.008) were associated with non-dominant grooved pegboard test performance. CYP2B6 genotype trended to correlate with non-dominant hand grooved pegboard at 4 and 6 h (P = 0.07 and 0.06). Decreased drowsiness at 6 h was associated with higher Cmax (P = 0.02).
CONCLUSIONS - Following a single dose of efavirenz, an association between pharmacokinetics and neuropsychometric performance was discernable. A weaker association between genotype and neurocognitive test performance is likely mediated by effect of genotype on plasma clearance. Strategies that lower Cmax during initial dosing may decrease CNS side effects.
© 2012 The Authors. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.
BACKGROUND - Candidate gene association studies for peripheral artery disease (PAD), including subclinical disease assessed with the ankle-brachial index (ABI), have been limited by the modest number of genes examined. We conducted a two stage meta-analysis of ∼50,000 SNPs across ∼2100 candidate genes to identify genetic variants for ABI.
METHODS AND RESULTS - We studied subjects of European ancestry from 8 studies (n=21,547, 55% women, mean age 44-73 years) and African American ancestry from 5 studies (n=7267, 60% women, mean age 41-73 years) involved in the candidate gene association resource (CARe) consortium. In each ethnic group, additive genetic models were used (with each additional copy of the minor allele corresponding to the given beta) to test each SNP for association with continuous ABI (excluding ABI>1.40) and PAD (defined as ABI<0.90) using linear or logistic regression with adjustment for known PAD risk factors and population stratification. We then conducted a fixed-effects inverse-variance weighted meta-analyses considering a p<2×10(-6) to denote statistical significance.
RESULTS - In the European ancestry discovery meta-analyses, rs2171209 in SYTL3 (β=-0.007, p=6.02×10(-7)) and rs290481 in TCF7L2 (β=-0.008, p=7.01×10(-7)) were significantly associated with ABI. None of the SNP associations for PAD were significant, though a SNP in CYP2B6 (p=4.99×10(-5)) was among the strongest associations. These 3 genes are linked to key PAD risk factors (lipoprotein(a), type 2 diabetes, and smoking behavior, respectively). We sought replication in 6 population-based and 3 clinical samples (n=15,440) for rs290481 and rs2171209. However, in the replication stage (rs2171209, p=0.75; rs290481, p=0.19) and in the combined discovery and replication analysis the SNP-ABI associations were no longer significant (rs2171209, p=1.14×10(-3); rs290481, p=8.88×10(-5)). In African Americans, none of the SNP associations for ABI or PAD achieved an experiment-wide level of significance.
CONCLUSIONS - Genetic determinants of ABI and PAD remain elusive. Follow-up of these preliminary findings may uncover important biology given the known gene-risk factor associations. New and more powerful approaches to PAD gene discovery are warranted.
Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an extreme example of cell plasticity that is important for normal development, injury repair and malignant progression. Widespread epigenetic reprogramming occurs during stem cell differentiation and malignant transformation, but EMT-related epigenetic reprogramming is poorly understood. Here we investigated epigenetic modifications during EMT mediated by transforming growth factor beta. Although DNA methylation was unchanged during EMT, we found a global reduction in the heterochromatin mark H3 Lys9 dimethylation (H3K9Me2), an increase in the euchromatin mark H3 Lys4 trimethylation (H3K4Me3) and an increase in the transcriptional mark H3 Lys36 trimethylation (H3K36Me3). These changes depended largely on lysine-specific demethylase-1 (Lsd1), and loss of Lsd1 function had marked effects on EMT-driven cell migration and chemoresistance. Genome-scale mapping showed that chromatin changes were mainly specific to large organized heterochromatin K9 modifications (LOCKs), which suggests that EMT is characterized by reprogramming of specific chromatin domains across the genome.
In AIDS Clinical Trials Group protocols 384, A5095, and A5097s, we characterized relationships between 22 polymorphisms in CYP2B6, ABCB1, and CYP3A5; plasma efavirenz exposure; and/or treatment responses. A stepwise logistic regression procedure selected polymorphisms associated with reduced drug clearance adjusted for body mass index and the composite CYP2B6 516/983 genotype. Relationships between selected polymorphisms and treatment responses were characterized by competing risk methodology. Association analyses involved 821 individuals (317 for pharmacokinetics and 643 for treatment response). Models that included CYP2B6 516/983 genotype best predicted pharmacokinetics. Slow-metabolizer genotypes were associated with increased central nervous system events among white participants and decreased virologic failure among black participants.
BACKGROUND - Polymorphisms in CYP2B6 are known to predict increased steady-state plasma concentrations of efavirenz. We characterized relationships between genetic polymorphisms and plasma efavirenz concentrations among 45 Haitians who initiated antiretroviral therapy in Port-au-Prince.
METHODS - An observational study characterized relationships between clinical factors, pharmacokinetics, and treatment response among antiretroviral-naive patients initiating once-daily treatment with efavirenz plus twice-daily treatment with zidovudine and lamivudine. Plasma drug concentrations were determined at weeks 2 and 4. Drug doses were directly observed by field workers or designated family members. We retrospectively characterized relationships between efavirenz concentrations and 50 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in CYP2B6 and several polymorphisms in CYP2A6, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and ABCB1.
RESULTS - Plasma specimens for efavirenz analysis were obtained from study participants a mean (+/- standard deviation) of 13.9 +/- 1.6 h after they received the dose. As expected, CYP2B6 516G-->T was associated with increased plasma efavirenz concentrations (Spearman rho = 0.71; P < .001), as were 10 polymorphisms in linkage disequilibrium with 516G-->T. Distinct CYP2B6 polymorphisms were associated with decreased plasma efavirenz concentrations (greatest absolute rho = 0.48; P = .001). Associations were replicated by results from a recent pharmacokinetic study involving 34 healthy, human immunodeficiency virus-negative African Americans.
CONCLUSIONS - Relatively frequent CYP2B6 polymorphisms may predict decreased plasma efavirenz exposure in patients of African descent. If replicated in other cohorts, the implications of these novel associations for treatment response warrant further study.
BACKGROUND - Polymorphisms in CYP2B6 affect the steady-state plasma concentrations of nevirapine and efavirenz. In many resource-limited countries, a single dose of nevirapine has been widely prescribed to pregnant women at delivery, to reduce mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). We characterized associations between genetic polymorphisms and the pharmacokinetics of single doses of nevirapine and efavirenz.
METHODS - Plasma drug concentrations were determined over the 13-day period after administration of a 200-mg oral dose of nevirapine to nonpregnant, HIV-negative African Americans. A 600-mg oral dose of efavirenz was subsequently administered, and pharmacokinetic sampling was repeated. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated using a noncompartmental approach. Primary analyses involved 2 CYP2B6 polymorphisms (516G --> T and 983T --> C) known to predict increased steady-state plasma nevirapine and efavirenz exposure. Exploratory analyses involved another 51 polymorphisms in CYP2B6, ABCB1, CYP3A4, and CYP3A5.
RESULTS - On the basis of the composite CYP2B6 516/983 genotype, the 34 participants comprised 10 extensive, 17 intermediate, and 7 slow metabolizer genotypes. The composite CYP2B6 516/983 genotype was significantly associated with plasma drug exposure and clearance for efavirenz but not nevirapine. Exploratory analyses suggested possible associations between additional CYP2B6 polymorphisms and the pharmacokinetics of nevirapine and efavirenz.
CONCLUSIONS - Selective pressure for drug-resistant HIV-1 after administration of single-dose nevirapine may not differ substantially according to CYP2B6 516/983 genotype. Additional polymorphisms, genes, and populations warrant further study.