The publication data currently available has been vetted by Vanderbilt faculty, staff, administrators and trainees. The data itself is retrieved directly from NCBI's PubMed and is automatically updated on a weekly basis to ensure accuracy and completeness.
If you have any questions or comments, please contact us.
We sought to replicate previous findings that low endogenous opioid (EO) function predicts greater morphine analgesia and extended these findings by examining whether circulating endocannabinoids and related lipids moderate EO-related predictive effects. Individuals with chronic low-back pain (n = 46) provided blood samples for endocannabinoid analyses, then underwent separate identical laboratory sessions under 3 drug conditions: saline placebo, intravenous (i.v.) naloxone (opioid antagonist; 12-mg total), and i.v. morphine (0.09-mg/kg total). During each session, participants rated low-back pain intensity, evoked heat pain intensity, and nonpain subjective effects 4 times in sequence after incremental drug dosing. Mean morphine effects (morphine-placebo difference) and opioid blockade effects (naloxone-placebo difference; to index EO function) for each primary outcome (low-back pain intensity, evoked heat pain intensity, and nonpain subjective effects) were derived by averaging across the 4 incremental doses. The association between EO function and morphine-induced back pain relief was significantly moderated by endocannabinoids [2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and N-arachidonoylethanolamine (AEA)]. Lower EO function predicted greater morphine analgesia only for those with relatively lower endocannabinoids. Endocannabinoids also significantly moderated EO effects on morphine-related changes in visual analog scale-evoked pain intensity (2-AG), drug liking (AEA and 2-AG), and desire to take again (AEA and 2-AG). In the absence of significant interactions, lower EO function predicted significantly greater morphine analgesia (as in past work) and euphoria. Results indicate that EO effects on analgesic and subjective responses to opioid medications are greatest when endocannabinoid levels are low. These findings may help guide development of mechanism-based predictors for personalized pain medicine algorithms.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES - Our recent work indicates that endogenous opioid activity influences analgesic responses to opioid medications. This secondary analysis evaluated whether endogenous opioid activity is associated with degree of opioid analgesic adverse effects, and whether chronic pain status and sex affect these adverse effects.
METHODS - Using a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover design, 51 subjects with chronic low back pain and 38 healthy controls participated in 3 separate sessions, undergoing 2 laboratory-evoked pain tasks (ischemic and thermal) after receiving placebo, naloxone, or morphine. Endogenous opioid system function was indexed by the difference in pain responses between the placebo and naloxone conditions. These measures were examined for associations with morphine-related adverse effects.
RESULTS - Chronic pain subjects reported significantly greater itching and unpleasant bodily sensations with morphine than controls (P < 0.05). Across groups, only 6 of 112 possible associations between adverse effects and blockade effects were significant. For the ischemic task, higher endogenous opioid function was associated with greater itching (visual analog scale [VAS]; P < 0.05), numbness (tolerance; P < 0.001), dry mouth (tolerance; P < 0.05), and unpleasant bodily sensations (VAS; P < 0.05). For the thermal task, higher endogenous opioid function was associated with greater numbness (VAS; P < 0.05) and feeling carefree (VAS; P < 0.05). There were no significant main or interaction effects of chronic pain status or sex on these findings.
CONCLUSIONS - No consistent relationships were observed between endogenous opioid function and morphine-related adverse effects. This is in stark contrast to our previous observation of strong relationships between elevated endogenous opioid function and smaller morphine analgesic effects.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES - Factors underlying differential responsiveness to opioid analgesic medications used in chronic pain management are poorly understood. We tested whether individual differences in endogenous opioid inhibition of chronic low-back pain were associated with the magnitude of acute reductions in back pain ratings after morphine administration.
METHODS - In randomized counterbalanced order over three sessions, 50 chronic low-back pain patients received intravenous naloxone (8 mg), morphine (0.08 mg/kg), or placebo. Back pain intensity was rated predrug and again after peak drug activity was achieved using the McGill Pain Questionnaire-Short Form (Sensory and Affective subscales, VAS Intensity measure). Opioid blockade effect measures to index degree of endogenous opioid inhibition of back pain intensity were derived as the difference between predrug to postdrug changes in pain intensity across placebo and naloxone conditions, with similar morphine responsiveness measures derived across placebo and morphine conditions.
