The publication data currently available has been vetted by Vanderbilt faculty, staff, administrators and trainees. The data itself is retrieved directly from NCBI's PubMed and is automatically updated on a weekly basis to ensure accuracy and completeness.
If you have any questions or comments, please contact us.
Cardiometabolic diseases are the leading cause of death worldwide and are strongly linked to both genetic and nutritional factors. The field of nutrigenomics encompasses multiple approaches aimed at understanding the effects of diet on health or disease development, including nutrigenetic studies investigating the relationship between genetic variants and diet in modulating cardiometabolic risk, as well as the effects of dietary components on multiple "omic" measures, including transcriptomics, metabolomics, proteomics, lipidomics, epigenetic modifications, and the microbiome. Here, we describe the current state of the field of nutrigenomics with respect to cardiometabolic disease research and outline a direction for the integration of multiple omics techniques in future nutrigenomic studies aimed at understanding mechanisms and developing new therapeutic options for cardiometabolic disease treatment and prevention.
© 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.
BACKGROUND - Hormone therapy has been shown to increase risk of ischemic stroke in women. Plant-derived estrogens, particularly soy isoflavones, are known to have some estrogenic effects and have been marketed as natural alternatives to hormone therapy. Concerns have been raised about whether high isoflavone exposure may be related to ischemic stroke risk as well.
OBJECTIVE - We examined the dietary intake of isoflavones and the urinary excretion of isoflavonoids in relation to risk of ischemic stroke in women.
DESIGN - A prospective cohort study was conducted in 66,832 Chinese women (aged 40-70 y) who had no cardiovascular disease or cancer at baseline. Usual dietary intakes were assessed via in-person interviews with the use of a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Incident strokes were ascertained during follow-up home visits and confirmed by medical records. We also conducted a nested case-control study in postmenopausal women who had never used hormone therapy, including 1422 incident ischemic stroke cases and 1422 controls individually matched by age, date and time of urine sample collection, time since last meal, and use of antibiotics. Urinary isoflavonoids were measured with the use of high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry.
RESULTS - During a mean follow-up of 10 y, 3110 incident ischemic strokes were verified. Dietary isoflavone intake was associated with increased risk of ischemic stroke; multivariable-adjusted HRs from lowest to highest quintiles were 1.00, 1.05, 1.10, 1.11, and 1.24, respectively (95% CI: 1.08, 1.42; P-trend = 0.002). In the case-control study, a similar positive association was observed for dietary isoflavones, but no significant associations were shown for the urinary isoflavonoid concentration [OR: 1.01 (95% CI: 0.77, 1.32) for comparison of extreme quintiles].
CONCLUSIONS - A habitually high intake of soy isoflavones may be associated with a modest but significant increase in risk of ischemic stroke in women. However, no association was shown for the urinary excretion of isoflavonoids.
© 2015 American Society for Nutrition.
BACKGROUND - Choline deficiency has been shown to induce liver fat accumulation in both rodent and human studies. However, it is unclear whether dietary choline intake is related to fatty liver in the general population.
OBJECTIVE - We examined the association between choline intake and nonalcoholic fatty liver.
METHODS - Participants included 56,195 Chinese women and men, 40-75 y of age, with no or negligible alcohol consumption and with no history of hepatitis, cardiovascular disease, or cancer. All participants reported undergoing liver ultrasonography. Fatty liver was defined by self-report of a physician diagnosis. Habitual dietary intakes were assessed via validated food-frequency questionnaires.
RESULTS - The average total choline intakes were 289 ± 85 mg/d in women and 318 ± 92 mg/d in men. Major food sources were eggs, soy foods, red meat, fish, and vegetables. A higher choline intake was associated with lower risk of fatty liver; after adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, and other dietary intakes, the ORs (95% CIs) for the highest vs. the lowest quintiles of choline intake were 0.68 (0.59, 0.79) in women and 0.75 (0.60, 0.93) in men (both P-trend < 0.01). The inverse association was attenuated after further adjustment for history of metabolic disease and, in particular, BMI. The corresponding ORs (95% CIs) were 0.88 (0.75, 1.03) in women (P-trend = 0.05) and 0.85 (0.68, 1.06) in men (P-trend = 0.09). Stratified analyses suggested a potential effect modification by obesity status in women; the OR (95% CI) across extreme quintiles was 0.72 (0.57, 0.91) in normal-weight women vs. 1.05 (0.84, 1.31) in overweight or obese women (P-trend = 0.007 vs. 0.99, P-interaction < 0.0001).
