The publication data currently available has been vetted by Vanderbilt faculty, staff, administrators and trainees. The data itself is retrieved directly from NCBI's PubMed and is automatically updated on a weekly basis to ensure accuracy and completeness.
If you have any questions or comments, please contact us.
BACKGROUND - Patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis frequently exhibit poor mental health. We studied the effects of frequent in-center and nocturnal hemodialysis on depressive symptoms and self-reported mental health.
STUDY DESIGN - 1-year randomized controlled clinical trials.
SETTING & PARTICIPANTS - Hemodialysis centers in the United States and Canada. 332 patients were randomly assigned to frequent (6-times-weekly) compared with conventional (3-times-weekly) hemodialysis in the Frequent Hemodialysis Network (FHN) Daily (n = 245) and Nocturnal (n = 87) Trials.
INTERVENTION - The Daily Trial was a trial of frequent (6-times-weekly) compared with conventional (3-times-weekly) in-center hemodialysis. The Nocturnal Trial assigned patients to either frequent nocturnal (6-times-weekly) hemodialysis or conventional (3-times-weekly) hemodialysis.
OUTCOMES - Self-reported depressive symptoms and mental health.
MEASUREMENTS - Beck Depression Inventory and the mental health composite score and emotional subscale of the RAND 36-Item Health Survey at baseline and 4 and 12 months. The mental health composite score is derived by summarizing these domains of the RAND 36-Item Health Survey: emotional, role emotional, energy/fatigue, and social functioning scales.
RESULTS - In the Daily Trial, participants randomly assigned to frequent compared with conventional in-center hemodialysis showed no significant change over 12 months in adjusted mean Beck Depression Inventory score (-1.9 ± 0.7 vs -0.6 ± 0.7; P = 0.2), but experienced clinically significant improvements in adjusted mean mental health composite (3.7 ± 0.9 vs 0.2 ± 1.0; P = 0.007) and emotional subscale (5.2 ± 1.6 vs -0.3 ± 1.7; P = 0.01) scores. In the Nocturnal Trial, there were no significant changes in the same metrics in participants randomly assigned to nocturnal compared with conventional hemodialysis.
LIMITATIONS - Trial interventions were not blinded.
CONCLUSIONS - Frequent in-center hemodialysis, as compared with conventional in-center hemodialysis, improved self-reported general mental health. Changes in self-reported depressive symptoms were not statistically significant. We were unable to conclude whether nocturnal hemodialysis yielded similar effects.
Copyright © 2013 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
BACKGROUND - Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) became a global epidemic in 2003. Comprehensive information on 1-year outcomes and health care utilization is lacking. Research conducted during the SARS outbreak may help inform research planning for future public health emergencies. The objective of this study was to evaluate the 1-year outcomes in survivors of SARS and their family caregivers.
METHOD - The study was prospective and observational. We evaluated 117 SARS survivors from Toronto, Ontario. Patients were interviewed and underwent physical examination, pulmonary function testing, chest radiography, a 6-minute-walk test, quality-of-life measures, and self-report of health care utilization. At 1 year, informal caregivers were identified for a survey on caregiver burden.
RESULTS - The enrolled survivors of SARS were young (median age, 42 years), and most were women (67%) and health care workers (65%). At 1 year after hospital discharge, pulmonary function measures were in the normal range, but 18% of patients had a significant reduction in distance walked in 6 minutes. The Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) domains were 0.3 to 1.0 SD below normal at 1 year. Of the patients, 17% had not returned to work by 1 year. Fifty-one patients required 668 visits to psychiatry or psychology practitioners. During the SARS epidemic, informal caregivers reported a decline of 1.6 SD below normal on the mental component score of the SF-36.
CONCLUSIONS - Most SARS survivors had good physical recovery from their illness, but some patients and their caregivers reported a significant reduction in mental health 1 year later. Strategies to ameliorate the psychological burden of an epidemic on the patient and family caregiver should be considered as part of future pandemic planning.
BACKGROUND - Cutaneous atypical mycobacterial infections have been increasingly described in association with cosmetic and alternative procedures.
OBJECTIVE - We report an outbreak of acupuncture-associated mycobacteriosis. Between April and December 2002, 32 patients developed cutaneous mycobacteriosis after visiting an acupuncture practice in Toronto, Canada.
RESULTS - Of 23 patients whose lesions were biopsied, 6 (26.1%) had culture-confirmed infection with Mycobacterium abscessus. These isolates were genetically indistinguishable by amplified fragment length polymorphism. The median incubation period was 1 month. Of 24 patients for whom clinical information was available, 23 (95.8%) had resolution of their infection. All patients developed residual scarring or hyperpigmentation.
CONCLUSION - Nontuberculous mycobacteria should be recognized as an emerging, but preventable, cause of acupuncture-associated infections.
