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BACKGROUND - Antimicrobial resistance is a global public health problem, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), where antibiotics are often obtained without a prescription. H. pylori antimicrobial resistance patterns are informative for patient care and gastric cancer prevention programs, have been shown to correlate with general antimicrobial consumption, and may guide antimicrobial stewardship programs in LMICs. We report H. pylori resistance and antimicrobial utilization patterns for western Honduras, representative of rural Central America.
METHODS - In the context of the western Honduras gastric cancer epidemiology initiative, gastric biopsies from 189 patients were studied for culture and resistance patterns. Antimicrobial utilization was investigated for common H. pylori treatment regimens from regional public (7 antimicrobials) and national private (4 antimicrobials) data, analyzed in accordance with WHO anatomical therapeutic chemical defined daily doses (DDD) method and expressed as DDD/1000 inhabitants per day (DID) and per year (DIY).
RESULTS - H. pylori was successfully cultured from 116 patients (56% males, mean age: 54), and nearly all strains were cagA+ and vacAs1m1+ positive (99% and 90.4%, respectively). Unexpectedly, high resistance was noted for levofloxacin (20.9%) and amoxicillin (10.7%), while metronidazole (67.9%) and clarithromycin (11.2%) were similar to data from Latin America. Significant associations with age, gender, or histology were not noted, with the exception of levofloxacin (28%, P = 0.01) in those with histology limited to non-atrophic gastritis. Total antimicrobial usage in western Honduras of amoxicillin (17.3 DID) and the quinolones had the highest relative utilizations compared with other representative nations.
CONCLUSIONS - We observed significant H. pylori resistance to amoxicillin and levofloxacin in the context of high community antimicrobial utilization. This has implications in Central America for H. pylori treatment guidelines as well as antimicrobial stewardship programs.
© 2019 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
There has been renewed interest in combining traditional small-molecule antimicrobial agents with nontraditional therapies to potentiate antimicrobial effects. Apotransferrin, which decreases iron availability to microbes, is one such approach. We conducted a 48-h one-compartment infection model to explore the impact of apotransferrin on the bactericidal activity of ciprofloxacin. The challenge panel included four isolates with ciprofloxacin MIC values ranging from 0.08 to 32 mg/liter. Each challenge isolate was subjected to an ineffective ciprofloxacin monotherapy exposure (free-drug area under the concentration-time curve over 24 h divided by the MIC [AUC/MIC ratio] ranging from 0.19 to 96.6) with and without apotransferrin. As expected, the no-treatment and apotransferrin control arms showed unaltered prototypical logarithmic bacterial growth. We identified relationships between exposure and change in bacterial density for ciprofloxacin alone ( = 0.64) and ciprofloxacin in combination with apotransferrin ( = 0.84). Addition of apotransferrin to ciprofloxacin enabled a remarkable reduction in bacterial density across a wide range of ciprofloxacin exposures. For instance, at a ciprofloxacin AUC/MIC ratio of 20, ciprofloxacin monotherapy resulted in nearly 2 log CFU increase in bacterial density, while the combination of apotransferrin and ciprofloxacin resulted in 2 log CFU reduction in bacterial density. Furthermore, addition of apotransferrin significantly reduced the emergence of ciprofloxacin-resistant subpopulations compared to monotherapy. These data demonstrate that decreasing the rate of bacterial replication with apotransferrin in combination with antimicrobial therapy represents an opportunity to increase the magnitude of the bactericidal effect and to suppress the growth rate of drug-resistant subpopulations.
Copyright © 2019 American Society for Microbiology.
Although fluoroquinolones (FQs) play an important role in the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), there are several issues that need to be addressed to optimize their effectiveness and minimize toxicity. This includes identification of the optimal dose of FQs such as levofloxacin (LVX) and moxifloxacin, and the optimal role of FQs in combination with other anti-tuberculosis drugs, particularly those with overlapping toxicity, such as QT prolongation. While the ability of FQs to penetrate into cavities and granulomas is likely beneficial, suboptimal sensitivity of genotypic tests to detect FQ resistance could negatively affect treatment outcomes of FQ-containing regimens. Several trials are underway to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of FQs as part of combination MDR-TB therapy; there are also two planned studies of LVX to prevent tuberculosis among close contacts of MDR-TB.
We present the case of a 49-year-old man who developed pulmonary abscess as a complication of transbronchial lung cryobiopsy. He had been receiving prednisone therapy, but otherwise had no specific risk factors for lung abscess. Cryobiopsy is a novel technique for obtaining peripheral lung parenchymal tissue for the evaluation of diffuse parenchymal lung diseases. Cryobiopsy is being increasingly proposed as an alternative to surgical lung biopsy or conventional bronchoscopic transbronchial forceps biopsy, but the safety profile of the procedure has not been fully appreciated. Pulmonary abscess has been rarely reported as a complication of other bronchoscopic procedures such as endobronchial ultrasound-guided needle biopsy, however, to our knowledge this is the first reported case of pulmonary abscess complicating peripheral lung cryobiopsy.
