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Experimental studies indicate that perinatal light exposure has enduring effects on affective behaviors in rodents; however, insufficient research has explored this hypothesis in humans. We examined photoperiod (i.e., day length) metrics during maternal pregnancy in relation to lifetime depression in the longitudinal Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and NHS II. 160,723 participants reported birth date and birth state (used to derive daily photoperiod based on published mathematical equations), and clinician-diagnosed depression and antidepressant use throughout adulthood. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) (and 95% confidence intervals [CI]) for depression (defined as clinician diagnosis and antidepressant use) across quintiles of two exposures during maternal pregnancy: 1) total photoperiod (total number of daylight hours) and 2) differences between minimum/maximum photoperiod; each trimester of pregnancy was examined separately. Total photoperiod during maternal pregnancy was not associated with depression overall or by trimester of pregnancy. However, larger differences between minimum/maximum photoperiod during maternal pregnancy were related to lower odds of depression (multivariable [MV]-adjusted OR: 0.86, 95% CI: 0.83, 0.90 comparing extreme quintiles of exposure; p-trend<0.0001); this association appeared specific to the second trimester of pregnancy (MV-adjusted p-trends = 0.03, <0.0001, and 0.3 across the three trimesters, respectively). In addition, birth at higher latitude (where larger differences in minimum/maximum photoperiod exist) was associated with a significant reduction in the lifetime risk of depression. These findings are consistent with an emerging hypothesis in which perinatal light exposure may influence risk of depression, and they might be understood through the conceptual framework of adaptive developmental plasticity.
Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Despite evidence that many nursing home residents' pain is poorly managed, reasons for this poor management remain unanswered. The aim of this study was to determine if specific order sets related to pain assessment would improve pain management in nursing home (NH) residents. Outcomes included observed nurse pain assessment queries and resident reports of pain. The pretest/post-test study was performed in a 240-bed for-profit nursing home in the mid-southern region of the United States and participants were 43 nursing home residents capable of self-consent. Medical chart abstraction was performed during a 2-week (14-day) period before the implementation of specific order sets for pain assessment (intervention) and a 2-week (14-day) period after the intervention. Trained research assistants observed medication administration passes and performed participant interviews after each medication pass. One month after intervention implementation, 1 additional day of observations was conducted to determine data reliability. Nurses were observed to ask residents about pain more frequently, and nurses continued to ask about pain at higher rates 1 month after the intervention was discontinued. The proportion of residents who reported pain also significantly increased in response to increased nurse queries (e.g., "Do you have any pain right now?"), which underscores the importance of nurses directly asking residents about pain. Notably 70% of this long-stay NH population only told the nurses about their pain symptoms when asked directly. Findings uncover that using specific pain order sets seems to improve the detection of pain, which should be a routine part of nursing assessment.
Copyright © 2015 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The Division of Nursing, Bureau of Health Workforce, has spearheaded a 3-year effort to increase the skills of nurses to lead interprofessional collaborative practice (IPCP) teams. Since 2012, the Nurse Education, Practice, Quality and Retention program has funded 53 sites engaged in this work. The purposes of this report are to describe the IPCP framework undergirding implementation at one such site, describe the evaluation components and approach, describe how health professions students are integrated into this model, and discuss implications of IPCP for future nurse-managed/nurse-led initiatives within an evolving health care environment. Core team members include a family nurse practitioner, physician, pharmacist, social worker, and community health advocate. The clinic is located within a public housing complex; the target population is largely uninsured or underinsured with a historically high rate of emergency department utilization.
Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
OBJECTIVES - Increased clinician workload is associated with medical errors and patient harm. The Quality and Workload Assessment Tool (QWAT) measures anticipated (pre-case) and perceived (post-case) clinical workload during actual surgical procedures using ratings of individual and team case difficulty from every operating room (OR) team member. The purpose of this study was to examine the QWAT ratings of OR clinicians who were not present in the OR but who read vignettes compiled from actual case documentation to assess interrater reliability and agreement with ratings made by clinicians involved in the actual cases.
METHODS - Thirty-six OR clinicians (13 anesthesia providers, 11 surgeons, and 12 nurses) used the QWAT to rate 6 cases varying from easy to moderately difficult based on actual ratings made by clinicians involved with the cases. Cases were presented and rated in random order. Before rating anticipated individual and team difficulty, the raters read prepared clinical vignettes containing case synopses and much of the same written case information that was available to the actual clinicians before the onset of each case. Then, before rating perceived individual and team difficulty, they read part 2 of the vignette consisting of detailed role-specific intraoperative data regarding the anesthetic and surgical course, unusual events, and other relevant contextual factors.
