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Nitrate and nitrite are precursors of endogenously formed N-nitroso compounds (NOC), known animal carcinogens. Nitrosation reactions forming NOCs can be inhibited by vitamin C and other antioxidants. We prospectively investigated the association between dietary nitrate and nitrite intake and risk of colorectal cancer in the Shanghai Women's Health Study, a cohort of 73,118 women ages 40-70 residing in Shanghai. We evaluated effect modification by factors that affect endogenous formation of NOCs: vitamin C (at or above/below median) and red meat intake (at or above/below median). Nitrate, nitrite and other dietary intakes were estimated from a 77-item food frequency questionnaire administered at baseline. Over a mean of 11 years of follow-up, we identified 619 colorectal cancer cases (n = 383, colon; n = 236, rectum). Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using Cox proportional hazard regression. Overall, nitrate intake was not associated with colorectal cancer risk (HR = 1.08; 95% CI: 0.73-1.59). However, among women with vitamin C intake below the median (83.9 mg day(-1) ) and hence higher potential exposure to NOCs, risk of colorectal cancer increased with increasing quintiles of nitrate intake (highest vs. lowest quintile HR = 2.45; 95% CI: 1.15-5.18; p trend = 0.02). There was no association among women with higher vitamin C intake. We found no association between nitrite intake and risk of colorectal cancer overall or by intake level of vitamin C. Our findings suggest that high dietary nitrate intake among subgroups expected to have higher exposure to endogenously formed NOCs increases risk of colorectal cancer.
© 2013 UICC.
S-Nitrosated human serum albumin (SNO-HSA) is useful in preventing liver ischemia/reperfusion injury, and SNO-HSA should thus be able to prevent cell injury during liver transplantation. However, the potential protective effect of SNO-HSA on a combination of cold and warm ischemia, which is obligatory when performing liver transplantation, has not been examined. Therefore, we evaluated the protective effect of SNO-HSA added to University of Wisconsin (UW) solution during cold or/and warm ischemia in situ and in vitro. First, we observed that apoptotic and necrotic cell death were increased during cold and warm ischemia, respectively. SNO-HSA, which possesses anti-apoptosis activity at low NO concentrations, can inhibit cold ischemia injury both in situ and in vitro. In contrast, SNO-HSA had no significant effect on warm liver ischemia injury which, however, can be reduced by UW solution. We also demonstrated that the cellular uptake of NO from SNO-HSA can occur during cold ischemia resulting in induction of heme oxygenase-1 within 3h of cold ischemia. Our results indicate that treatment with SNO-HSA or UW solution alone is not sufficient to inhibit liver injury during a period of both cold and warm ischemia. However, a combination of SNO-HSA and UW solution can be used to prevent the two types of ischemia. SNO-HSA-added UW solution could be very useful in transplantation, because the previously imposed constraints on preservation time can be removed. This is a great advantage in a situation as the present one with increased utilization of scarce donor organs for more recipients.
Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nitrate and nitrite are precursors in the endogenous formation of N-nitroso compounds and nitrate can disrupt thyroid homeostasis by inhibiting iodide uptake. We evaluated nitrate and nitrite intake and risk of thyroid cancer in the Shanghai Women's Health Study that included 73,317 women, aged 40-70 years enrolled in 1996-2000. Dietary intake was assessed at baseline using a food frequency questionnaire. During approximately 11 years of follow-up, 164 incident thyroid cancer cases with complete dietary information were identified. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate relative risks (RRs). We determined the nitrate and nitrite contents of foods using values from the published literature and focusing on regional values for Chinese foods. Nitrate intake was not associated with thyroid cancer risk [RR(Q4) = 0.93; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.42-2.07; p for trend = 0.40]. Compared to the lowest quartile, women with the highest dietary nitrite intake had about a twofold risk of thyroid cancer (RR(Q4) = 2.05; 95%CI: 1.20-3.51), but there was not a monotonic trend with increasing intake (p for trend = 0.36). The trend with increasing nitrite intake from animal sources was significant (p for trend = 0.02) and was stronger for nitrite from processed meats (RR(Q4) = 1.96; 95%CI: 1.28-2.99; p for trend < 0.01). Although we did not observe an association for nitrate as hypothesized, our results suggest that women consuming higher levels of nitrite from animal sources, particularly from processed meat, may have an increased risk of thyroid cancer.
Copyright © 2012 UICC.
RATIONALE - The pulmonary phenotype of Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) in adults includes foamy alveolar type 2 cells, inflammation, and lung remodeling, but there is no information about ontogeny or early disease mediators.
OBJECTIVES - To establish the ontogeny of HPS lung disease in an animal model, examine disease mediators, and relate them to patients with HPS1.
METHODS - Mice with mutations in both HPS1/pale ear and HPS2/AP3B1/pearl (EPPE mice) were studied longitudinally. Total lung homogenate, lung tissue sections, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) were examined for phospholipid, collagen, histology, cell counts, chemokines, surfactant protein D (SP-D), and S-nitrosylated SP-D. Isolated alveolar epithelial cells were examined for expression of inflammatory mediators, and chemotaxis assays were used to assess their importance. Pulmonary function test results and BAL from patients with HPS1 and normal volunteers were examined for clinical correlation.
MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS - EPPE mice develop increased total lung phospholipid, followed by a macrophage-predominant pulmonary inflammation, and lung remodeling including fibrosis. BAL fluid from EPPE animals exhibited early accumulation of both SP-D and S-nitrosylated SP-D. BAL fluid from patients with HPS1 exhibited similar changes in SP-D that correlated inversely with pulmonary function. Alveolar epithelial cells demonstrated expression of both monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 and inducible nitric oxide synthase in juvenile EPPE mice. Last, BAL from EPPE mice and patients with HPS1 enhanced migration of RAW267.4 cells, which was attenuated by immunodepletion of SP-D and MCP-1.
