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Cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes are major catalysts involved in the oxidations of most drugs, steroids, carcinogens, fat-soluble vitamins, and natural products. The binding of substrates to some of the 57 human P450s and other mammalian P450s is more complex than a two-state system and has been proposed to involve mechanisms such as multiple ligand occupancy, induced-fit, and conformational-selection. Here, we used kinetic analysis of binding with multiple concentrations of substrates and computational modeling of these data to discern possible binding modes of several human P450s. We observed that P450 2D6 binds its ligand rolapitant in a mechanism involving conformational-selection. P450 4A11 bound the substrate lauric acid via conformational-selection, as did P450 2C8 with palmitic acid. Binding of the steroid progesterone to P450 21A2 was also best described by a conformational-selection model. Hexyl isonicotinate binding to P450 2E1 could be described by either a conformational-selection or an induced-fit model. Simulation of the binding of the ligands midazolam, bromocriptine, testosterone, and ketoconazole to P450 3A4 was consistent with an induced-fit or a conformational-selection model, but the concentration dependence of binding rates for varying both P450 3A4 and midazolam concentrations revealed discordance in the parameters, indicative of conformational-selection. Binding of the P450s 2C8, 2D6, 3A4, 4A11, and 21A2 was best described by conformational-selection, and P450 2E1 appeared to fit either mode. These findings highlight the complexity of human P450-substrate interactions and that conformational-selection is a dominant feature of many of these interactions.
© 2019 Guengerich et al.
Biologically active plant flavonoids, including 5,7-dihydroxyflavone (57diOHF, chrysin), 4',5,7-trihydroxyflavone (4'57triOHF, apigenin), and 5,6,7-trihydroxyflavone (567triOHF, baicalein), have important pharmacological and toxicological significance, e.g., antiallergic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, antimicrobial, and antitumorgenic properties. In order to better understand the metabolism of these flavonoids in humans, we examined the oxidation of flavone, 5-hydroxyflavone (5OHF), and 57diOHF to various products by human cytochrome P450 (P450 or CYP) and liver microsomal enzymes. Individual human P450s and liver microsomes oxidized flavone to 6-hydroxyflavone, small amounts of 5OHF, and 11 other monohydroxylated products at different rates and also produced several dihydroxylated products (including 57diOHF and 7,8-dihydroxyflavone) from flavone. We also found that 5OHF was oxidized by several P450 enzymes and human liver microsomes to 57diOHF and further to 567triOHF, but the turnover rates in these reactions were low. Interestingly, both CYP1B1.1 and 1B1.3 converted 57diOHF to 567triOHF at turnover rates (on the basis of P450 contents) of >3.0 min, and CYP1A1 and 1A2 produced 567triOHF at rates of 0.51 and 0.72 min, respectively. CYP2A13 and 2A6 catalyzed the oxidation of 57diOHF to 4'57triOHF at rates of 0.7 and 0.1 min, respectively. Our present results show that different P450s have individual roles in oxidizing these phytochemical flavonoids and that these reactions may cause changes in their biological and toxicological properties in mammals.
Oxidative modifications of cysteine residues are an important component in signaling pathways, enzymatic regulation, and redox homeostasis. Current direct and indirect methods detect specific modifications and a general binary population of "free" or "oxidized" cysteines, respectively. In an effort to combine both direct and indirect detection strategies, here we developed a method that we designate isotopic tagging of oxidized and reduced cysteines (iTORC). This method uses synthetic molecules for rapid isotopic coding of sulfenic acids, reduced cysteines, and disulfides in cells. Our approach utilizes isotopically distinct benzothiazine and halogenated benzothiazine probes to sequentially alkylate sulfenic acids and then free thiols and, finally, after a reduction step, cysteines oxidized to disulfides or other phosphine-reducible states. We ascertained that the iodinated benzothiazine probe has reduced cross-reactivity toward primary amines and is highly reactive with the cysteine of GSH, with a calculated rate constant of 2 × 10 m s (pH 8.0, 23 °C) ( 10-20 times faster than ethylmaleimide). We applied iTORC to a mouse hepatocyte lysate to identify known sulfenylated and disulfide-bonded proteins, including elongation factor 1-α1 and mouse serum albumin, and found that iTORC reliably detected their expected oxidation status. This method can be easily employed to study the effects of oxidants on recombinant proteins and cell and tissue extracts, and the efficiencies of the alkylating agents enable completion of all three labeling steps within 2 h. In summary, we demonstrate here that halogenated benzothiazine-based alkylating agents can be utilized to rapidly measure the cellular thiol status in cells.
© 2019 Albertolle et al.
OBJECTIVE - The loss of liver glycine N-methyltransferase (GNMT) promotes liver steatosis and the transition to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Previous work showed endogenous glucose production is reduced in GNMT-null mice with gluconeogenic precursors being used in alternative biosynthetic pathways that utilize methyl donors and are linked to tumorigenesis. This metabolic programming occurs before the appearance of HCC in GNMT-null mice. The metabolic physiology that sustains liver tumor formation in GNMT-null mice is unknown. The studies presented here tested the hypothesis that nutrient flux pivots from glucose production to pathways that incorporate and metabolize methyl groups in GNMT-null mice with HCC.