RESULTS - Surgeons had higher interrater reliability on the QWAT than did OR nurses or anesthesia providers. For the anticipated individual and team workload ratings, there were no statistically significant differences between the actual ratings and the ratings obtained from the vignettes. There were differences for the 3 provider types in perceived individual workload for the median difficulty cases and in the perceived team workload for the median and more difficult cases.
CONCLUSIONS - The case difficulty items on the QWAT seem to be sufficiently reliable and valid to be used in other studies of anticipated and perceived clinical workload of surgeons. Perhaps because of the limitations of the clinical documentation shown to anesthesia providers and OR nurses in the current vignette study, more evidence needs to be gathered to demonstrate the criterion-related validity of the QWAT difficulty items for assessing the workload of nonsurgeon OR clinicians.
OBJECTIVES - Blood samples for vancomycin levels are often drawn too early, leading to potential misinterpretation of results. However, only a few studies describe interventions to reduce mistimed vancomycin levels.
METHODS - We implemented an information technology (IT)-based intervention that provided educational instructions to nurses and determined the percentage of levels drawn too early for 27 months before (n = 6,291) and 14 months after (n = 3,608) the intervention. In addition, we conducted nurse interviews (n = 40) and dataset analysis to assess the root causes of mistimed levels.
RESULTS - The percentage of vancomycin timing errors decreased from 39% (2,438/6,291) to 32% (1,137/3,608), though in a time series analysis this decrease was not statistically significant (P = .64). Four common causes of mistimed levels were found: (1) unclear provider orders, (2) scheduling levels to be drawn with morning laboratory tests, (3) lack of communication between providers, and (4) failure to adjust the blood draw in relation to the previous dose.
CONCLUSIONS - A real-time, IT-based intervention that links the timing of levels with medication administration might have a more substantial impact.
PURPOSE - Computerized clinical decision support systems (CDSSs) for intensive insulin therapy (IIT) are increasingly common. However, recent studies question IIT's safety and mortality benefit. Researchers have identified factors influencing IIT performance, but little is known about how workflow affects computer-based IIT. We used ethnographic methods to evaluate IIT CDSS with respect to other clinical information systems and care processes.
METHODS - We conducted direct observation of and unstructured interviews with nurses using IIT CDSS in the surgical and trauma intensive care units at an academic medical center. We observed 49h of intensive care unit workflow including 49 instances of nurses using IIT CDSS embedded in a provider order entry system. Observations focused on the interaction of people, process, and technology. By analyzing qualitative field note data through an inductive approach, we identified barriers and facilitators to IIT CDSS use.
RESULTS - Barriers included (1) workload tradeoffs between computer system use and direct patient care, especially related to electronic nursing documentation, (2) lack of IIT CDSS protocol reminders, (3) inaccurate user interface design assumptions, and (4) potential for error in operating medical devices. Facilitators included (1) nurse trust in IIT CDSS combined with clinical judgment, (2) nurse resilience, and (3) paper serving as an intermediary between patient bedside and IIT CDSS.
CONCLUSION - This analysis revealed sociotechnical interactions affecting IIT CDSS that previous studies have not addressed. These issues may influence protocol performance at other institutions. Findings have implications for IIT CDSS user interface design and alerts, and may contribute to nascent general CDSS theory.
2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
OBJECTIVE - To determine characteristics and effects of nurse dosing over-rides of a clinical decision support system (CDSS) for intensive insulin therapy (IIT) in critical care units.
DESIGN - Retrospective analysis of patient database records and ethnographic study of nurses using IIT CDSS.
MEASUREMENTS - The authors determined the frequency, direction-greater than recommended (GTR) and less than recommended (LTR)- and magnitude of over-rides, and then compared recommended and over-ride doses' blood glucose (BG) variability and insulin resistance, two measures of IIT CDSS associated with mortality. The authors hypothesized that rates of hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia would be greater for recommended than over-ride doses. Finally, the authors observed and interviewed nurse users.
RESULTS - 5.1% (9075) of 179,452 IIT CDSS doses were over-rides. 83.4% of over-ride doses were LTR, and 45.5% of these were ≥ 50% lower than recommended. In contrast, 78.9% of GTR doses were ≤ 25% higher than recommended. When recommended doses were administered, the rate of hypoglycemia was higher than the rate for GTR (p = 0.257) and LTR (p = 0.033) doses. When recommended doses were administered, the rate of hyperglycemia was lower than the rate for GTR (p = 0.003) and LTR (p < 0.001) doses. Estimates of patients' insulin requirements were higher for LTR doses than recommended and GTR doses. Nurses reported trusting IIT CDSS overall but appeared concerned about recommendations when administering LTR doses.