BACKGROUND - Twin concordance studies help evaluate the contribution of genetic factors in childhood cancers, but previous reports have primarily focused on leukemia because of the rarity of other malignancies. In the current report, a large cohort of childhood cancer survivors was used to: (1) describe twin concordance patterns for a range of cancers, (2) calculate the standardized incidence rates of cancers in twins, and (3) describe clinical features and outcomes of concordant twins.
PROCEDURE - Cancer family history was obtained on the 211 twins participating in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS) (14,352 participants surviving > or =5 years after a malignancy diagnosed at <21 years during January 1, 1970-December 31, 1986) to calculate probandwise twin concordance rates and standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End-Results data.
RESULTS - Seven monozygotic twin pairs were concordant for cancer (six for leukemia, one for non-Hodgkin lymphoma), yielding probandwise concordance rates of 9.5%, 20.7%, and 20.0% for all cancer, leukemia, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), respectively. No concordance was observed among dizygotic twins or for dissimilar cancers. The SIR in monozygotic twins was 23.3 (95% CI = 11.1-48.9) for all cancer, 112.4 (95% CI = 50.5-250.1) for leukemia, and 40.5 (5.7-287.5) for NHL. Concordant twins were similar in age at diagnosis and vital status.
CONCLUSIONS - Twin concordance for cancer is largely restricted to monozygotic twins and hematological malignancies, consistent with in utero malignancy transmission demonstrated by others. Our data support clinical monitoring of the twins of cases with hematological malignancies, and does not contribute evidence for genetic factors in other cancers.
BACKGROUND - An outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) began in Canada in February 2003. The initial diagnosis of SARS was based on clinical and epidemiological criteria. During the outbreak, molecular and serologic tests for the SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) became available. However, without a "gold standard," it was impossible to determine the usefulness of these tests. We describe how these tests were used during the first phase of the SARS outbreak in Toronto and offer some recommendations that may be useful if SARS returns.
METHODS - We examined the results of all diagnostic laboratory tests used in 117 patients admitted to hospitals in Toronto who met the Health Canada criteria for suspect or probable SARS. Focusing on tests for SARS-CoV, we attempted to determine the optimal specimen types and timing of specimen collection.
RESULTS - Diagnostic test results for SARS-CoV were available for 110 of the 117 patients. SARS-CoV was detected by means of reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in at least one specimen in 59 (54.1%) of 109 patients. Serologic test results of convalescent samples were positive in 50 (96.2%) of 52 patients for whom paired serum samples were collected during the acute and convalescent phases of the illness. Of the 110 patients, 78 (70.9%) had specimens that tested positive by means of RT-PCR, serologic testing or both methods. The proportion of RT-PCR test results that were positive was similar between patients who met the criteria for suspect SARS (50.8%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 38.4%-63.2%) and those who met the criteria for probable SARS (58.0%, 95% CI 44.2%-70.7%). SARS-CoV was detected in nasopharyngeal swabs in 33 (32.4%) of 102 patients, in stool specimens in 19 (63.3%) of 30 patients, and in specimens from the lower respiratory tract in 10 (58.8%) of 17 patients.
INTERPRETATION - These findings suggest that the rapid diagnostic tests in use at the time of the initial outbreak lack sufficient sensitivity to be used clinically to rule out SARS. As tests for SARS-CoV continue to be optimized, evaluation of the clinical presentation and elucidation of a contact history must remain the cornerstone of SARS diagnosis. In patients with SARS, specimens taken from the lower respiratory tract and stool samples test positive by means of RT-PCR more often than do samples taken from other areas.
PURPOSE - Double protease inhibitor (PI) boosting is being explored as a new strategy in salvage antiretroviral (ARV) therapy. However, if a negative drug interaction leads to decreased drug levels of either or both PIs, double PI boosting could lead to decreased virologic response. A negative drug interaction has been described between amprenavir (APV) and lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r). This observational cohort study assessed the virologic impact of the addition of APV to a salvage ARV regimen, which also contains LPV/r, compared to a regimen containing LPV/r alone.
METHOD - Patients initiated on a salvage ARV regimen that included LPV/r obtained from the expanded access program in Toronto, Canada, were evaluated. APV (600-1,200 mg bid) was added at the discretion of the treating physician.
RESULTS - Using multivariate Cox proportional hazards models, we found that the addition of APV to a LPV/r-containing salvage regimen was not significantly associated with time to virologic suppression (< 50 copies/mL; adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 0.75, p =.12) or with time to virologic rebound (adjusted HR = 1.46, p =.34). Those patients who received higher doses of APV had an increased chance of virologic suppression (p =.03). In a subset of 27 patients, the median LPV C(trough) was significantly lower in patients receiving APV (p =.04), and the median APV C(trough) was reduced compared to reported controls.
CONCLUSION - Our data do not support an additional benefit in virologic reduction of double boosting with APV and LPV/r relative to LPV/r alone in salvage ARV therapy. Our study's limitations include its retrospective nature and the imbalance between the two groups potentially confounding the results. Although these factors were adjusted for in the multivariate analysis, a prospective randomized controlled trial is warranted to confirm our findings.