, a bio/informatics shared resource is still "open for business" - Visit the CDS website
The publication data currently available has been vetted by Vanderbilt faculty, staff, administrators and trainees. The data itself is retrieved directly from NCBI's PubMed and is automatically updated on a weekly basis to ensure accuracy and completeness.
If you have any questions or comments, please contact us.
BACKGROUND AND AIM - The major transporter responsible for bile acid uptake from the intestinal lumen is the apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT, SLC10A2). Analysis of the SLC10A2 gene has identified a variety of sequence variants including coding region single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that may influence bile acid homeostasis/intestinal function. In this study, we systematically characterized the effect of coding SNPs on SLC10A2 protein expression and bile acid transport activity.
METHODS - Single nucleotide polymorphisms in SLC10A2 from genomic DNA of ethnically-defined healthy individuals were identified using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based temperature gradient capillary electrophoresis (TGCE) system. A heterologous gene expression system was used to assess transport activity of SLC10A2 nonsynonymous variants and missense mutations. Total and cell surface protein expression of wild-type and variant ASBT was assessed by Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence confocal microscopy. Expression of ASBT mRNA and protein was also measured in human intestinal samples.
RESULTS - The studies revealed two nonsynonymous SNPs, 292G>A and 431G>A, with partially impaired in vitro taurocholate transport. A novel variant, 790A>G, was also shown to exhibit near complete loss of taurocholate transport, similar to the previously identified ASBT missense mutations. Examination of ASBT protein expression revealed no significant differences in expression or trafficking to the cell surface among variants versus wild-type ASBT. Analysis of ASBT mRNA and protein expression in human intestinal samples revealed modest intersubject variability.
CONCLUSIONS - Genome sequencing and in vitro studies reveal the presence of multiple functionally relevant variants in SLC10A2 that may influence bile acid homeostasis and physiology.
© 2011 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
To test whether severe ascorbic acid deficiency in macrophages affects progression of early atherosclerosis, we used fetal liver cell transplantation to generate atherosclerosis-prone apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoE(-/-)) mice that selectively lacked the ascorbate transporter (SVCT2) in hematopoietic cells, including macrophages. After 13 weeks of chow diet, apoE(-/-) mice lacking the SVCT2 in macrophages had surprisingly less aortic atherosclerosis, decreased lesion macrophage numbers, and increased macrophage apoptosis compared to control-transplanted mice. Serum lipid levels were similar in both groups. Peritoneal macrophages lacking the SVCT2 had undetectable ascorbate; increased susceptibility to H(2)O(2)-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis; decreased expression of genes for COX-2, IL1β, and IL6; and decreased lipopolysaccharide-stimulated NF-κB and antiapoptotic gene expression. These changes were associated with decreased expression of both the receptor for advanced glycation end products and HIF-1α, either or both of which could have been the proximal cause of decreased macrophage activation and apoptosis in ascorbate-deficient macrophages.
Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most common gastrointestinal emergency of premature infants. Previously, we showed that luminal bile acids (BAs) are increased and correlated with disease development and that the apical sodium-dependent BA transporter (ASBT), which transports BAs from the ileal lumen into enterocytes, is upregulated in rats with NEC. We hypothesized that intraenterocyte, rather than luminal, BAs are associated with NEC and that upregulation of ASBT may be a mechanism by which this occurs. Neonatal rats with or without the ASBT inhibitor SC-435, mice in which ASBT was knocked out, and mice that overproduce BAs were subjected to the NEC protocol. Disease development, ASBT, and the farnesoid X receptor protein, along with luminal and intraenterocyte BA levels, were assessed. In addition, ileal sections from premature infants with and without NEC were examined for ASBT via immunohistology and real-time PCR. When BAs were not transported into enterocytes (rats given SC-435 and ASBT knockout mice), severity and incidence of NEC were reduced. In contrast, in mice that overproduce BAs, ASBT was elevated, intraenterocyte BAs were increased, and disease development was increased. ASBT staining was more intense on the apical membrane of ileal enterocytes from premature infants with NEC than premature infants with non-NEC diagnoses. In addition, ASBT mRNA levels were significantly higher in infants with NEC. These data show that accumulation of intraenterocyte BAs contributes to disease development, elevated ASBT increases disease severity in experimental models of NEC, and ASBT is elevated in human NEC. These data confirm that BAs and upregulation of ASBT play a crucial role in NEC pathogenesis and suggest that inhibition of ASBT could be utilized as a therapeutic modality against this disease.