CONCLUSION - When over-riding IIT CDSS recommendations, nurses overwhelmingly administered LTR doses, which emphasized prevention of hypoglycemia but interfered with hyperglycemia control, especially when BG was >150 mg/dl. Nurses appeared to consider the amount of a recommended insulin dose, not a patient's trend of insulin resistance, when administering LTR doses overall. Over-rides affected IIT CDSS protocol performance.
BACKGROUND - Burnout can lead to health and psychologic problems and is apparently increasing in physicians and nurses. Previous studies have not evaluated all healthcare workers within a single work unit. This study evaluates the risk of burnout in all medical personnel in one perioperative unit.
METHODS - We developed an online survey that included demographics, a modified version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey, and the Social Support and Personal Coping Survey. Survey constructs (e.g., depersonalization and health) and a global score were calculated. Larger construct and global values were associated with higher risk of burnout. These were separately regressed on role, age, and sex. The global score was then regressed on each of the survey constructs.
RESULTS - Of the 145 responses, 46.2% were physicians (22.8% residents), 43.4% were nurses or nurse anesthetists, and 10.3% were other personnel. After adjusting for sex and age, residents scored higher than other physicians on the following (expected change [95% confidence interval]): global score (1.12 [0.43-1.82]), emotional exhaustion (1.54 [0.44-2.60]), and depersonalization (1.09 [0.23-1.95]). Compared with nonphysicians, residents were 1 U or more higher on these items (P < 0.05 in all cases). Residents had higher health (1.49 [0.48-2.50]) and workload (1.23 [0.07-2.40]) values compared with physicians. Better health, personal support, and work satisfaction scores were related to decreased global scores (P < 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS - Physicians (particularly residents) had the largest global burnout scores, implying increased risk of burnout. Improving overall health, increasing personal support, and improving work satisfaction may decrease burnout among perioperative team members.
PURPOSE - Good cancer pain control requires appropriate assessment and treatment. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among physician, nurse practitioner, and nurse knowledge, documentation of assessment, treatment, and pain reduction in cancer patients seen in ambulatory settings.
METHOD - The study method included an assessment of pain knowledge of providers (physicians, nurse practitioners, and nurses) who worked in cancer clinics and a retrospective review of patients' records treated for cancer-related pain in their clinics. Fifty-eight providers from eight cancer clinics completed the knowledge questionnaire; 56 patient records were reviewed for assessment, treatment, and outcome data. Pain relief, the outcome, was obtained from documentation at the next clinic visit.
RESULTS - Of the 54 patient records that documented pain relief at the next clinic visit, 61.9% reported no relief. Chi square analysis revealed clinics with a higher level of pain knowledge documented a greater number of elements of an ideal pain assessment (p = 0.03) but was unrelated to treatment and pain relief reported. Assessment and treatment were unrelated to reported pain relief at the next clinic visit.
CONCLUSION - These data suggest that providers' pain knowledge is related to pain assessment but not treatment or outcome. In addition, these data showed no relationship between assessment, treatment prescribed, and pain relief in these ambulatory settings.
OBJECTIVE - To evaluate the impact of generic substitution decision support on electronic (e-) prescribing of generic medications.
DESIGN - The authors analyzed retrospective outpatient e-prescribing data from an academic medical center and affiliated network for July 1, 2005-September 30, 2008 using an interrupted time-series design to assess the rate of generic prescribing before and after implementing generic substitution decision support. To assess background secular trends, e-prescribing was compared with a concurrent random sample of hand-generated prescriptions.
MEASUREMENTS - Proportion of generic medications prescribed before and after the intervention, evaluated over time, and compared with a sample of prescriptions generated without e-prescribing.
RESULTS - The proportion of generic medication prescriptions increased from 32.1% to 54.2% after the intervention (22.1% increase, 95% CI 21.9% to 22.3%), with no diminution in magnitude of improvement post-intervention. In the concurrent control group, increases in proportion of generic prescriptions (29.3% to 31.4% to 37.4% in the pre-intervention, post-intervention, and end-of-study periods, respectively) were not commensurate with the intervention. There was a larger change in generic prescribing rates among authorized prescribers (24.6%) than nurses (18.5%; adjusted OR 1.38, 95% CI 1.17 to 1.63). Two years after the intervention, the proportion of generic prescribing remained significantly higher for e-prescriptions (58.1%; 95% CI 57.5% to 58.7%) than for hand-generated prescriptions ordered at the same time (37.4%; 95% CI 34.9% to 39.9%) (p<0.0001). Generic prescribing increased significantly in every specialty.
CONCLUSION - Implementation of generic substitution decision support was associated with dramatic and sustained improvements in the rate of outpatient generic e-prescribing across all specialties.