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BACKGROUND - Obesity is highly prevalent among blacks and is associated with a greater risk of heart failure (HF). However, the contribution of regional adiposity depots such as visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue toward risk of HF in blacks is unknown.
METHODS AND RESULTS - We included 2602 participants (mean age: 59 years, 35% men) from the Jackson Heart Study without prevalent HF who underwent computed tomography quantification of VAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue during the second visit (2005-2009). The associations between different adiposity measures and HF were evaluated using adjusted Cox models. There were 122 incident HF events over a median follow-up of 7.1 years. Higher amounts of VAT were associated with greater risk of HF in age- and sex-adjusted analyses (hazard ratio [95% CI] per 1-SD higher VAT: 1.29 [1.09-1.52]). This association was attenuated and not significant after additional adjustment for traditional HF risk factors and body mass index. Overall obesity, represented by body mass index, was associated with higher risk of HF independent of risk factors and VAT (hazard ratio [95% CI] per 1-kg/m higher body mass index: 1.06 [1.02-1.11]). Subcutaneous adipose tissue was not associated with risk of HF in adjusted analyses.
CONCLUSIONS - In a community-dwelling black population, higher amounts of overall and visceral adiposity are associated with higher risk of HF. The association between VAT and HF risk in blacks may reflect differences in traditional HF risk factor burden. Future studies are needed to confirm this observation and clarify the independent role of different measures of adiposity on HF outcomes.
While many studies have characterized the inflammatory disposition of adipose tissue (AT) during obesity, far fewer have dissected how such inflammation resolves during the process of physiological weight loss. In addition, new immune cells, such as the eosinophil, have been discovered as part of the AT immune cell repertoire. We have therefore characterized how AT eosinophils, associated eosinophilic inflammation, and remodeling processes, fluctuate during a dietary intervention in obese mice. Similar to previous reports, we found that obesity induced by high-fat diet feeding reduced the AT eosinophil content. However, upon switching obese mice to a low fat diet, AT eosinophils were restored to lean levels as mice reached the body weight of controls. The rise in AT eosinophils during dietary weight loss was accompanied by reduced macrophage content and inflammatory expression, upregulated tissue remodeling factors, and a more uniformly distributed AT vascular network. Additionally, we show that eosinophils of another metabolically relevant tissue, the liver, did not oscillate with either dietary weight gain or weight loss. This study shows that eosinophil content is differentially regulated among tissues during the onset and resolution of obesity. Furthermore, AT eosinophils correlated with AT remodeling processes during weight loss and thus may play a role in reestablishing AT homeostasis.
© 2018 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.
BACKGROUND - Exposure of rodents to chronic high-fat diet (HFD) results in upregulation of inflammatory markers and proliferation of microglia within the mediobasal hypothalamus. Such hypothalamic inflammation is associated with metabolic dysfunction, central leptin resistance, and maintenance of obesity. Bariatric surgeries result in long-term stable weight loss and improved metabolic function. However, the effects of such surgical procedures on HFD-induced hypothalamic inflammation are unknown. We sought to characterize the effects of two bariatric surgical procedures, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and biliary diversion (BD-IL), in female mice with particular emphasis on HFD-induced hypothalamic inflammation and microgliosis.
METHODS - RYGB and BD-IL were performed on diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. Quantitative RT-PCR and fluorescent microscopy were used to evaluate hypothalamic inflammatory gene expression and microgliosis. Results were compared to lean (CD), DIO sham-surgerized mice (DIO-SHAM), and dietary weight loss (DIO-Rev) controls.
RESULTS - In female mice, RYGB and BD-IL result in normalization of hypothalamic inflammatory gene expression and microgliosis within 8 weeks of surgery, despite ongoing exposure to HFD. Paralleling these results, the hypothalamic expression levels of the orexigenic neuropeptide Agrp and the anorexic response of surgical mice to exogenous leptin were comparable to lean controls (CD). In contrast, results from DIO-Rev mice were comparable to DIO-SHAM mice, despite transition back to standard rodent show and normalization of weight.
CONCLUSION - Bariatric surgery attenuates HFD-induced hypothalamic inflammation and microgliosis and restores leptin sensitivity, despite ongoing exposure to HFD.