METHODS - H/C metabolic flux analysis was performed in conscious, unrestrained mice lacking GNMT to quantify glucose formation and associated nutrient fluxes. Molecular analyses of livers from mice lacking GNMT including metabolomic, immunoblotting, and immunochemistry were completed to fully interpret the nutrient fluxes.
RESULTS - GNMT knockout (KO) mice showed lower blood glucose that was accompanied by a reduction in liver glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis. NAD was lower and the NAD(P)H-to-NAD(P) ratio was higher in livers of KO mice. Indices of NAD synthesis and catabolism, pentose phosphate pathway flux, and glutathione synthesis were dysregulated in KO mice.
CONCLUSION - Glucose precursor flux away from glucose formation towards pathways that regulate redox status increase in the liver. Moreover, synthesis and scavenging of NAD are both impaired resulting in reduced concentrations. This metabolic program blunts an increase in methyl donor availability, however, biosynthetic pathways underlying HCC are activated.
Copyright © 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.
Human cytochrome P450 (P450) family 4 enzymes are involved in the metabolism of fatty acids and the bioactivation of carcinogenic arylamines and toxic natural products, e.g., 4-ipomeanol. These and other drug-metabolizing P450s are redox sensitive, showing a loss of activity resulting from preincubation with HO and recovery with mild reducing agents [Albertolle, M. W., et al. (2017) J. Biol. Chem. 292, 11230-11242]. The inhibition is due to sulfenylation of the heme-thiolate ligand, as determined by chemopreoteomics and spectroscopy. This phenomenon may have implications for chemical toxicity and observed disease-drug interactions, in which the decreased metabolism of P450 substrates occurs in patients with inflammatory diseases (e.g., influenza and autoimmunity). Human P450 1A2 was determined to be redox insensitive. To determine the mechanism underlying the differential redox sensitivity, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were employed using the crystal structure of rabbit P450 4B1 (Protein Data Bank entry 5T6Q ). In simulating either the thiolate (Cys-S) or the sulfenic acid (Cys-SOH) at the heme ligation site, MD revealed Gln-451 in either an "open" or "closed" conformation, respectively, between the cytosol and heme-thiolate cysteine. Mutation to either an isosteric leucine (Q451L) or glutamate (Q451E) abrogated the redox sensitivity, suggesting that this "open" conformation allows for reduction of the sulfenic acid and religation of the thiolate to the heme iron. In summary, MD simulations suggest that Gln-451 in P450 4B1 adopts conformations that may stabilize and protect the heme-thiolate sulfenic acid; mutating this residue destabilizes the interaction, producing a redox insensitive enzyme.
The accurate and specific detection of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in different cellular and tissue compartments is essential to the study of redox-regulated signaling in biological settings. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) is the only direct method to assess free radicals unambiguously. Its advantage is that it detects physiologic levels of specific species with a high specificity, but it does require specialized technology, careful sample preparation, and appropriate controls to ensure accurate interpretation of the data. Cyclic hydroxylamine spin probes react selectively with superoxide or other radicals to generate a nitroxide signal that can be quantified by EPR spectroscopy. Cell-permeable spin probes and spin probes designed to accumulate rapidly in the mitochondria allow for the determination of superoxide concentration in different cellular compartments. In cultured cells, the use of cell permeable 1-hydroxy-3-methoxycarbonyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethylpyrrolidine (CMH) along with and without cell-impermeable superoxide dismutase (SOD) pretreatment, or use of cell-permeable PEG-SOD, allows for the differentiation of extracellular from cytosolic superoxide. The mitochondrial 1-hydroxy-4-[2-triphenylphosphonio)-acetamido]-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-piperidine,1-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-[2-(triphenylphosphonio)acetamido] piperidinium dichloride (mito-TEMPO-H) allows for measurement of mitochondrial ROS (predominantly superoxide). Spin probes and EPR spectroscopy can also be applied to in vivo models. Superoxide can be detected in extracellular fluids such as blood and alveolar fluid, as well as tissues such as lung tissue. Several methods are presented to process and store tissue for EPR measurements and deliver intravenous 1-hydroxy-3-carboxy-2,2,5,5-tetramethylpyrrolidine (CPH) spin probe in vivo. While measurements can be performed at room temperature, samples obtained from in vitro and in vivo models can also be stored at -80 °C and analyzed by EPR at 77 K. The samples can be stored in specialized tubing stable at -80 °C and run at 77 K to enable a practical, efficient, and reproducible method that facilitates storing and transferring samples.