CONCLUSION - Higher dietary choline intake may be associated with lower risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver only in normal-weight Chinese women.
© 2014 American Society for Nutrition.
BACKGROUND - Higher intakes of cruciferous vegetables or their constituents have been shown to lower inflammation in animal studies. However, evidence for this anti-inflammatory effect of cruciferous vegetable consumption in humans is scarce.
OBJECTIVE/DESIGN - In this cross-sectional analysis, we evaluated associations of vegetable intake with a panel of inflammatory and oxidative stress markers among 1,005 middle-aged Chinese women. Dietary intake of foods was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire.
RESULTS - Multivariable-adjusted circulating concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interlukin-1β (IL-1β), and IL-6 were lower among women with higher intakes of cruciferous vegetables. The differences in concentrations of inflammatory biomarkers between extreme quintiles of cruciferous vegetable intake were 12.66% for TNF-α (Ptrend=0.01), 18.18% for IL-1β (Ptrend=0.02), and 24.68% for IL-6 (Ptrend=0.02). A similar, but less apparent, inverse association was found for intakes of all vegetables combined but not for noncruciferous vegetables. Levels of the urinary oxidative stress markers F2-isoprostanes and their major metabolite, 2,3-dinor-5,6-dihydro-15-F2t-IsoP, were not associated with intakes of cruciferous vegetables or all vegetables combined.
CONCLUSIONS - This study suggests that the previously observed health benefits of cruciferous vegetable consumption may be partly associated with the anti-inflammatory effects of these vegetables.
Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
BACKGROUND - Whether elevated intakes of trans fatty acids (TFAs) increase the risk of stroke remains unclear. Except for the Women's Health Initiative-Observational Study, most studies that directly assessed the association between TFA intake and stroke yielded null results.
OBJECTIVE - The aim of this study was to investigate the association between TFA intake and stroke incidence.
DESIGN - We prospectively investigated the association between TFA intake and stroke incidence in black and white men and women (n = 17,107) from the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) cohort. Participants were recruited between 2003 and 2007 from the continental United States and followed for incident stroke. Diet was assessed by using the Block 1998 food-frequency questionnaire. Cox regression was used to test whether energy-adjusted TFA intake in 1-SD increments was associated with incident stroke.
RESULTS - During a median follow-up of 7 y, 479 strokes were identified, including 401 ischemic strokes. Sex modified the association between TFA intake and stroke (P-interaction = 0.06), and thus the results were stratified by sex. In fully adjusted models, a 1-SD (2-g/d) increase in TFA intake was associated with an increased risk of any stroke in men (HR: 1.14; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.28) but not in women (HR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.79, 1.11). Similarly, our results showed an increased risk of ischemic stroke in men (HR: 1.13; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.28) but not in women (HR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.77, 1.12).
CONCLUSIONS - We show that sex modifies the association between TFA intake and stroke; for every 2-g/d increase in TFA intake, there was a 14% increase in the risk of stroke in men but not in women. Our findings provide further evidence to support the concerted effort to minimize TFAs in the diet.
Because the association between soy consumption and gastric cancer is inconsistent, we evaluated the putative preventive effect of soy food on gastric cancer risk in the Shanghai Women's and Men's Health Studies, comprising a total of 128,687 participants. Intake of nonfermented soy foods was estimated using 2 validated food-frequency questionnaires. HRs were calculated with 95% CIs for intake amounts of total nonfermented soy food intake, soy protein, and isoflavones as well as individual soy food groups using Cox proportional hazards regression. A total of 493 distal gastric cancer cases were identified by 2010. Although all risk estimates for summary measures of soy food intake above the lowest quartile (quartile 1) were suggestive of a protective effect, no statistically significant associations with risk of distal gastric cancer were found. Among the separate soy food groups, significant reductions in risk of distal gastric cancer by increasing intake of tofu were found in men in quartile 2 (HR: 0.59; 95% CI: 0.40, 0.86), quartile 3 (HR: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.44, 0.88), and quartile 4 (HR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.42, 0.99), resulting in a significant trend (P-trend = 0.02). Dry bean intake was also inversely associated with decreased risk of gastric cancer, but in postmenopausal women only [quartile 2 (HR: 0.54; 95% CI: 0.30, 0.96); quartile 3 (HR: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.64, 1.27); and quartile 4 (HR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.43, 0.91)], resulting in a significant trend (P-trend = 0.03). Overall, our study found no statistically significant association between nonfermented soy food intake and distal gastric cancer risk, though the data supported the hypothesis that tofu may protect against distal gastric cancer in men and dry bean consumption may decrease the risk of gastric cancer in postmenopausal women.