OBJECTIVE - To assess the role of combined deficiencies of vitamins C and E on the earliest stages of atherosclerosis (an inflammatory condition associated with oxidative stress), 4 combinations of vitamin supplementation (low C/low E, low C/high E, high C/low E, and high C/high E) were studied in atherosclerosis-prone apolipoprotein E-deficient mice also unable to synthesize their own vitamin C (gulonolactone oxidase(-/-)); and to evaluate the effect of a more severe depletion of vitamin C alone in a second experiment using gulonolactone oxidase(-/-) mice carrying the hemizygous deletion of SVCT2 (the vitamin C transporter).
METHODS AND RESULTS - After 8 weeks of a high-fat diet (16% lard and 0.2% cholesterol), atherosclerosis developed in the aortic sinus areas of mice in all diet groups. Each vitamin-deficient diet significantly decreased liver and brain contents of the corresponding vitamin. Combined deficiency of both vitamins increased lipid peroxidation, doubled plaque size, and increased plaque macrophage content by 2- to 3-fold in male mice, although only plaque macrophage content was increased in female mice. A more severe deficiency of vitamin C in gulonolactone oxidase(-/-) mice with defective cellular uptake of vitamin C increased both oxidative stress and atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E(-/-) mice compared with littermates receiving a diet replete in vitamin C, again most clearly in males.
CONCLUSIONS - Combined deficiencies of vitamins E and C are required to worsen early atherosclerosis in an apolipoprotein E-deficient mouse model. However, a more severe cellular deficiency of vitamin C alone promotes atherosclerosis when vitamin E is replete.
Endothelial dysfunction is an early manifestation of atherosclerosis caused in part by oxidized LDL (oxLDL). Since vitamin C, or ascorbic acid, prevents several aspects of endothelial dysfunction, the effects of oxLDL on oxidative stress and regulation of the ascorbate transporter, SVCT2, were studied in cultured EA.hy926 endothelial cells. Cells cultured for 18 h with 0.2 mg/ml oxLDL showed increased lipid peroxidation that was prevented by a single addition of 0.25 mM ascorbate at the beginning of the incubation. This protection caused a decrease in intracellular ascorbate, but no change in the cell content of GSH. In the absence of ascorbate, oxLDL increased SVCT2 protein and function during 18 h in culture. Although culture of the cells with ascorbate did not affect SVCT2 protein expression, the oxLDL-induced increase in SVCT2 protein expression was prevented by ascorbate. These results suggest that up-regulation of endothelial cell SVCT2 expression and function may help to maintain intracellular ascorbate during oxLDL-induced oxidative stress, and that ascorbate in turn can prevent this effect.
The sodium-dependent vitamin C transporter (SVCT2) is responsible for the transport of vitamin C into cells in multiple organs, from either the blood or the cerebrospinal fluid. Mice null for SVCT2 (SVCT2(-/-)) do not survive past birth but the cause of death has not yet been ascertained. After mating of SVCT2(+/-) males and SVCT2(+/-) females, fewer SVCT2(-/-) and SVCT2(+/-) progeny were observed than would be expected according to Mendelian ratios. Vitamin C levels in SVCT2(-/-), SVCT2(+/-), and SVCT2(+/+) were genotype-dependent. SVCT2(-/-) fetuses had significantly lower vitamin C levels than littermates in placenta, cortex, and lung, but not in liver (the site of vitamin C synthesis). Low vitamin C levels in placenta and cortex were associated with elevations in several markers of oxidative stress: malondialdehyde, isoketals, F(2)-isoprostanes, and F(4)-neuroprostanes. Oxidative stress was not elevated in fetal SVCT2(-/-) lung tissue despite low vitamin C levels. In addition to the expected severe hemorrhage in cortex, we also found hemorrhage in the brain stem, which was accompanied by cell loss. We found evidence of increased apoptosis in SVCT2(-/-) mice and disruption of the basement membrane in fetal brain. Together these data show that SVCT2 is critical for maintaining vitamin C levels in fetal and placental tissues and that the lack of SVCT2, and the resulting low vitamin C levels, results in fetal death and, in SVCT2(-/-) mice that survive the gestation period, in oxidative stress and cell death.
Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ascorbate (vitamin C) is a vital antioxidant molecule in the brain. However, it also has a number of other important functions, participating as a cofactor in several enzyme reactions, including catecholamine synthesis, collagen production, and regulation of HIF-1 alpha. Ascorbate is transported into the brain and neurons via the sodium-dependent vitamin C transporter 2 (SVCT2), which causes accumulation of ascorbate within cells against a concentration gradient. Dehydroascorbic acid, the oxidized form of ascorbate, is transported via glucose transporters of the GLUT family. Once in cells, it is rapidly reduced to ascorbate. The highest concentrations of ascorbate in the body are found in the brain and in neuroendocrine tissues such as adrenal, although the brain is the most difficult organ to deplete of ascorbate. Combined with regional asymmetry in ascorbate distribution within different brain areas, these facts suggest an important role for ascorbate in the brain. Ascorbate is proposed as a neuromodulator of glutamatergic, dopaminergic, cholinergic, and GABAergic transmission and related behaviors. Neurodegenerative diseases typically involve high levels of oxidative stress and thus ascorbate has been posited to have potential therapeutic roles against ischemic stroke, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and Huntington's disease.
