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BACKGROUND - Managing Type 1 diabetes (T1D) during adolescence can be challenging, and there is a need for accessible interventions to help adolescents cope with diabetes-related stress.
OBJECTIVES - The aim of this study was to compare an Internet coping skills training (TEENCOPE) intervention to an Internet educational intervention (Managing Diabetes) for adolescents with T1D. Moderators of program efficacy were evaluated.
METHODS - The study was a multisite clinical trial (n = 320) with data collected at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months. Data were collected on the primary outcomes of physiologic (A1C) and psychosocial (quality of life) and on the secondary outcomes of behavioral (self-management) and psychosocial (stress, coping self-efficacy, social competence, family conflict) variables consistent with the conceptual framework. Data were analyzed using mixed-model analyses with an intent-to-treat approach.
RESULTS - There were no significant between-group treatment effects 6 months postintervention on primary outcomes. The Managing Diabetes youth showed a significant increase in social competence compared to the TEENCOPE youth. There were significant time effects for TEENCOPE (decreased stress and increased coping) and Managing Diabetes (improved diabetes quality of life).
DISCUSSION - Youth with T1D transitioning to adolescence may need both structured diabetes education and coping skills to improve health outcomes. There may be a higher potential to reach adolescents with Type 1 diabetes of varying race and ethnicity via Internet interventions.
BACKGROUND - Few studies have examined changes in siblings after the death of a brother or sister, particularly from mother, father, and sibling perspectives within the first year after death.
OBJECTIVE - This descriptive study identified and assessed the frequency of changes in siblings after a child's death from cancer.
METHODS - Participants were recruited from cancer registries at 3 hospitals in the United States and Canada 3 to 12 months after the child's death. Thirty-six mothers, 24 fathers, and 39 siblings from 40 families were included. Semistructured interviews using open-ended questions were conducted with each parent and sibling separately in the home. Content analysis identified emerging themes, and the McNemar tests compared frequencies between each paired set of reports (sibling vs mother, sibling vs father, mother vs father).
RESULTS - Sixty-nine percent of participants reported personal changes in siblings (eg, changes in personality, school work, goals/life perspective, activities/interests). Forty-seven percent noted changes in siblings' relationships with family members and peers. Only 21% of participants reported no changes attributed to the death. Comparisons of frequencies across informants were not significant.
CONCLUSIONS - Most siblings experienced changes in multiple areas of their lives after the death of a brother or sister to cancer. Some changes reflected siblings that were positively adapting to the death, whereas other changes reflected difficulties.
IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE - Our findings offer guidance to improve aftercare for bereaved siblings and their families. Additional research is needed to further delineate the needs of bereaved siblings and to develop strategies to promote adaptation to loss.
Using the Internet in behavioral research remains a challenge. We developed a video intervention and conducted a pilot study that was designed to deliver and test the intervention via the Internet. One aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using the Internet to both deliver the intervention and collect data from participants. This article summarizes procedures for delivering the intervention and survey via the Internet, obstacles encountered during delivery of the intervention and data collection, and lessons learned that can be applied to future research involving the Internet.
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES - To compare treatment protocol adherence, satisfaction, and perceived changes in emotional and functional status between patients with lymphedema with and without cancer using the home-based Flexitouch (Tactile Systems Technology, Inc.) system for lymphedema self-care.
DESIGN - Quasi-experimental, pre- and post-test design.
SETTING - Private homes in the continental United States and Alaska.
SAMPLE - 155 community-dwelling individuals with lymphedema: 93 with cancer-related lymphedema and 62 with noncancer-related lymphedema.
METHODS - A survey was completed before use of the Flexitouch system. Participants received in-home education about device use, safety precautions, and the two-phase therapy protocol. A post-therapy survey was completed during the maintenance phase of the protocol.
MAIN RESEARCH VARIABLES - Use of the Flexitouch system, treatment protocol adherence, participant satisfaction, and emotional and functional status.
FINDINGS - Participants without cancer were more adherent to the prescribed protocol. Both groups were satisfied with the system, perceived it to be effective, and reported improvement in physical and emotional status. Participants' use of professional manual lymphatic drainage (MLD) therapy, self-MLD, and bandaging declined after they initiated use of the Flexitouch system.
CONCLUSIONS - Patients using the Flexitouch system were satisfied with the device and perceived it to be beneficial in management of their lymphedema.
IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING - Patients using the Flexitouch system should be assessed for adherence to the prescribed treatment protocol and use of other self-care treatments. Healthcare professionals should facilitate communication among members of the lymphedema treatment team and the patient when problems are noted.