Protein energy wasting is common in patients with CKD and ESRD and is associated with adverse clinical outcomes, such as increased rates of hospitalization and death, in these patients. A multitude of factors can affect the nutritional and metabolic status of patients with CKD, including decreased dietary nutrient intake, catabolic effects of renal replacement therapy, systemic inflammation, metabolic and hormonal derangements, and comorbid conditions (such as diabetes and depression). Unique aspects of CKD also confound reliable assessment of nutritional status, further complicating management of this comorbid condition. In patients in whom preventive measures and oral dietary intake from regular meals cannot help them maintain adequate nutritional status, nutritional supplementation, administered orally, enterally, or parenterally, is effective in replenishing protein and energy stores. The advantages of oral nutritional supplements include proven efficacy, safety, and compliance. Anabolic steroids and exercise, with nutritional supplementation or alone, improve protein stores and represent potential additional approaches for the treatment of PEW. There are several emerging novel therapies, such as appetite stimulants, anti-inflammatory interventions, and anabolic agents.
BACKGROUND - A high intake of trans fatty acids decreases HDL cholesterol and is associated with increased LDL cholesterol, inflammation, diabetes, cancer, and mortality from cardiovascular disease. The relation between trans fat intake and all-cause mortality has not been established.
OBJECTIVE - The aim of this study was to determine the relation between trans fat intake and all-cause mortality.
DESIGN - We used data from the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study-a prospective cohort study of white and black men and women residing in the continental United States. Energy-adjusted trans fat intake was categorized into quintiles, and Cox-regression was used to evaluate the association between trans fat intake and all-cause mortality.
RESULTS - During 7 y of follow-up, there were 1572 deaths in 18,513 participants included in REGARDS. From the first to the fifth quintile of trans fat intake, the mortality rates per 1000 person-years of follow-up (95% CIs) were 12.8 (11.3, 14.5), 14.3 (12.7, 16.2), 14.6 (13.0, 16.5), 19.0 (17.1, 21.1), and 23.6 (21.5, 25.9), respectively. After adjustment for demographic factors, education, and risk factors for mortality, the HRs (95% CIs) for all-cause mortality were 1.00, 1.03 (0.86, 1.23), 0.98 (0.82, 1.17), 1.25 (1.05, 1.48), and 1.24 (1.05, 1.48), respectively (P-trend = 0.004). The population attributable risk due to trans fat intake was 7% (95% CI: 5%, 8%).
CONCLUSION - Higher trans fat intake is associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality.
PURPOSE - The purpose of this study is to describe the association between numeracy and self-reported dietary intake in patients with type 2 diabetes.
METHODS - Numeracy and dietary intake were assessed with the validated Diabetes Numeracy Test and a validated food frequency questionnaire in a cross-sectional study of 150 primary care patients enrolled in a randomized clinical trial at an academic medical center between April 2008 and October 2009. Associations between numeracy and caloric and macronutrient intakes were examined with linear regression models.
RESULTS - Patients with lower numeracy consumed a higher percentage of calories from carbohydrates and lower percentages from protein and fat. However, no differences in energy consumption or the percentage of energy intake owing to carbohydrates, fat, or protein were observed in adjusted analyses. Patients with lower numeracy were significantly more likely to report extremely high or low energy intake inconsistent with standard dietary intake.
CONCLUSIONS - Numeracy was not associated with dietary intake in adjusted analyses. Low numeracy was associated with inaccurate dietary reporting. Providers who take dietary histories in patients with diabetes may need to consider numeracy in their assessment of dietary intake.