Adipose tissue (AT) CD4 and CD8 T cells contribute to obesity-associated insulin resistance. Prior studies identified conserved T-cell receptor (TCR) chain families in obese AT, but the presence and clonal expansion of specific TCR sequences in obesity has not been assessed. We characterized AT and liver CD8 and CD4 TCR repertoires of mice fed a low-fat diet (LFD) and high-fat diet (HFD) using deep sequencing of the TCRβ chain to quantify clonal expansion, gene usage, and CDR3 sequence. In AT CD8 T cells, HFD reduced TCR diversity, increased the prevalence of public TCR clonotypes, and selected for TCR CDR3 regions enriched in positively charged and less polarized amino acids. Although TCR repertoire alone could distinguish between LFD- and HFD-fed mice, these properties of the CDR3 region of AT CD8 T cells from HFD-fed mice led us to examine the role of negatively charged and nonpolar isolevuglandin (isoLG) adduct-containing antigen-presenting cells within AT. IsoLG-adducted protein species were significantly higher in AT macrophages of HFD-fed mice; isoLGs were elevated in M2-polarized macrophages, promoting CD8 T-cell activation. Our findings demonstrate that clonal TCR expansion that favors positively charged CDR3s accompanies HFD-induced obesity, which may be an antigen-driven response to isoLG accumulation in macrophages.
© 2018 by the American Diabetes Association.
Metformin is a first-line drug for the treatment of individuals with type 2 diabetes, yet its precise mechanism of action remains unclear. Metformin exerts its antihyperglycemic action primarily through lowering hepatic glucose production (HGP). This suppression is thought to be mediated through inhibition of mitochondrial respiratory complex I, and thus elevation of 5'-adenosine monophosphate (AMP) levels and the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), though this proposition has been challenged given results in mice lacking hepatic AMPK. Here we report that the AMP-inhibited enzyme fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase-1 (FBP1), a rate-controlling enzyme in gluconeogenesis, functions as a major contributor to the therapeutic action of metformin. We identified a point mutation in FBP1 that renders it insensitive to AMP while sparing regulation by fructose-2,6-bisphosphate (F-2,6-P), and knock-in (KI) of this mutant in mice significantly reduces their response to metformin treatment. We observe this during a metformin tolerance test and in a metformin-euglycemic clamp that we have developed. The antihyperglycemic effect of metformin in high-fat diet-fed diabetic FBP1-KI mice was also significantly blunted compared to wild-type controls. Collectively, we show a new mechanism of action for metformin and provide further evidence that molecular targeting of FBP1 can have antihyperglycemic effects.
Pancreatic β-cell expansion is a highly regulated metabolic adaptation to increased somatic demands, including obesity and pregnancy; adult β cells otherwise rarely proliferate. We previously showed that high-fat diet (HFD) feeding induces mouse β-cell proliferation in less than 1 wk in the absence of insulin resistance. Here we metabolically profiled tissues from a short-term HFD β-cell expansion mouse model to identify pathways and metabolite changes associated with β-cell proliferation. Mice fed HFD vs. chow diet (CD) showed a 14.3% increase in body weight after 7 days; β-cell proliferation increased 1.75-fold without insulin resistance. Plasma from 1-wk HFD-fed mice induced β-cell proliferation ex vivo. The plasma, as well as liver, skeletal muscle, and bone, were assessed by LC and GC mass-spectrometry for global metabolite changes. Of the 1,283 metabolites detected, 159 showed significant changes [false discovery rate (FDR) < 0.1]. The majority of changes were in liver and muscle. Pathway enrichment analysis revealed key metabolic changes in steroid synthesis and lipid metabolism, including free fatty acids and other bioactive lipids. Other important enrichments included changes in the citric acid cycle and 1-carbon metabolism pathways implicated in DNA methylation. Although the minority of changes were observed in bone and plasma (<20), increased p-cresol sulfate was increased >4 fold in plasma (the largest increase in all tissues), and pantothenate (vitamin B) decreased >2-fold. The results suggest that HFD-mediated β-cell expansion is associated with complex, global metabolite changes. The finding could be a significant insight into Type 2 diabetes pathogenesis and potential novel drug targets.