Neurons maintain relatively high intracellular concentrations of ascorbic acid, which is achieved primarily by the activity of the sodium-dependent vitamin C transporter SVCT2. In this work, we studied the mechanisms by which neuronal cells in culture transport and maintain ascorbate as well as whether this system contributes to maturation of neuronal function and cellular defense against oxidative stress and excitotoxic injury. We found that the SVCT2 helps to maintain high intracellular ascorbate levels, normal ascorbate transport kinetics, and activity-dependent ascorbate recycling. Immunocytochemistry studies revealed that SVCT2 is expressed primarily in the axons of mature hippocampal neurons in culture. In the absence of SVCT2, hippocampal neurons exhibited stunted neurite outgrowth, less glutamate receptor clustering, and reduced spontaneous neuronal activity. Finally, hippocampal cultures from SVCT2-deficient mice showed increased susceptibility to oxidative damage and N-methyl-D-aspartate-induced excitotoxicity. Our results revealed that maintenance of intracellular ascorbate as a result of SVCT2 activity is crucial for neuronal development, functional maturation, and antioxidant responses.
(c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients on antiretroviral drug therapy frequently experience hepatotoxicity, the underlying mechanism of which is poorly understood. Hepatotoxicity from other compounds such as bosentan and troglitazone has been attributed, in part, to inhibition of hepatocyte bile acid excretion. This work tested the hypothesis that antiretroviral drugs modulate hepatic bile acid transport. Ritonavir (28 microM), saquinavir (15 microM), and efavirenz (32 microM) inhibited [(3)H]taurocholate transport in bile salt export pump expressing Sf9-derived membrane vesicles by 90, 71, and 33%, respectively. In sandwich-cultured human hepatocytes, the biliary excretion index (BEI) of [(3)H]taurocholate was maximally decreased 59% by ritonavir, 39% by saquinavir, and 20% by efavirenz. Likewise, in sandwich-cultured rat hepatocytes, the BEI of [(3)H]taurocholate was decreased 100% by ritonavir and 94% by saquinavir. Sodium-dependent and -independent initial uptake rates of [(3)H]taurocholate in suspended rat hepatocytes were significantly decreased by ritonavir, saquinavir, and efavirenz. [(3)H]Taurocholate transport by recombinant NTCP and Ntcp was inhibited by ritonavir (IC(50) = 2.1 and 6.4 microM in human and rat, respectively), saquinavir (IC(50) = 6.7 and 20 microM, respectively), and efavirenz (IC(50) = 43 and 97 microM, respectively). Nevirapine (75 microM) had no effect on bile acid transport in any model system. In conclusion, ritonavir, saquinavir, and efavirenz, but not nevirapine, inhibited both the hepatic uptake and biliary excretion of taurocholate.
BACKGROUND & AIMS - The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors, or statins, target liver HMG-CoA and are of proven benefit in the prevention of coronary heart disease. Rosuvastatin is an effective statin notable for liver selectivity and lack of significant metabolism. We assessed the extent and relevance of hepatic transporters to rosuvastatin uptake.
METHODS - Transporters involved in rosuvastatin uptake were determined through heterologous expression of multiple human and rat uptake transporters. Human organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1B1 and sodium-dependent taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP) allelic variants were also assessed. Expression of OATP and NTCP messenger RNA and protein was determined from a bank of human liver samples.
RESULTS - Multiple OATP family members, including 1B1, 1B3, 2B1, and 1A2, were capable of rosuvastatin transport. Naturally occurring polymorphisms in OATP1B1, including *5, *9, *15, and *18, were associated with profound loss of activity toward rosuvastatin. Interestingly, the major human hepatic bile acid uptake transporter NTCP, but not rat Ntcp, also transported rosuvastatin. Human hepatocyte studies suggested that NTCP alone accounted for approximately 35% of rosuvastatin uptake. Remarkably, NTCP*2, a variant known to have a near complete loss of function for bile acids, exhibited a profound gain of function for rosuvastatin. Quantitative messenger RNA analysis revealed marked intersubject variability in expression of OATPs and NTCP.
CONCLUSIONS - Multiple transporters mediate the overall hepatic uptake of rosuvastatin, and NTCP may be a heretofore unrecognized transporter important to the disposition of rosuvastatin and possibly other drugs/statins in clinical use. Accordingly, transporter expression and polymorphisms may be key determinants of intersubject variability in response to statin therapy in general.