RESULTS - Morphine significantly reduced back pain compared with placebo (McGill Pain Questionnaire-Short Form Sensory, VAS; P < 0.01). There were no overall effects of opioid blockade on back pain intensity. However, individual differences in opioid blockade effects were significantly associated with the degree of acute morphine-related reductions in back pain on all measures, even after controlling for effects of age, sex, and chronic pain duration (P < 0.03). Individuals exhibiting greater endogenous opioid inhibition of chronic back pain intensity reported less acute relief of back pain with morphine.
CONCLUSIONS - Morphine appears to provide better acute relief of chronic back pain in individuals with lower natural opioidergic inhibition of chronic pain intensity. Possible implications for personalized medicine are discussed.
Findings suggest that greater tendency to express anger is associated with greater sensitivity to acute pain via endogenous opioid system dysfunction, but past studies have not addressed the role of anger arousal. We used a 2 × 2 factorial design with Drug Condition (placebo or opioid blockade with naltrexone) crossed with Task Order (anger-induction/pain-induction or pain-induction/anger-induction), and with continuous Anger-out Subscale scores. Drug × Task Order × Anger-out Subscale interactions were tested for pain intensity during a 4-min ischemic pain task performed by 146 healthy people. A significant Drug × Task Order × Anger-out Subscale interaction was dissected to reveal different patterns of pain intensity changes during the pain task for high anger-out participants who underwent pain-induction prior to anger-induction compared to those high in anger-out in the opposite order. Namely, when angered prior to pain, high anger-out participants appeared to exhibit low pain intensity under placebo that was not shown by high anger-out participants who received naltrexone. Results hint that people with a pronounced tendency to express anger may suffer from inadequate opioid function under simple pain-induction, but may experience analgesic benefit to some extent from the opioid triggering properties of strong anger arousal.
OBJECTIVE - Elevated trait anger (TRANG; heightened propensity to experience anger) is associated with greater pain responsiveness, possibly via associations with deficient endogenous opioid analgesia. This study tested whether acute anger arousal moderates the impact of TRANG on endogenous opioid analgesia.
METHODS - Ninety-four chronic low back pain (LBP) participants and 85 healthy controls received opioid blockade (8 mg of naloxone) or placebo in a randomized, counterbalanced order in separate sessions. Participants were randomly assigned to undergo either a 5-minute anger recall interview (ARI) or a neutral control interview across both drug conditions. Immediately after the assigned interview, participants engaged sequentially in finger pressure and ischemic forearm pain tasks. Opioid blockade effects were derived (blockade minus placebo condition pain ratings) to index opioid antinociceptive function.
RESULTS - Placebo condition TRANG by interview interactions (p values < .05) indicated that TRANG was hyperalgesic only in the context of acute anger arousal (ARI condition; p values < .05). Blockade effect analyses suggested that these hyperalgesic effects were related to deficient opioid analgesia. Significant TRANG by interview interactions (p values < .05) for both pain tasks indicated that elevated TRANG was associated with smaller blockade effects (less endogenous opioid analgesia) only in the ARI condition (p values < .05). Results for ischemic task visual analog scale intensity blockade effects suggested that associations between TRANG and impaired opioid function were most evident in LBP participants when experiencing anger (type by interview by TRANG interaction; p < .05).
CONCLUSIONS - Results indicate that hyperalgesic effects of TRANG are most prominent when acute anger is aroused and suggest that endogenous opioid mechanisms contribute.
This study used a placebo-controlled, between-subjects opioid blockade design to evaluate endogenous opioid involvement in the hypoalgesia associated with elevated resting blood pressure (BP) in 163 healthy individuals. Participants were randomly assigned to Drug condition (placebo, naltrexone) and Task Order (computerized maze task with harassment followed by an ischemic pain task or vice versa). Resting BP was assessed, followed by drug administration, and then the pain and maze tasks. A significant Drug x Systolic BP (SBP) interaction was observed on McGill Pain Questionnaire-Affective pain ratings (P < .01), indicating that BP-related hypoalgesia observed under placebo was absent under opioid blockade. A significant Gender x Drug x SBP x Task Order interaction was observed for VAS pain intensity (P < .02). Examination of simple effects comprising this interaction suggested that BP-related hypoalgesia occurred only in male participants who experienced the pain task in the absence of emotional arousal, and indicated that this hypoalgesia occurred under placebo but not under opioid-blockade. Results suggest that under some circumstance, BP-related hypoalgesia may have an endogenous opioid-mediated component in healthy individuals, particularly men.