BACKGROUND - The natriuretic peptide hormones play an important role in salt and blood pressure regulation. In observational studies, obesity and insulin resistance have been consistently associated with lower concentrations of natriuretic peptides. It has been proposed that insulin influences natriuretic peptide production.
OBJECTIVE - We sought to determine the acute effects of insulin administration on natriuretic peptide concentrations.
METHODS - 31 men and women (11 lean, 10 overweight, and 10 obese), ages 30-70 years, without cardiovascular disease or overt diabetes underwent a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic insulin clamp. Plasma concentrations of N-terminal pro atrial natriuretic peptide (NT-proANP) and N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) were measured at baseline and steady-state (the final 30 minutes of the clamp protocol).
RESULTS - From baseline to steady-state, insulin levels increased from a mean level of 9.5 to 176.7 μU/ml (p<0.001). Over this period, circulating NT-proANP concentrations decreased by 9% (-1933 ng/L, p = 0.01). The changes in NT-proANP did not differ between lean, overweight, and obese individuals. Steady-state NT-proANP levels, adjusted for baseline, were lower in individuals with greater insulin resistance, independent of BMI. In contrast to NT-proANP, NT-proBNP levels did not change significantly during the clamp (p = 0.41).
CONCLUSION - Insulin administration was associated with a moderate decrease in circulating NT-proANP, but not NT-proBNP. The lowest NT-proANP concentrations were found in insulin-resistant individuals. Further investigations are warranted to elucidate potential mechanisms underlying the effects of insulin on the cardiac hormonal axis.
OBJECTIVE - We have previously demonstrated that insulin signaling, through the downstream signaling kinase Akt, is a potent modulator of dopamine transporter (DAT) activity, which fine-tunes dopamine (DA) signaling at the synapse. This suggests a mechanism by which impaired neuronal insulin receptor signaling, a hallmark of diet-induced obesity, may contribute to impaired DA transmission. We tested whether a short-term (two-week) obesogenic high-fat (HF) diet could reduce striatal Akt activity, a marker of central insulin, receptor signaling and blunt striatal and dopaminergic network responsiveness to amphetamine (AMPH).
METHODS - We examined the effects of a two-week HF diet on striatal DAT activity in rats, using AMPH as a probe in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) assay, and mapped the disruption in AMPH-evoked functional connectivity between key dopaminergic targets and their projection areas using correlation and permutation analyses. We used phosphorylation of the Akt substrate GSK3α in striatal extracts as a measure of insulin receptor signaling. Finally, we confirmed the impact of HF diet on striatal DA D2 receptor (D2R) availability using [18F]fallypride positron emission tomography (PET).
RESULTS - We found that rats fed a HF diet for only two weeks have reductions in striatal Akt activity, a marker of decreased striatal insulin receptor signaling and blunted striatal responsiveness to AMPH. HF feeding also reduced interactions between elements of the mesolimbic (nucleus accumbens-anterior cingulate) and sensorimotor circuits (caudate/putamen-thalamus-sensorimotor cortex) implicated in hedonic feeding. D2R availability was reduced in HF-fed animals.
CONCLUSION - These studies support the hypothesis that central insulin signaling and dopaminergic neurotransmission are already altered after short-term HF feeding. Because AMPH induces DA efflux and brain activation, in large part via DAT, these findings suggest that blunted central nervous system insulin receptor signaling through a HF diet can impair DA homeostasis, thereby disrupting cognitive and reward circuitry involved in the regulation of hedonic feeding.
The frequency of prediabetes is increasing as the prevalence of obesity rises worldwide. In prediabetes, hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and inflammation and metabolic derangements associated with concomitant obesity cause endothelial vasodilator and fibrinolytic dysfunction, leading to increased risk of cardiovascular and renal disease. Importantly, the microvasculature affects insulin sensitivity by affecting the delivery of insulin and glucose to skeletal muscle; thus, endothelial dysfunction and extracellular matrix remodeling promote the progression from prediabetes to diabetes mellitus. Weight loss is the mainstay of treatment in prediabetes, but therapies that improved endothelial function and vasodilation may not only prevent cardiovascular disease but also slow progression to diabetes mellitus.
© 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.