Noise has been shown to interfere with the healing process and can disrupt the patient's experience. This study assessed patients' and staff's perceptions of noise levels and sources in the hospital environment and identified interventions to reduce the noise level. The interventions significantly reduced noise as perceived by patients and staff. Identification of a structured process to identify noise sources and standardization of noise measurement methods can improve the patient hospital experience.
The African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension (AASK) was conducted over a 7-year period at 21 clinical centers across the United States to investigate whether one of two levels of blood pressure control and/or one of three classes of antihypertensive medications was more effective at slowing the rate of renal disease in African Americans with renal insufficiency presumed secondary to hypertension. Analysis at the end of the study revealed an overall participant retention rate of 90% (still alive and not on dialysis); defined as having had at least one 125I-iothalamate GFR, the primary data collection element, measured in the final year of the study. Adherence, defined as not missing 3 consecutive protocol visits (6 months) during the study, was 77%. Adherence to protocol visits showed that participants assigned to a low blood pressure goal (mean arterial pressure [MAP] of 92 mm/Hg or lower) had a 30% (95% CI, 9%-45%) lower risk of nonadherence as compared to those assigned to the usual goal [MAP of 102-107] (p = 0.006). No statistically significant difference was observed between randomized drug assignments. Higher baseline systolic (p = 0.0001) and diastolic (p = 0.007) blood pressures were associated with a higher risk of nonadherence. Declining to provide an annual income is associated with a higher risk of nonadherence compared to those with incomes of $15,000 or higher (p = 0.04). In discussing the identifying factors that may predict nonadherence and the strategies that assisted in improving adherence and retention, this article offers insights for researchers in achieving high levels of participation in long-term clinical studies.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the information-seeking practices of nurses before and after access to a library's electronic collection of information resources. This is a pre/post intervention study of nurses at a rural community hospital. The hospital contracted with an academic health sciences library for access to a collection of online knowledge-based resources. Self-report surveys were used to obtain information about nurses' computer use and how they locate and access information to answer questions related to their patient care activities. In 2001, self-report surveys were sent to the hospital's 573 nurses during implementation of access to online resources with a post-implementation survey sent 1 year later. At the initiation of access to the library's electronic resources, nurses turned to colleagues and print textbooks or journals to satisfy their information needs. After 1 year of access, 20% of the nurses had begun to use the library's electronic resources. The study outcome suggests ready access to knowledge-based electronic information resources can lead to changes in behavior among some nurses.
This study explored racial differences in the effects of religiosity and religious coping styles on health service use. The sample (N = 274) consisted of a cross-section of women ages 55 and older living in publicly subsidized high-rise dwellings in Nashville, Tennessee (1999 to 2000) and included 159 White and 115 African American women. The results suggested the effects of religiosity on health service use are generally negative for both groups. However, the effects of religious coping styles on health service use differed by race. The self-directing coping style was associated with higher levels of use for White women, but with lower levels of use for African American women. The deferring coping style was associated with greater physician visits and inpatient days among White women, but with fewer inpatient days among African American women. The collaborative coping style was associated with higher inpatient days among African American women, but had no significant effect on use patterns for White women. Conducting assessments of religiosity and religious coping styles would enhance holistic nursing practice.
PURPOSE - To identify variations in practices used by nurses for pediatric patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) receiving chronic blood transfusion therapy for strokes.
DATA SOURCES - Descriptive study of a convenience sample of 11 nurses who care for children with SCD from nine institutions completed a closed-ended questionnaire consisting of 37 items. Responses reflected practice experience with a total of 189 transfused patients with SCD.
CONCLUSIONS - A wide range of nursing practices exists for blood transfusion therapy for children with SCD and strokes. Manual partial exchange transfusion (66%) was the most commonly used method for blood transfusion in children with strokes reported among the nurses surveyed. Simple transfusions and erythrocytapheresis account for 21% and 13% of the practices reported. Opportunities exist to establish evidence-based nursing care guidelines to improve the care of children with strokes receiving blood transfusion therapy.
IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE - A wide range of local standard care guidelines for blood transfusion therapy exists. The results of this survey indicate that partial manual exchange transfusion is the most commonly used method of chronic blood transfusion therapy in children with SCD and stroke despite the fact that the magnitude of benefit in comparison with simple transfusion has not been established. Factors such as peripheral venous access, compliance with current chelation regimen, and the presence of antibodies are important considerations in the choice of method.