Literature is reviewed indicating that greater tendency to manage anger via direct verbal or physical expression (trait anger-out) is associated with increased acute and chronic pain responsiveness. Neuroimaging data are overviewed supporting overlapping neural circuits underlying regulation of both pain and anger, consisting of brain regions including the rostral anterior cingulate cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, anterior insula, amygdala, and periaqueductal gray. These circuits provide a potential neural basis for observed positive associations between anger-out and pain responsiveness. The role of endogenous opioids in modulating activity in these interlinked brain regions is explored, and implications for understanding pain-related effects of anger-out are described. An opioid dysfunction hypothesis is presented in which inadequate endogenous opioid inhibitory activity in these brain regions contributes to links between trait anger-out and pain. A series of studies is presented that supports the opioid dysfunction hypothesis, further suggesting that gender and genetic factors may moderate these effects. Finally, possible implications of interactions between trait anger-out and state behavioral anger expression on endogenous opioid analgesic activity are described.
OBJECTIVE - Previous work suggests that elevated trait anger-out exacerbates pain responses in part through endogenous opioid dysfunction. The authors examined whether this opioid dysfunction affects not only perceived pain intensity, but also emotional responses to being hurt.
DESIGN - 79 chronic low back pain (LBP) patients and 46 healthy controls received opioid blockade (8 mg naloxone i.v.) and placebo in randomized, counterbalanced order in separate sessions. During each session, participants sequentially experienced finger pressure pain and ischemic forearm pain tasks, with emotional state assessed at baseline and postpain.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES - Blockade effects indexing opioid modulation of emotional reactivity were derived by subtracting placebo from blockade condition emotional reactivity.
RESULTS - Significant Participant Type x Anger-Out interactions on blockade effects indicated that in LBP participants but not in controls, greater anger-out was associated with deficient opioid modulation of anxiety, anger, and fear reactivity to noxious stimulation. Across participant types, greater anger-in was associated with impaired opioid modulation of anxiety and fear reactivity. Anger-in opioid effects were partially due to overlap with general negative affect.
CONCLUSIONS - Opioid dysfunction associated with trait anger-out may affect not only perceived pain intensity, but also pain-related suffering in individuals with chronic pain conditions. Implications for understanding the health effects of anger management styles are discussed.
Copyright (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.
This study explored possible gender moderation of previously reported associations between elevated trait anger-out and reduced endogenous opioid analgesia. One hundred forty-five healthy participants underwent acute electrocutaneous pain stimulation after placebo and oral opioid blockade in separate sessions. Blockade effects were derived reflecting changes in pain responses induced by opioid blockade. Hierarchical regressions revealed that elevated anger-out was associated with smaller pain threshold blockade effects (less opioid analgesia) in females, with opposite findings in males (interaction p < .001). Similar marginally significant interactions were noted for blockade effects derived for nociceptive flexion reflex threshold, pain tolerance, and pain ratings (p < .10). Anger-in was also associated negatively with pain threshold blockade effects in females but not males (interaction p < .05). Across genders, elevated anger-in was related to smaller pain tolerance blockade effects (p < .01). Overlap with negative affect did not account for these opioid effects. The anger-in/opioid association was partially due to overlap with anger-out, but the converse was not true. These findings provide additional evidence of an association between trait anger-out and endogenous opioid analgesia, but further suggest that gender may moderate these effects. In contrast to past work, anger-in was related to reduced opioid analgesia, although overlap with anger-out may contribute to this finding.
A tendency to manage anger via direct expression (anger-out) is increasingly recognized as influencing responses to pain. Elevated trait anger-out is associated with increased responsiveness to acute experimental and clinical pain stimuli, and is generally related to elevated chronic pain intensity in individuals with diverse pain conditions. Possible mechanisms for these links are explored, including negative affect, psychodynamics, central adipose tissue, symptom specific muscle reactivity, endogenous opioid dysfunction, and genetics. The opioid dysfunction hypothesis has some experimental support, and simultaneously can account for anger-out's effects on both acute and chronic pain. Factors which may moderate the anger-out/pain link are described, including narcotic use, gender, and genetic polymorphisms. Pain exacerbating effects of trait anger-out are contrasted with the apparent pain inhibitory effects of behavioral anger expression exhibited in anger-provoking contexts. Conceptual issues related to the state versus trait effects of expressive anger regulation are discussed.