BACKGROUND - Sarcoidosis is an idiopathic, granulomatous disease for which molecular and immunologic studies have shown an association between it and mycobacterial antigens. Microbial antigens can reduce expression of the tyrosine kinase Lck, which has been associated with sarcoidosis severity. Here we investigate the efficacy of Concomitant Levofloxacin, Ethambutol, Azithromycin, and Rifampin (the CLEAR regimen) for treatment of chronic, pulmonary sarcoidosis.
METHODS - Fifteen chronic, pulmonary sarcoidosis patients with forced vital capacities (FVC) between 45-80% of predicted were enrolled in this open-label trial. The primary efficacy endpoint was change in absolute FVC from baseline to completion of therapy. Secondary endpoints were change in functional capacity measured by Six Minute Walk Distance (6MWD) and quality of life assessment measured by St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ).
RESULTS - Of 15 patients enrolled, 11 completed 4 weeks of therapy, and 8 completed 8 weeks of therapy. The CLEAR regimen was associated with an increase in FVC of 0.23 liters at 4 weeks and 0.42 liters at 8 weeks (P=0.0098 and 0.016, respectively). The 6MWD increased by 87 meters from baseline to 8 weeks (p=0.0078). The mean score of the validated SGRQ was improved at 8 weeks over baseline (p=0.023). Normalized expression of Lck and NF-κB was observed in those with clinical improvement.
CONCLUSIONS - The CLEAR regimen is associated with improved absolute FVC, as well as increased functional capacity and quality-of-life in selected chronic pulmonary sarcoidosis patients. Larger, randomized, controlled trials are needed to confirm these findings and to identify patients most likely to benefit from therapy. ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT01169038.
IMPORTANCE - Sarcoidosis is a chronic granulomatous disease for which there are limited therapeutic options. This is the first randomized, placebo-controlled study to demonstrate that antimycobacterial therapy reduces lesion diameter and disease severity among patients with chronic cutaneous sarcoidosis.
OBJECTIVE - To evaluate the safety and efficacy of once-daily antimycobacterial therapy on the resolution of chronic cutaneous sarcoidosis lesions.
DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS - A randomized, placebo-controlled, single-masked trial on 30 patients with symptomatic chronic cutaneous sarcoidosis lesions deemed to require therapeutic intervention.
SETTING - A tertiary referral dermatology center in Nashville, Tennessee.
INTERVENTIONS - Participants were randomized to receive either the oral concomitant levofloxacin, ethambutol, azithromycin, and rifampin (CLEAR) regimen or a comparative placebo regimen for 8 weeks with a 180-day follow-up.
MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES - Participants were monitored for absolute change in lesion diameter and decrease in granuloma burden, if present, on completion of therapy.
OBSERVATIONS - In the intention-to-treat analysis, the CLEAR-treated group had a mean (SD) decrease in lesion diameter of -8.4 (14.0) mm compared with an increase of 0.07 (3.2) mm in the placebo-treated group (P = .05). The CLEAR group had a significant reduction in granuloma burden and experienced a mean (SD) decline of -2.9 (2.5) mm in lesion severity compared with a decline of -0.6 (2.1) mm in the placebo group (P = .02).
CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE - Antimycobacterial therapy may result in significant reductions in chronic cutaneous sarcoidosis lesion diameter compared with placebo. These observed reductions, associated with a clinically significant improvement in symptoms, were present at the 180-day follow-up period. Transcriptome analysis of sarcoidosis CD4+ T cells revealed reversal of pathways associated with disease severity and enhanced T-cell function following T-cell receptor stimulation.
TRIAL REGISTRATION - clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01074554.
Fluoroquinolone exposure before tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis is common. We anticipated that exposure to older-generation fluoroquinolones is associated with greater fluoroquinolone MICs in Mycobacterium tuberculosis than exposure to newer agents. A nested case-control study was performed among newly diagnosed TB patients reported to the Tennessee Department of Health (January 2002-December 2009). Each fluoroquinolone-resistant case (n=25) was matched to two fluoroquinolone-susceptible controls (n=50). Ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin were classified as older-generation fluoroquinolones; levofloxacin, moxifloxacin and gatifloxacin were considered newer agents. There was no difference between median ofloxacin MIC for isolates from 9 patients exposed only to older fluoroquinolones, 25 exposed only to newer fluoroquinolones, 6 exposed to both and 35 fluoroquinolone-unexposed patients (Kruskal-Wallis, P=0.35). Using multivariate proportional odds logistic regression adjusting for age and sex, duration of exposure to newer fluoroquinolones was independently associated with higher MIC (OR=1.79, 95% CI 1.22-2.64), but duration of exposure to older fluoroquinolones was not (OR=0.94, 95% CI 0.50-1.78). Isolates from patients exposed only to newer fluoroquinolones tended to have mutations at gyrA codons 90, 91 or 94 more frequently than those exposed only to older fluoroquinolones (44% vs. 11%). We were surprised to find that duration of exposure to newer fluoroquinolones, but not older ones, was independently associated with higher ofloxacin MIC. This suggests that the mutant selection window lower boundary is likely to have clinical relevance; caution is warranted when newer fluoroquinolones are prescribed to patients with TB risk factors.
Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.
Although quinolones are the most commonly prescribed antibacterials, their use is threatened by an increasing prevalence of resistance. The most common causes of quinolone resistance are mutations of a specific serine or acidic residue in the A subunit of gyrase or topoisomerase IV. These amino acids are proposed to serve as a critical enzyme-quinolone interaction site by anchoring a water-metal ion bridge that coordinates drug binding. To probe the role of the proposed water-metal ion bridge, we characterized wild-type, GrlA(E85K), GrlA(S81F/E85K), GrlA(E85A), GrlA(S81F/E85A) and GrlA(S81F) Bacillus anthracis topoisomerase IV, their sensitivity to quinolones and related drugs and their use of metal ions. Mutations increased the Mg(2+) concentration required to produce maximal quinolone-induced DNA cleavage and restricted the divalent metal ions that could support quinolone activity. Individual mutation of Ser81 or Glu85 partially disrupted bridge function, whereas simultaneous mutation of both residues abrogated protein-quinolone interactions. Results provide functional evidence for the existence of the water-metal ion bridge, confirm that the serine and glutamic acid residues anchor the bridge, demonstrate that the bridge is the primary conduit for interactions between clinically relevant quinolones and topoisomerase IV and provide a likely mechanism for the most common causes of quinolone resistance.
BACKGROUND - In the last ten years, bioterrorism has become a serious threat and challenge to public health worldwide. Pulmonary anthrax caused by airborne Bacillus anthracis spores is a life-threatening disease often refractory to antimicrobial therapy. Inhaled spores germinate into vegetative forms that elaborate an anti-phagocytic capsule along with potent exotoxins which disrupt the signaling pathways governing the innate and adaptive immune responses and cause endothelial cell dysfunction leading to vascular injury in the lung, hypoxia, hemorrhage, and death.
METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS - Using a murine model of pulmonary anthrax disease, we showed that a nuclear transport modifier restored markers of the innate immune response in spore-infected animals. An 8-day protocol of single-dose ciprofloxacin had no significant effect on mortality (4% survival) of A/J mice lethally infected with B. anthracis Sterne. Strikingly, mice were much more likely to survive infection (52% survival) when treated with ciprofloxacin and a cell-penetrating peptide modifier of host nuclear transport, termed cSN50. In B. anthracis-infected animals treated with antibiotic alone, we detected a muted innate immune response manifested by cytokines, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), interleukin (IL)-6, and chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), while the hypoxia biomarker, erythropoietin (EPO), was greatly elevated. In contrast, cSN50-treated mice receiving ciprofloxacin demonstrated a restored innate immune responsiveness and reduced EPO level. Consistent with this improvement of innate immunity response and suppression of hypoxia biomarker, surviving mice in the combination treatment group displayed minimal histopathologic signs of vascular injury and a marked reduction of anthrax bacilli in the lungs.
CONCLUSIONS - We demonstrate, for the first time, that regulating nuclear transport with a cell-penetrating modifier provides a cytoprotective effect, which enables the host's immune system to reduce its susceptibility to lethal B. anthracis infection. Thus, by combining a nuclear transport modifier with antimicrobial therapy we offer a novel adjunctive measure to control florid pulmonary anthrax disease.
An organometallic ruthenium complex of quinolone antibacterial agent ofloxacin, [(η(6)-p-cymene)RuCl(O,O-oflo)]·2.8H(2)O (1·2.8H(2)O), was isolated, and its crystal structure was determined. In this "piano-stool" complex, quinolone is bidentately coordinated to the metal through the ring carbonyl and one of the carboxylic oxygen atoms. Interactions of the title complex with DNA were studied by spectroscopic methods [electronic, fluorescence, and circular dichroism (CD)] and atomic force microscopy (AFM). It was established that the electrostatic attraction between the ruthenium complex and DNA in a solution is important for binding because interactions were observed only in a solution with low ionic strengths. An induced-CD (ICD) signal was observed in a solution of DNA and the title complex, which proves interaction between ruthenium and macromolecules. Competitive binding between cisplatin and 1 to DNA revealed that cisplatin prevents binding of 1. Our experiments revealed that binding of the title complex to DNA occurs also if guanine N7 is protonated. AFM has shown that the title complex provokes DNA shrinkage. Preliminary biological tests have also been performed.