The regulatory subunit of human DNA primase has a C-terminal domain (p58C) that contains a [4Fe4S] cluster and binds DNA. Previous electrochemical analysis of a p58C construct revealed that its affinity for DNA is sensitive to the redox state of the [4Fe4S] cluster. Concerns about the validity of this conclusion have been raised, based in part on differences in X-ray crystal structures of the p58C272-464 construct used for that study and that of a N-terminally shifted p58C266-456 construct and consequently, an assumption that p58C272-464 has abnormal physical and functional properties. To address this controversy, a new p58C266-464 construct containing all residues was crystallized under the conditions previously used for crystallizing p58C272-464, and the solution structures of both constructs were assessed using circular dichroism and NMR spectroscopy. In the new crystal structure, p58C266-464 exhibits the same elements of secondary structure near the DNA binding site as observed in the crystal structure of p58C272-464. Moreover, in solution, circular dichroism and 15N,1H-heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC) NMR spectra show there are no significant differences in the distribution of secondary structures or in the tertiary structure or the two constructs. To validate that the two constructs have the same functional properties, binding of a primed DNA template was measured using a fluorescence-based DNA binding assay, and the affinities for this substrate were the same (3.4 ± 0.5 μM and 2.7 ± 0.3 μM, respectively). The electrochemical properties of p58C266-464 were also measured and this p58C construct was able to engage in redox switching on DNA with the same efficiency as p58C272-464. Together, these results show that although p58C can be stabilized in different conformations in the crystalline state, in solution there is effectively no difference in the structure and functional properties of p58C constructs of different lengths.
Eukaryotic DNA primases contain a [4Fe4S] cluster in the C-terminal domain of the p58 subunit (p58C) that affects substrate affinity but is not required for catalysis. We show that, in yeast primase, the cluster serves as a DNA-mediated redox switch governing DNA binding, just as in human primase. Despite a different structural arrangement of tyrosines to facilitate electron transfer between the DNA substrate and [4Fe4S] cluster, in yeast, mutation of tyrosines Y395 and Y397 alters the same electron transfer chemistry and redox switch. Mutation of conserved tyrosine 395 diminishes the extent of p58C participation in normal redox-switching reactions, whereas mutation of conserved tyrosine 397 causes oxidative cluster degradation to the [3Fe4S] species during p58C redox signaling. Switching between oxidized and reduced states in the presence of the Y397 mutations thus puts primase [4Fe4S] cluster integrity and function at risk. Consistent with these observations, we find that yeast tolerate mutations to Y395 in p58C, but the single-residue mutation Y397L in p58C is lethal. Our data thus show that a constellation of tyrosines for protein-DNA electron transfer mediates the redox switch in eukaryotic primases and is required for primase function in vivo.
Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.
Generation of daughter strands during DNA replication requires the action of DNA primase to synthesize an initial short RNA primer on the single-stranded DNA template. Primase is a heterodimeric enzyme containing two domains whose activity must be coordinated during primer synthesis: an RNA polymerase domain in the small subunit (p48) and a [4Fe4S] cluster-containing C-terminal domain of the large subunit (p58C). Here we examine the redox switching properties of the [4Fe4S] cluster in the full p48/p58 heterodimer using DNA electrochemistry. Unlike with isolated p58C, robust redox signaling in the primase heterodimer requires binding of both DNA and NTPs; NTP binding shifts the p48/p58 cluster redox potential into the physiological range, generating a signal near 160 mV vs NHE. Preloading of primase with NTPs enhances catalytic activity on primed DNA, suggesting that primase configurations promoting activity are more highly populated in the NTP-bound protein. We propose that p48/p58 binding of anionic DNA and NTPs affects the redox properties of the [4Fe4S] cluster; this electrostatic change is likely influenced by the alignment of primase subunits during activity because the configuration affects the [4Fe4S] cluster environment and coupling to DNA bases for redox signaling. Thus, both binding of polyanionic substrates and configurational dynamics appear to influence [4Fe4S] redox signaling properties. These results suggest that these factors should be considered generally in characterizing signaling networks of large, multisubunit DNA-processing [4Fe4S] enzymes.
Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) catalyzes the formation of prostaglandins, which are involved in immune regulation, vascular function, and synaptic signaling. COX-2 also inactivates the endogenous cannabinoid (eCB) 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) via oxygenation of its arachidonic acid backbone to form a variety of prostaglandin glyceryl esters (PG-Gs). Although this oxygenation reaction is readily observed in vitro and in intact cells, detection of COX-2-derived 2-AG oxygenation products has not been previously reported in neuronal tissue. Here we show that 2-AG is metabolized in the brain of transgenic COX-2-overexpressing mice and mice treated with lipopolysaccharide to form multiple species of PG-Gs that are detectable only when monoacylglycerol lipase is concomitantly blocked. Formation of these PG-Gs is prevented by acute pharmacological inhibition of COX-2. These data provide evidence that neuronal COX-2 is capable of oxygenating 2-AG to form a variety PG-Gs in vivo and support further investigation of the physiological functions of PG-Gs.