CONCLUSIONS - Inflammation is initiated from the abnormal alveolar epithelial cells in HPS, and S-nitrosylated SP-D plays a significant role in amplifying pulmonary inflammation.
Cytochrome p450 (p450) 1A2 and NADPH-P450 reductase (NPR) catalyzed the oxidation of 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), with consumption of NADPH. The oxidation rate of NADPH by p450 1A2/NPR increased with time in the presence of IQ until depletion of NADPH. This unusual autocatalytic pattern of NADPH oxidation could be rationalized by formation of a nitroso derivative (IQ-N=O) and the subsequent reduction of the hydroxylamine (IQ-NHOH) and IQ-N=O, which would consume more NADPH. The formation of IQ-NHOH and IQ-N=O from IQ was confirmed using HPLC/MS. Reduction of IQ-NHOH and IQ-N=O was NPR-dependent but did not require p450. Autocatalytic NADPH oxidation was also observed in the oxidation of other heterocyclic and arylamines. However, the N-hydroxyl and nitroso oxidation products of 2-aminofluorene and 4-aminobiphenyl were reduced nonenzymatically by NADPH, and NPR did not catalyze the reactions. We simulated the enzymatic kinetic model for possible pathways for IQ metabolism, which included the formation of IQ-N=O, using some kinetic parameters obtained from the experimental results. In the kinetic model, we could reproduce the similar curvature for NADPH oxidation and the formation of IQ-N=O, and the reduction of IQ-NHOH and IQ-N=O is required to explain the observed results for NADPH oxidation. Our results support a role for nitroso derivatives of HAAs in the unusual autocatalytic NADPH oxidation and may have relevance in terms of possible toxicities of the nitroso derivatives. Both IQ-NHOH and IQ-N=O were mutagenic in a bacterial tester system devoid of p450 and NPR; the mutagenicity of both was decreased by expression of NPR, consistent with the reduction of these compounds observed with purified NPR.
Glucokinase (GK) activity plays a key role in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells. Insulin regulates GK activity by modulating its association with secretory granules, although little is known about the mechanisms involved in regulating this association. Using quantitative imaging of multicolor fluorescent proteins fused to GK, we found that the dynamic association of GK with secretory granules is modulated through nitric oxide (NO). Our results in cultured beta cells show that insulin stimulates NO production and leads to S-nitrosylation of GK. Furthermore, inhibition of NO synthase (NOS) activity blocks insulin-stimulated changes in both GK association with secretory granules and GK conformation. Mutation of cysteine 371 to serine blocks S-nitrosylation of GK and causes GK to remain tightly bound to secretory granules. GK was also found to interact stably with neuronal NOS as detected by coimmunoprecipitation and fluorescence resonance energy transfer. Finally, attachment of a nuclear localization signal sequence to NOS drives GK to the nucleus in addition to its normal cytoplasmic and granule targeting. Together, these data suggest that the regulation of GK localization and activity in pancreatic beta cells is directly related to NO production and that the association of GK with secretory granules occurs through its interaction with NOS.
Human coronary and peripheral arteries show endothelial dysfunction in a variety of conditions, including atherosclerosis, hypercholesterolemia, smoking, and hypertension. This dysfunction manifests as a loss of endothelium-dependent vasodilation to acetylcholine infusion or sheer stress, and is typically associated with decreased generation of nitric oxide (NO) by the endothelium. Vitamin C, or ascorbic acid, when acutely infused or chronically ingested, improves the defective endothelium-dependent vasodilation present in these clinical conditions. The mechanism of the ascorbic acid effect is unknown, although it has been attributed to an antioxidant function of the vitamin to enhance the synthesis or prevent the breakdown of NO. In this review, multiple mechanisms are considered that might account for the ability of ascorbate to preserve NO. These include ascorbate-induced decreases in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation, scavenging of intracellular superoxide, release of NO from circulating or tissue S-nitrosothiols, direct reduction of nitrite to NO, and activation of either endothelial NO synthase or smooth muscle guanylate cyclase. The ability of ascorbic acid supplements to enhance defective endothelial function in human diseases provides a rationale for use of such supplements in these conditions. However, it is first necessary to determine which of the many plausible mechanisms account for the effect, and to ensure that undesirable toxic effects are not present.
N-Nitroso-N-methylvinylamine was synthesized and treated with dimethyldioxirane to produce 1-(N-nitrosomethylamino)oxirane. 1-(N-Nitrosomethylamino)oxirane had a t1/2 of < 5 s in buffer at neutral pH and 23 degrees C. This epoxide reacted with Ado to form 1,N6-etheno(epsilon-)Ado. It also reacted with DNA to form products arising from the oxirane portion of the molecule [N7-(2-oxoethyl)Gua,N2,3-epsilon-Gua, and 1,N6-epsilon-dAdo] and the methyl group (N7-methylGua). NADPH-fortified rat liver microsomes oxidized N-nitroso-N-methylvinylamine to form 1,N6-epsilon-Ado in the presence of Ado. Further, 1,N6-epsilon-Ado was also formed in microsomal incubations containing N-nitroso-N-methylethylamine, indicating that desaturation of the ethyl moiety occurs to form a vinyl group and then an epoxide. When NADPH-fortified microsomes were incubated with N-nitroso-N-methylvinylamine, HCHO was formed, and when DNA was included in incubations, 1,N6-epsilon-dAdo and N7-methylGua were isolated from DNA. In the cases of both HCHO and N7-methylGua, product formation was similar to the levels seen with N-nitroso-N,N-dimethylamine and N-nitroso-N-methylethylamine.